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THT 23

Known as:THT 23; B 23
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner. "THT 23". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-tht23 (accessed 13 Jul. 2024).

Edition

Editor:Hannes A. Fellner

Provenience

Main find spot:Shorchuk
Expedition code:T III Š 68.25
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Book 10 (Śraddhāvarga), strophes 14c-26a.
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:verse
Meter:M13_13_13_13_21a

Object

Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra A
Following fragment:THT 24
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Number of lines:8

Transliteration

lf100 10 6
a1mtsa nte yña kteṃ 10 4 u po ṣa the ñe¯ ¯m tā ka ña kte su pe rne wo : sū śe ma ne kci ye pi śka nte ceṃ ña kteṃ mpe ṣe : śtwā re mpre nma ñä¯ ¯ś a kṣā wa me po au rtse sa : ṣe sa we rtsi yai mpa k[a]
a2lpa pe rne su pa rwe ṣṣe : pa lka¯ ¯s o ko o kta ce pi saṃ va rntse cwi to to ro tse tu sa pa ṣṣa lle 10 5 tu pa lko rmeṃ ce we ña pu dñä kte ślo kkre¯ ¯nt ce : ta ka rṣkñe tai sā¯ ¯k kwi pa sso rñe tai sā krā
a3yo¯ ¯r : pe lai kne nta cai kre ntaṃ¯ ¯ts śā mna¯ ¯ṅts pa pā [la] – : tā no ytā ri tne ñä kci yai we skeṃ po pu dñä kti : tā sa su yaṃ ñä kcye śai ṣṣe¯ ¯ś ce ślo¯ ¯k we ña ypa rwe po yśi cme la so ntso ycce¯ ¯ś 10 6 te ra¯ ¯mt śā
a4rsa [c]eṃ ñä kcye śai ṣṣe ne ke¯ ¯t cme tsi : ā ñme tā ko ytne pe lai kne nta ne śtwā ra toṃ : ā kli ya mī ta¯ ¯r śrā ddhe tā ko¯ ¯yä śle kwi pa ssu : ā yo rai ṣṣe ñca sū yaṃ ñä kcye śai ṣṣe ne :
a5ā yo¯ ¯r sā le [ś]i¯ ¯l ra ṅkā ñi ta ka rṣkñe no ṣa rmo ko ne pe rā kñe ta nms̝aṃ 10 7 śra ddhau ñe kuse ste pe rā kyā ms̝aṃ a lye ke pi : sa ntāṃ ne yku wa pa rsā ntsa na toṃ kre ntau na : kwä
a6l[yp]e lñe ṣṣe ṣpo mpa lsko yā mtra toṃ kre ntau na¯ ¯ś : kre ntau naṃ¯ ¯ts ṣa rmtsa śau¯ ¯l wai pe cce po ri na stra : kre ntau na ne cwi la rau ñe mā ṣa¯ ¯ñ śau lne wai pe cce ne se śrā ddhe au spa 10 8 śrā ddhe ṣe¯ ¯k ña ṣtra [kr]e
a7– l·ā tsi po spe lkke sa : pe lai k·e klyau ṣtsi ā yo rai tsi ṣe¯ ¯k a ñma ssu : pe lai kne [ṣṣa] na nau mi ye nta kā ra tsi śco : [ṣ]· r·e we we ño· – [ddh]au ñe [ṣṣi] tai la laṃ ṣki : ka rā¯ ¯ś ynū c[aṃ] –
a8/// sa hā ye ra ste 10 9 ··ī ·e – – – – – – – – – l·o ṣ[ṣ]e [:] – ss[i] we [w]e – – – – – – – – – – we rts·ai ·e – – – –
b1– – – ·n· – – ā – ¯r – ¯m – – – ¯s̝ tu ntse ru ke [k]ts[e] [ñ]re ki [:] – – – ·ts· – – – – ·[n]· tsñ[e] [p]l· ··s̝a· t· ll[ā] rñe – – – – – – (–) – – – [t]sk· ste pā ra – ta – – – – (–)
b2– – – sā le ste ka rā¯ ¯ś ynū caṃ ceṃ wno lmeṃ tsa : ā yo rsai ma ste snai tsñe ṣṣ[ai] tā¯ ¯u [p]ro skai ne : ā yo rṣa ñśau mo pi ścme la ṣṣeṃ ñya· s· nta ne : tu sa ta rya pe lai kne nta po spe lke sa krau [pa] na
b3llo na wno lme ntsai śmo pi 20-1 ka ṣṣi pu dñä kte rā ja gri ne tā¯ ¯u ma skī tra : śau la swā na nde yo psa rī ne tā¯ ¯u pi ntwā to : ā ji vi keṃ¯ ¯ts ceṃ¯ ¯ts a ka lṣlye pi ma sa o sta¯ ¯ś : we ña swā na ndeṃ¯ ¯ś
b4ñi se pi lko ste prā kre ṅku : mā ne snā yo rmā ra te lki ka rtse yā mo ryo lo yā mo¯ ¯r ā ntpi mā ne steṃ 20 2 ye sno śa kke ññi snai ke¯ ¯ś o no lmeṃ tse re ntra : ā yo rsa śā te
b5yña kteṃ yśā mna su ta nma stra : snai ke¯ ¯ś a ksa śce¯ ¯r wno lme ntsā yo rntse pa lau na : ñä śmā ye sa ññe wa se yo ka lle re kau na ṣṣe : mā ta¯ ¯ñ kcā yo rai lle ne sau mā lye ke
b6pi te nnai pkā rsa pa¯ ¯st pa¯ ¯s̝ ñyo sta meṃ 20 3 a· l· ṅkno stwa śco ma sā na nde o¯ ¯t pi ntwā to : śe śwe ro mpo staṃ ma sa pu dñä kte ntse twā kṣa : te yä kne sa su ā jī vi ke ntsa ka la lle : ñä¯ ¯ś we ñe rka tte
b7re kau na sa tso ksa ñmā ka : [tu] pa lko rmeṃ pu dñä kte ce we ña ślo ko ā na ndeṃ śco kreṃ¯ ¯nt ā¯ ¯rthä vya ñja ntsa 20 4 mā no pa kwā ri ñä kcye śai ṣṣe ne ya ne nta : a knā tsaṃ no cai mā pa llā ntra ā yo rai lñe : ta
b8ka rṣk·e tse no ā yo ro m[p]o – – [rta] sk[e] ma ne : ma ntrā k[k]a no su ms·e tra skwa ssu a lye kc·e lne : ce ślo kwe ña ā na ndeṃ śco yo lo pkwa lle yo laiṃ meṃ ṣe¯ ¯k mā twe kra mpe ta¯ ¯r 20 5 pa kwā re ntse sse pa pā

(continues on THT 24)

Transcription

lf100-10-6
14e16σ ; (te)a1mtsanten1 yñakteṃ 10-4
15aupoṣathe ñem ; tāka ñakte ; su pernewo :
15b śem«†ä» nekciye ; piś känte ceṃ ; ñakteṃmp= eṣe :
15cśtwār= emprenma ñäś ; akṣāwa-me ; po aurtsesa :
15dṣesa wertsiyaimpa ; kaa2lpa perne ; su pärweṣṣe :
15epalkas oko ; oktacepi ; saṃvarntse cwi ; tot orotse ; tusa paṣṣalle 10-5
16atu pälkormeṃ ce ; weña pudñäk;te ślok krent ce :
16btakarṣkñe taisāk ; kwipassorñe ; taisāk r= āa3yorn2n3 :
16cpelaiknenta cai ; krentaṃts śāmnaṅts ; papāla(ṣo) :
16d no ytāri tne ; ñäkciyai weskeṃ ; po pudñäkti :
16etāsa su yaṃ ; ñäkcye śaiṣṣeś ; ce ślok weña ; yparwe poyśi ; cmelas= ontsoycceś 10-6
17ate ramt śāa4rsan4 ceṃ ; ñäkcye śaiṣṣe;ne ket cmetsi :
17bāñme tākoy tne ; pelaiknenta;ne śtwāra toṃ :
17cākli yamītär ; śrāddhe tākoy ; ślekwipassu :
17dāyor aiṣṣeñca ; yaṃ ñäk;cye śaiṣṣene :
17ea5 āyor sāle ; śil räṅkāñi ; takarṣkñe no ; ṣarm okone ; perākñe tanmṣäṃ 10-7
18aśraddhauñe kuse ; ste perāk yāmṣäṃ ; alyekepi :
18bsantāṃne ykuwa ; pärsāntsana ; toṃ krentauna :
18ckwäa6lypelñeṣṣe ṣp om ; palsko yāmträ ; toṃ krentaunaś :
18dkrentaunaṃts ṣarmtsa ; śaul waipecce ; po rinasträ :
18ekrentaunane ; cwi larauñe ; ṣañ śaulne ; waipeccene ; se śrāddhe auspa 10-8
19aśrāddhe ṣek ñaṣträ ; krea7(ntäṃ)n5 l(k)ātsi ; po spelkkesa :
19bpelaik(n)e klyauṣtsi ; āyor aitsi ; ṣek añmassu :
19cpelaikneṣṣana ; naumiyenta ; kāratsiśco :
19dṣ(a)r(n)e weweño(ṣ) ; (śra)ddhauñeṣṣi ; tai lalaṃṣki :
19ekarāś ynūcaṃ ; – a8 /// ; sahāye ra ste 10-9
20a··ī ·e – – – – – – – – – l·oṣṣe :
20bssi wewe – – – – – – – – – (:)
20dwerts(y)ai(n)e – – – – b1n6 – – – ·n· – (:) ārm – – ; – tunts= eru ; kektseñ reki :
20e– – – ·ts· – – – – ·n· tsñe pl· ··ṣä(ṃ) t(a)llārñe – – – – – – (20)
21a– – – tsk· ste pāra(mi)tä – – – – (:)
21bb2n7n8n9 – – (r) sāle ste ; karāś ynūcaṃ ; ceṃ wnolmeṃtsä :
21cāyor saimä ste ; snaitsñeṣṣai ; u proskaine :
21dāyor ṣañ śaumo ; piś cmelaṣṣeṃ ; ñya(t)s(e)ntane :
21etusa tarya ; pelaiknenta ; po spelkesa ; kraupanab3llonan9 ; wnolments= aiśmopi 20-1
22akäṣṣi pudñäkte ; rājagrine ; u mäskīträ :
22bśaulasw ānande ; yopsa rīne ; u pintwāto :
22cājivikeṃts ceṃts ; akalṣlyepi ; masa ostaś :
22dweña sw ānandeṃś ; b4 ñi se pilko ; ste prākr= eṅku :
22e nesn āyor ; ra telki ; kartse yāmor ; yolo yāmor ; āntpi nesteṃ 20-2
23ayes no śakkeññi ; snai keś onol;meṃ tserenträ :
23bāyorsa śāte ; b5 yñakteṃ yśāmna ; su tänmasträ :
23csnai keś aksaścer ; wnolments āyorn;tse palauna :
23dñäś yesaññe ; wase yokalle ; rekaunaṣṣe :
23e tañ kc= āyor ; aille nesau ; mā= lyeke b6 pi ; ten nai pkārsa ; päst paṣ ñy ostameṃ 20-3
24aa(l)l(o)ṅkn= ostwaśco ; mas= ānande ; ot pintwāto :
24bśeśwer ompostäṃ ; masa pudñäk;tentse tw ākṣa :
24cte yäknesa su ; ājīvikents ; akalṣälle :
24dñäś weñ= erkatte ; b7 rekaunasa ; tsoksa-ñ māka :
24etu pälkormeṃ ; pudñäkte ce ; weña śloko ; ānandeṃśco ; kreṃnt ārth vyañjantsa 20-4
25a no pakwāri ; ñäkcye śaiṣṣe;ne yanenta :
25baknātsaṃ no cai ; pällānträ ; āyor ailñe :
25ctab8karṣk(ñ)etse no ; āyor ompo(stn=) (ā)r;taskemane :
25dmäntrākka no su ; ms(k)eträ skwassu ; alyek c(m)elne :
25ece ślok weña ; ānandeṃśco ; yolo pkwalle ; yolaiṃmeṃ ṣek ; twe krämpetar 20-5
26apakwār= entsesse ; papā

(continues on THT 24)

Translation

a1[14e]
a1... among the gods were [re]born. [One of them], Upoṣatha by name, he was the [most] glorious god. One evening he came together with these 500 Gods. The four truths I proclaimed to them in every detail,
a1+[and] together with [his] followers he obtained the first stage [of the Srotaāpanna].
a2[15e]
a2See ye, the fruit of such eightfold discipline [is] so great, therefore it [has] to be practiced. With regard to this the Buddha spoke this good strophe:
a2+Faith as well as modesty as well as the gift, these are the laws praised by the good people.
a3[16e]
a3For this way all Buddhas call the [most] divine, on this he goes to the divine wold. This strophe first spoke the Omniscient to the ones insatiable for births.
a3+This, then, he let these know:
a4to whomever the wish should be, to be [re]born in the divine world, he shall observe here the four laws, he shall be religious, also modest [and he shall be] gift-giving. Such a one enters into the divine world.
a5[17e]
a5The gift [is] the basis, the moral behavior is the foundation, but faith creates belief concerning cause and fruit. What is faith? It makes one belief in another’s splendid virtues in the cylcle of births.
a5+And when therein it causes the thought of longing for such virtues, it abandons for the virtues’ sake life, possession and everything. He who has love for the virtues [and] not for his life [and] possessions is the truly believing one.
a6[18e]
a6He who has love for the virtues [and] not for his life [and] possessions is the truly believing one.
a6+The believing one longs always to see the good ones, with all effort to hear the law [and] to give gifts, always wishful to collect the jewels of law.
a7(For) these two are called the tender hands of the believing one.
a7+For these (beings) going into the wood .... in the companion ...
a8+... (a gift [is] shelter [and] refuge) and what is being generated thereby (in) body, word and (thought) ...
b1. [20e]
b1... pleases (in) poverty and misery... ([The] gift is the root), the Pāramitā ...
b2[the] gift is the basis for those creatures going into the wood, [the] gift is the protection from the fear of poverty, [the] gift [is] a kinsman in the danger of the five kinds of existence.
b2+Therefore the three laws, with all effort, have to be collected by the being who understands.
b3[21e]
b3The Buddha, the master, was in Rājagṛha at that time. The venerable Ānanda entered the town to collect alms. He went to the house of a pupil of these Ājīvikas. This one spoke to Ānanda:
b4[22e]
b4“By me this view is held firmly: there is no gift, nor sacrifice either, good deed [and] evil deed, both do not exist. But you, the followers of Śākya, deceive beings without number.
b4+The one rich in gifts is [re]born among Gods and men,
b5[thus] you proclaim to beings without number the praise of the gift. I will not drink the poison of your words,
b5+I will not give you nor anyone else a gift.
b6[23e]
b6This you shall know, go away from my house.” To other houses then Ānanda went to collect alms. [But] after [his] meal he went and reported this to the Buddha: “In this way the pupil of the Ājīvikas spoke to me,
b7[24e]
b7with angry words he suckled me very much.” With regard to this the Buddha spoke to Ānanda this strophe with good meaning and expression: The bad ones certainly do not go into the divine world, for they are fools and do not praise the giving of gifts.
b7+The believer, however, [is] rejoicing in the gift.
b8[25e]
b8For thus he will be happy in the other birth. This strophe he spoke to Ānanda. Evil is always to be expected of evil, do not let yourself be hindered! The bad one, the greedy one, the one [not having kept up] moral behavior

(continues on THT 24)

Other

a1Er [scil. der Gott Upoṣatha] kam des Abends zusammen mit diesen 500 Göttern. (Schmidt 1974: 472, fn. 1)
a4Wer den Wunsch haben sollte, in der göttlichen Welt [wieder]geboren zu werden, der übe sich hier in den vier Gesetzen! (Schmidt 1974: 337)
a5+And if it (= faith) creates the thought of desire for these virtues, it gives up life, possession[s] [and] everything because of those virtues. (cf : ii, 38) (Peyrot 2013b: 680)
a5+Und [wenn] er [scil. der Gläubige] dabei den Gedanken des Verlangens nach solchen Tugenden bewirkt, gibt er der Tugenden halber Leben, Besitz [und] alles hin. (Schmidt 1974: 341)
a6+Der Gläubige begehrt stets die Guten zu sehen; mit allem Eifer das Gesetz zu hören [und] Gabe zu geben, [ist er] stets wünschend, um die Gesetzesjuwelen zu sammeln. (Schmidt 1974: 154)
b3Der Buddha, der Lehrer, befand sich damals in Rājagṛha. (Schmidt 1974: 110)
b4+Von mir ist diese Ansicht fest gefasst: Es gibt nicht Gabe, auch nicht Opfer, gute Tat [und] böse Tat, beide gibt es nicht. Ihr aber, ihr Śākya-Anhänger, betrügt zahllose Wesen. Der in Gabe Reiche wird bei Göttern [und] Menschen [wieder]geboren, [so] tragt ihr zahllosen Wesen das Lob der Gabe vor. Ich werde nicht das Gift eurer Worte trinken, ich werde weder dir noch einem anderen eine Gabe geben. Dieses wisse gefälligst, geh fort aus meinem Hause! (Schmidt 1974: 441)
b6Then Ānanda went to other houses for alms. [But] he went after eating [and] this he told to the Buddha. (cf : ii, 39) (Peyrot 2013b: 376)
b8Böses ist immer von Bösen zu erwarten, sei nicht verstört! (Schmidt 1974: 159)

Commentary

Parallel texts

Uv 10.1-10.2

Philological commentary

Includes strophes 14c-26a of the Śraddhāvarga (X) in a 4x13 (rhythm = 5/8) plus 1x21 (rhythm = 8/8/5) syllable-metre, and translation of Uv 10.1-10.2. The damage to the bottom edge resulted in the loss of text from the last recto and first verso line.
n1Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 54 fn. 7.
n2According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 54 fn. 9 the reading ontsoycceś should be corrected to ontsoyṃceś in the transcription.
n3Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 54 fn. 8.
n4The reading ślekwipassu stands for ślek kwipasse according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 55 fn. 1.
n5Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 55 fn. 3.
n6Addition based on Sieg and Siegling 1949, II 39 fn. 3-6.
n7According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 55 fn. 8. the reading cmelaṣṣeṃ should be corrected to cmelaṣṣeṃts in the transcription.
n8Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 55 fn. 3.
n9According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 55 fn. 9 the reading kraupanallona should be corrected to kraupnallona in the transcription due to the meter.

Remarks

The original manuscript is missing, but was an almost complete leaf, with only the bottom edge slightly more damaged.

References

Online access

IDP: THT 23; TITUS: THT 23

Edition

Lüders 1926: 27-28; Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 39-41; Sieg and Siegling 1983: 54-56 notes 181-184

Translations

Barnes 2013: a3 (41); Carling 2000: a1 (232), a3 (86, 242), b1 (253), b2 (47, 111, 240), b3 (150, 160, 251), b5 (232), b6 (150), b7 (54, 85), b8 (243); Ching 2010: a5 (237); Hackstein 1995: b3 (311), b6 b7 (143); Krause 1952: a4 (32), a5 (62), a6 (40), b2 (38), b2 (61), b4 (52), b5 (54), b8 (27); Lüders 1926: b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 (27-28); Meunier 2013: a4 (174), b4 (176, 180), b6 b7 (142); Peyrot 2013b: a5 a6 (680), b5 b6 (342, 352), b6 (376); Schmidt 1974: a1 (472 n.1), a1 (472, fn. 1), a4 (337), a5 a6 (341), a6 a7 (154), b3 (110), b4 b5 b6 (441), b8 (159); Sieg and Siegling 1949: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 (II, 38-39); Sieg and Siegling 1983: a8 (183), b1 (183), b3 (287), b7 (183); Thomas 1952: a2 (16), b2 (19), b5 (39), b6 (48), b7 (52), b7 (61); Thomas 1954: a4 (734), a6 a7 (719), a6 a7 (739), a7 (752); Thomas 1957: a3 (169), a3 a4 (169), a6 a7 (265), b3 (24, 116), b4 (253), b6 (117), b6 b7 (179), b7 (164), b8 (169); Thomas 1958: b8 (303); Thomas 1966a: b7 (165); Thomas 1967a: a1 (69); Thomas 1968: a3 a4 (203); Thomas 1969: a3 (236); Thomas 1969a: a3 (297); Thomas 1969b: a2 (57); Thomas 1969c: a1 (203); Thomas 1972: b2 (469), b4 (451); Thomas 1979b: a3 (28), a4 (34); Thomas 1979d: a4 (163); Thomas 1983: a3 (21), b2 (10), b3 (15), b3 (25), b4 b5 (43), b6 (15), b7 (21); Thomas 1995: b6 b7 (57); Thomas 1997: a3 (81), a6 (110)

Bibliography

Barnes 2013

Barnes, Timothy G. 2013. “The etymology and derivation of TB saswe ‘lord’ and ñakte (: A ñkät) ‘god’.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 31–54.

Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Ching 2010

Ching, Chao-jung. 2010. “Secular documents in Tocharian: Buddhist economy and society in the Kucha region.” PhD, Paris: École Pratique des Hautes Études.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

IDP

“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Lüders 1926

Lüders, Heinrich. 1926. Bruchstücke der Kalpanāmaṇḍitikā des Kumāralāta. Vol. 2. Kleinere Sanskrit-Texte. Leipzig: Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1949

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1949. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 1. Die Udānālaṅkāra-Fragmente. Text, Übersetzung und Glossar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Sieg and Siegling 1983

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1983. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. Edited by Werner Thomas. Neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Thomas 1952

Thomas, Werner. 1952. Die tocharischen Verbaladjektive auf -l. Deutsche Akad. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung 9. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Thomas 1954

Thomas, Werner. 1954. “Die Infinitive im Tocharischen.” In Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, edited by Johannes Schubert and Ulrich Schneider, 701–64. Leipzig: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1958

Thomas, Werner. 1958. “Zum Gebrauch des prohibitiven mar bzw. im Tocharischen.” Central Asiatic Journal 3: 289–308.

Thomas 1966a

Thomas, Werner. 1966a. “Tocharische Udānastotras der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 80: 163–81.

Thomas 1967a

Thomas, Werner. 1967a. “Zu den Ausdrücken mit A ñom, B ñem im Tocharischen.” Indogermanische Forschungen 72: 58–78.

Thomas 1968

Thomas, Werner. 1968. “Zur Verwendung von toch. A oki/B ramt und A mäṃtne/B mäkte in Vergleichen.” Orbis 17: 198–231.

Thomas 1969

Thomas, Werner. 1969. “Bemerkungen zum Gebrauch von toch. A ptāñkät [B pañäkte, pudñäkte], A koṃ [B kauṃ]: A koṃñkät [B kauṃñäkte] usw.” Orbis 18: 235–68.

Thomas 1969a

Thomas, Werner. 1969a. “Zur tocharischen Wiedergabe der Sanskrit-Verba des Udānavarga.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 83: 290–322.

Thomas 1969b

Thomas, Werner. 1969b. “Toch. B pañäkti Gen. Sg.?” Sprache 15: 53–58.

Thomas 1969c

Thomas, Werner. 1969c. “Zu den Ausdrücken für Tag und Nacht im Tocharischen.” Central Asiatic Journal 13: 199–206.

Thomas 1972

Thomas, Werner. 1972. “Zweigliedrige Wortverbindungen im Tocharischen.” Orbis 21: 429–70.

Thomas 1979b

Thomas, Werner. 1979b. Formale Besonderheiten in metrischen Texten des Tocharischen: Zur Verteilung von B tane/tne “hier” und B ñake/ñke “jetzt”. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 15. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

Thomas 1979d

Thomas, Werner. 1979d. “Zur Verwendung von A śla, B śale, śle im Tocharischen.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 93: 150–73.

Thomas 1983

Thomas, Werner. 1983. Der tocharische Obliquus im Sinne eines Akkusativs der Richtung. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 6. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

Thomas 1995

Thomas, Werner. 1995. Zur tocharischen Syntax. Adverbiales A māk, B māka “viel”. Vol. 2. SbWGF, XXXIII. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Thomas 1997

Thomas, Werner. 1997. Interpretationsprobleme im Tocharischen. Unflektiertes A puk, B po “ganz, all, jeder”. Vol. 3. SbWGF, XXXV. Stuttgart: Steiner.

TITUS

Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/tocharic/thtframe.htm.