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THT 31

Known as:THT 31; B 31
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner. "THT 31". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-tht31 (accessed 23 Apr. 2024).

Edition

Editor:Hannes A. Fellner

Provenience

Main find spot:Shorchuk
Expedition code:T III Š 87.2
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Book 13 (Satkāravarga), part 1, strophes 36-46.
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:verse
Meter:M21_21_18_13

Object

Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra B
Leaf number:2-100
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Number of lines:8

Images

Images from idp.bl.uk by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.

Transliteration

a1[p]· ·t· – – – – ·ñ· kt· m· n[ā¯] [¯k] w· [ña] sū /// /// [m]r· ·n· śā¯ ¯r • a llo ṅkna ṅk[e] [ś]· [nta] –
a2yya na e ntwe kka ṅke ya mī tra ṣpa mā¯ ¯t • skwa ssu ne sau pa plā ntau ye¯ ¯s ta [llā]¯ ¯ñcä la kle sso¯ ¯ñcä 30 6 ma¯ ¯nt swa pā s̝s̝a tte ka lpau ca śwā tsi yo ktsi a la nmeṃ ṣa ñka kā tsa lkā nta¯ ¯r • kuse yi kne
a3ri ta¯ ¯ñä so so yo¯ ¯s̝ weṃ ṣye tsai ra¯ ¯mt ko tai sa ya rke sa wi kṣe ñca¯ ¯ñä : a bhi jñä nta dhya na nma e ro¯ ¯s̝ eṃ ṣke ywā rco tsa lpo¯ ¯s̝ saṃ sā rmeṃ : ceṃ a ppa mā¯ ¯t yā mṣye nta¯ ¯r śwā tsi yo ktsi klpo rsa
a430 7 ce¯ ¯u wä ntre po yśi lye lyko rmeṃ we ña ta rya ślo ka nma ṣa mā ññe ntsa yā to¯ ¯ś • to tkā¯ ¯ts ai ku kwri tā kaṃ pa pā sṣo rñe nta ne no a nai śai wa wlā wau : ai śau myi ce¯ ¯u pa
a5llā nta¯ ¯r kre nto ā streṃ śau¯ ¯l śa ye ñcai wno lme : snai lai wo ṣpa ne ce tne ṣe me ślo ka kṣā me 30 8 wa ce ślo¯ ¯k we ña pu dñä kte kre ntaṃ lkā ṣṣi e rka tte ce tsya rke tsa mtsi
a6śco : ta ryā ai śa mñe tā ko¯ ¯yä kwri ṣa mā ne tne pu tko wä wi kṣe ñca ya rke sa : sru ka lñe kau ṣe ñca snai tsna mñe to tkā ntsai ku te ma¯ ¯nt ka rsau rmeṃ : a ppa mā¯ ¯t ya ma ske nta¯ ¯r mā yśe
a7ñca¯ ¯ñä a knā tsa¯ ¯ñä 30 9 trī ce ślo¯ ¯k we ña kwri ta ne śwā tsi ntse śle yo ktsi ntse klpau ca tā kaṃ wno lme : yo lo wä ntre ra kwri tā kaṃ sū ce¯ ¯ts mske ta¯ ¯r ya rka sa toṃ we ña ślo ka nma : te śā rsa
a8me pu dnä ktā nai śai mā ra nwai ku ka rsau ñya ka lṣle : pa pā ṣṣu ṣe¯ ¯k wa wā wlau a lo ka lymi ynū ca 40 ta ryai śa mñe nta tā kaṃ cwi nau ṣa ñña na cme la kuse ca mpne pya¯ ¯cä ka la tsi : ñä kcye
b1pi lkwa streṃ e rṣtrapa nau ta s̝s̝aṃ po tsna mñe nta toṃ ta ryai śa mñe nta : e ru ka tā kaṃ po yśi ntsā ka lṣle trai vi dye ñe¯ ¯m a rhā nte mske ta r • ceṃ ksa yā mta¯ ¯r a ppa mā¯ ¯t wro cce lu pṣta¯ ¯r nrai sa
b240-1 kuse no sū tā kaṃ a pā ṣtte ka llaṃ śwā tsi a la nmeṃ ce co mpa kca ṣa rmtsa : tu meṃ pu tko s̝aṃ mai ma ñceṃ a ppa mā¯ ¯t sū ya ma sta¯ ¯r eṃ ṣkā rhā nteṃ wro cceṃ : ka ttā keṃ ksa yaṃ lkā tsi ṣe¯ ¯k
b3ṣe¯ ¯k tā rkaṃ spe lke ṣa mā ñña ttsai¯ ¯k pa¯ ¯st • cwi cai ya rke ya ma skeṃ swa lye ṅkaṃ mī yä s̝s̝aṃ 40 2 ce cme lṣe ya rke pe ti sa tri ke ta rra¯ ¯mt a knā tsa o nwa ññe śau¯ ¯l pa kta¯ ¯r
b4wai ke wa ṣe s̝pa ka sko rwa¯ ¯t we ntsi klyi nne po we s̝s̝aṃ śwā tsi ntse pe rne sa : ma ñi ññe ra¯ ¯mt ka ttā ke¯ ¯ts yāṃ s̝aka ṣṣī ntso lypo¯ ¯s̝ pa lsko ce¯ ¯ts pā s̝ta¯ ¯r
b5yā mtra lye ṅkaṃ a ppa mā¯ ¯t yaṃ po staṃ nrai nta ne 40 3 ṣeṃ ywā rco stmeṃ ltwe¯ ¯s̝ pu dñä kte¯ ¯ś snai ce ta llā nti ke meṃ ṣa mā ni ta tā ka¯ ¯s̝ • cai ṣa mā ññe ntse mai
b6yya ne a klyi lñe ntse¯ ¯s̝ pe rne sa ya rkā laṃ meṃ klpā ṣyeṃ : ta rko ṣā rte a llo ṅkna cme la tri wo¯ ¯s̝ a ttsai¯ ¯k ka ttā keṃ mpe ṣe : riṃ ne kuṣaiṃ ne o stwa ne ṣe¯ ¯k ye yeṃ ceṃ lka tsi
b740 4 lkā ṣyeṃ mā ttsai¯ ¯k tu ṣa mā ni wa syau so s̝aṃ sa ṅghā ṭi ṣe mi ysa lye rṣye nta¯ ¯r • ta nā pa te ntsa o stwa sa e kñi nta sa e ntse ño ma nta ñye nta¯ ¯r ṣe mi : ke te pka nte
b8yā m[y]eṃ ka l·au ·e [c]ai ce¯ ¯ts sa ñi ts[m]e [nta]¯ ¯r a r[tsa] (–) auṃ [:] [eṃ] ·[ā] /// /// [l]ai [ñ]e – [5] ·e – – – – – [lā] ṣ·aṃ [a] lyai kke kmo¯ ¯s̝ ñyā tse [n]e ·e

Transcription

36b p· ·t· – – – (pud)ñ(ä)kt(e) m(e)nāk w(e)ña /// /// mr· ·n· śār
36c alloṅkna ṅke ; ś· ntä (mai)a2yyanan1 ; entwe kka ṅke ; yamītr aṣpamāt •
36d skwassu nesau ; paplāntau ; yes tallāñc läklessoñc 30-6
37a mant sw apāṣṣätte ; kälpauca ; śwātsi yoktsi ; alanmeṃ ; ṣañ ka kātsa lkāntär
37b kuse yiknea3ritañ ; sosoyoṣ ; weṃṣyetsai ramt ; kotaisa ; yarkesa wikṣeñcañ :
37c abhijñänta ; dhyananma eroṣ ; eṃṣke ywārco ; tsälpoṣ saṃsārmeṃ :
37d ceṃ appamāt ; yāmṣyentär ; śwātsi yoktsi ; klporsa a4 30-7
38a ceu wäntre poyśi ; lyelykormeṃ ; weña tarya ; ślokanma ; ṣamāññents= ayātoś •
38b totkāts aiku ; kwri tākaṃ ; papāsṣorñen;tane no ; anaiśai wawlāwau :
38c aiśaumyi ceu ; a5llāntär krento ; āstreṃ śaul ; śayeñcai wnolme :
38d snai laiwo ṣpa;ne ce tne ; ṣeme ślok akṣā-me 30-8
39a wace ślok weña ; pudñäkte ; krentäṃ lkāṣṣi ; erkatte ; cets yarke tsamtsia6ścon2 :
39b täryā aiśamñe ; tākoy kwri ; ṣamāne tne ; putkowä ; wikṣeñca yarkesa :
39c srukalñe kauṣeñca ; snai tsnamñe ; totkānts aiku ; te mant kärsaurmeṃ :
39d appamāt ya;maskentär ; =yśea7ñcañn3 aknātsañ 30-9
40a trīce ślok weña ; kwri tane ; śwātsintse śle ; yoktsintse ; klpauca tākaṃ wnolme :
40b yolo wäntre ra ; kwri tākaṃ ; cets msketär ; yarkasa ; toṃ weña ślokanma :
40c te śārsaa8-men4 ; pudnäkt= ānaiśai ; ranw aiku ; kärsau ñy akalṣle :
40d papāṣṣu ṣek ; wawāwlau ; alokälymi ynūca 40
41a tary= aiśamñenta ; tākaṃ cwi ; nauṣaññana ; cmela kuse ; campn epyac kalatsi :
41b ñäkcye b1 pilkw astreṃ ; erṣträ ṣpä ; nautäṣṣäṃ po ; tsnamñenta ; toṃ tary= aiśamñenta :
41c eru ka tākaṃ ; poyśints= ākalṣle ; traividye ñem ; arhānte msketär
41d ceṃ ksa yāmtär ; appamāt ; wrocce lupṣtär nraisa b2 40-1
42a kuse no tākaṃ ; apāṣtte ; kallaṃ śwātsi ; alanmeṃ ; ce compä kca ṣarmtsa :
42b tumeṃ putkoṣäṃ ; maimañceṃ ; appamāt ; yamastär ; eṃṣk= ārhānteṃ wrocceṃ :
42c kattākeṃ ksa ; yaṃ lkātsi ṣek b3 ṣek ; tārkaṃ spelke ; ṣamāññ= attsaik päst
42d cwi cai yarke ; yamaskeṃ ; sw alyeṅkäṃ mīyäṣṣäṃ 40-2
43a ce cmelṣe yarke ; petisa ; triketär ramt ; aknātsa ; onwaññe śaul paktär •
43b b4 waike waṣe ṣpä ; käskor wat ; wentsi klyin-ne ; po weṣṣäṃ ; śwātsintse pernesa :
43c mañiññe ramt ; kattākets yāṃṣäṃ ; käṣṣīnts= olypo ; palsko cets pāṣtär
43d b5 yāmtr alyeṅkäṃ ; appamāt ; yaṃ postäṃ nraintane 40-3
44a ṣeṃ ywārc ostmeṃ ltweṣ ; pudñäkteś ; snaice tallānt ; ikemeṃ ; ṣamāni tatākaṣ
44b cai ṣamāññentse ; maib6yyanen5n6 ; aklyilñentse ; pernesa ; yark= ālaṃmeṃ klpāṣyeṃ :
44c tärkoṣ ārte ; alloṅkna cmela ; triwoṣ attsaik ; kattākeṃmp= eṣe :
44d riṃne kuṣaiṃne ; ostwane ; ṣek yeyeṃ ceṃ lkatsi b7 40-4
45a lkāṣyeṃ =ttsaik tu ; ṣamāni ; wasy ausoṣäṃ ; saṅghāṭi ; ṣemi ysaly= erṣyentär
44b tanāpatentsa ; ostwasa ; ekñintasa ; entseño ; mäntañyentär ṣemi :
44c kete pkante ; b8n7 yāmyeṃ kal(l)au(n)e ; cai cets sañi ; tsmentär artsa (k)auṃ :
45d eṃ·ā /// /// laiñe (40-)5
46a ·e – – – – – lāṣ·äṃ alyaik kekmoṣ ñyātsene ·e

Translation

a1 ... [35d] ... the Buddha, he said a parable ...
a1+ However, other powers of (humans) he himself may, after all, mistreat.
a2 [36d]
a2 “I am happy [and] glad, you [are] miserable ones, unhappy ones”, thus he who has not kept up [moral conduct thinks] as one receiving eating and drinking from elsewhere, if they only look on their own belly.
a2+ Those who, longing for the [right] way, are satisfied and like from a sewer keep away from veneration, who have evoked the knowledge and the meditations [and] are half freed from the Saṃsāra, those they mistreat as a consequence of obtaining eating and drinking.
a4 [37d]
a4 With regard to this fact the Omniscient spoke three strophes for the benefit of monkhood: If he is known by few, but carefully disciplined in the [moral] conducts, the sages praise him as a being living a good, pure life, without lassitude or sleep.
a5 [38d]
a5 This he proclaimed to them here as a first strophe.
a5+ The second strophe the Buddha spoke – he saw the good ones [were] angry – to increase their veneration:
a6 If there should be here a monk having the threefold knowledge, [therefore] keeping away, separated from veneration, destroying death [and] free from [evil] influences since they know that he is known only by few, they mistreat him ignorant fools.
a7 -[39d]
a7 The third strophe he spoke: If a being here should be an acquirer of eating and drinking, even if it be of bad character, it is [still held] in veneration by them. Such strophes he spoke,
a7+ [and] this he made them know, the Buddha:
a8 Truly, not the one who is famous nor the one who is known [is] my pupil. The [moral] conduct he must have kept up, always disciplined, going directed towards a single goal, [40d] [and] the threefold knowledges he must have, [i.e. he must be one], who can remember [his] earlier births, the divine one who causes clear sight, and makes all [evil] influences disappear; only if he has evoked such threefold knowledges, he is the pupil of the Omniscient, the Arhat Traividya [“having the threefold knowledge”] by name.
b1+ If someone should mistreat this one, he will be thrown into a great hell.
b2 [41d]
b2 For if the one, who does not behave morally, receives eating from elsewhere, [and thus] mistreats the worthy ones, who for this or another reason are separated from it, all the way to the great Arhats.
b2+ If one goes forever to see the great householders, he will have to give up the fervor of monks.
b3 [42d]
b3 Him these [householders] venerate, [but] he harms the other [monk]s. By the veneration and flattery of this existence the foolish one is, as it were, confused [and] trusts that life is immortal.
b4 And if he had to speak a lie and the untruth or gossip, for the sake of food he says anything; he does slave service, as it were, for the householders; but if, more than for the teacher, he cares for these ones’ thinking [and]
b5 [43d]
b5 mistreats the others, he will afterwards go into the hells. These ones who [only] went half from the house to the Buddha from a poor, miserable condition had become monks.
b5+ These achieved, by the power of monkhood and for the sake of [their] scholarship, veneration from elsewhere,
b6 [but] indifferent to the other births, mingling only with householders, always went to the towns, villages and houses, to see these.
b7 [44d]
b7 Monks of this kind did not look at those who had worn the Saṃghāṭī [“a monk's robe”]. Some [of them] evoked discord; some were angry out of envy for benefactors, houses and possessions.
b7+ These - the hindrance of whom they would have to make at the acquisition [of food and drink] - are their enemies [thinking]:
b8 [45d]
b8 “They increase [in number] every day” ... malice. ... is sick, others have come in distress.

Other

a2 ... [wenn] sie nur auf den eigenen Bauch sehen. (Schmidt 1974: 325)
a4 if he is [someone who] knows little (Peyrot 2013b: 323)
a6+ Wenn hier ein Mönch das dreifache Wissen haben sollte, [daher] abgesondert bei Verehrung sich fernhaltend, den Tod zerschmetternd [und] von [sündigen] Einflüssen frei, so machen ihn [doch] die unwissenden Toren verächtlich, da sie wissen: "[Er ist nur] von wenigen gekannt." (Schmidt 1974: 462-3)
a7 If a being is obtaining food and drink here, even if he is of bad nature, it is [worthy of] reverence for them. (Peyrot 2013b: 314)
a7+ This the Buddha let them know clearly: «Not even the famous and the [well] known is my pupil [40c], [but who] practices moral behaviour, [is] always self-controlled, [and is] going to only one goal [40d], who may have the threefold knowledge, who can recall [his] former births [41a], calls forth a divine pure view, [and] lets disappear [bad] influences. Only if he has called forth the threefold knowledge is he a pupil of the Buddha and becomes an arhat called “traividya” [41c]. If one treats him badly, one is besmirched with great hell [41d]. But if he who does not practice moral behaviour obtains food from elsewhere, he treats badly excellent ones that are excluded from it for this or that reason, including the great arhats [42b]. If someone always and always goes to see the householders, [and] really lets go off the monastic zeal, [42c] him they honour, [but] he causes damage to others [42d]. Through the honour of this [re]birth the fool is as if confused [and] considers life immortal [43a]. If he has to utter a lie, harsh speech, or senseless talk, for the glory of food he says everything [43b]. He does as if servant’s work for the householder, and if he guards their thought more than the teacher’s, and treats others badly, he goes to the hells afterwards.» (cf : ii, 52–53) (Peyrot 2013b: 681)
a8+ Fürwahr, nicht der Gekannte [und] Berühmte [wtl. der Gerußte] [ist] mein Schüler. Die [sittliche Haltung] muss er bewahrt haben, stets gezügelt nur auf ein Ziel gerichtet gehend, [und] das dreifache Wissen muss er haben, [d.h. einer sein], der sich [seiner] früheren Geburten erinnern kann, den göttlichen, klaren Blick hervorruft und alle [sündigen] Einflüsse schwinden macht. (Schmidt 1974: 322)
b1 Wenn diesen [scil. den Traividya genannten Arhat] einer verächtlich macht, wird er in die große Hölle geworfen. (Schmidt 1974: 212)
b1 [Wenn] diesen[scil. den Traividya] einer verächtlich macht, so wird er in die große Hölle geworfen. (Schmidt 1974: 463)
b3 Durch die Verehrung [und] Schmeichelei dieser Existenz ist der Törichte förmlich verwirrt [und] hält das Leben für unsterblich. (Schmidt 1974: 156)
b3 Durch die Verehrung [und] Schmeichelei dieser Existenz ist der Törichte förmlich verwirrt [und] vertraut auf ein ewiges Leben. (Schmidt 1974: 174)
b4+ Er [scil. der Törichte] wird aber, [wenn] er mehr als auf den Lehrer auf das Denken dieser achtet [und] die anderen verächtlich macht, hinterher in die Höllen gehen. (Schmidt 1974: 406)
b7 Einige [von ihnen] riefen Zwietracht hervor [oder: riefen bei sich Neid hervor], einige zeigten böse Gesinnung aus Neid auf die Gabenherren, die Häuser [und] Besitztümer. (Schmidt 1974: 334-5)
b7 Es sahen solcher Art Mönche gar nicht auf die, welche das Saṃghāṭī-Gewand angezogen hatten. Einige [von ihnen] riefen Zwietracht hervor, einige zeigten böse Gesinnung aus Neid auf die Gabenherren, die Häuser und Besitztümer. (Schmidt 1974: 165)

Commentary

Parallel texts

Uv 13.12-13.14, THT 32

Philological commentary

Contains strophes 36-46 of the first part of the Satkāravarga (XIII) in a 21,21,18,13-syllable-metre (rhythm: ab: 8/7/6, c: 9/9 or 4/5/4/5, d: 7/6). Due to damage at the top edge the first recto and last verso lines are mostly lost. Contains translation of Uv 13.12-13.14.
n1 According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 67 fn. 3 the reading aṣpamāt should be corrected to aṣpamāt in the transcription.
n2 According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 67 fn. 6 the reading kärsaurmeṃ should be corrected to kärsormeṃ in the transcription.
n3 According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 67 fn. 7 the reading yarkasa should be corrected to yarkesa in the transcription.
n4 According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 67 fn. 8 wawāwlau is a scribal error for wawlāwau.
n6 According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 68 fn. 8 lkatsi should be corrected to lkātsi in the transcription.
n7 Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 68 fn. 2.

Remarks

The original manuscript is missing, but was an almost complete leaf, slightly more damaged at the top edge. On the left edge of the verso side the leaf number (200, corrected from 190) could be read.

Linguistic commentary

n5 kuṣaiṃne for kwaṣaine.

References

Online access

IDP: THT 31; TITUS: THT 31

Edition

Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 52-53; Sieg and Siegling 1983: 67-68 notes 198-200

Translations

Carling 2000: a2 a3 (322), b1 (143), b1=32a4 (142), b1=32a4 (72), b2 (323), b5 (234), b6 (164), b7 (234), b8 (240); Hackstein 1995: a2 (250), a3 (47), a5 a6 (137), a6 (54, 133), b1 (47), b4 (174, 200), b7 (47), b8 (136, 249); Krause 1952: a2 (45), a6 (32); Meunier 2013: a6 a7 (160), b1 (160), b3 (163, 164), b7 b8 (169); Peyrot 2013b: a4 (323), a7 (314), a7 a8 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (681); Schmidt 1974: a2 (325), a6 a7 (462f), a6 a7 (462-3), a8 b1 (332), a8 b1 (322), b1 (212), b1 (463), b1=B32a4 (463), b3 (156, 174), b3 (156), b3 (174), b4 b5 (406), b7 (165, 334f), b7 (334-5), b7 (165); Sieg and Siegling 1949: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 (II, 51-53); Sieg and Siegling 1983: a2 (198), a5 (199), a8 (200), b2 (200); Thomas 1952: b1 (48); Thomas 1954: a2 (759), a3 (759), a5 a6 (753), a7 (760), b2 b3 (714), b4 (730), b6 (714); Thomas 1957: a2 a3 (291), a4 (167), a5 (47, 167), a7 (167), a7 a8 (169), b5 b6 (57), b6 b7 (68), b8 (259); Thomas 1958a: b4 b5 (144); Thomas 1960a: a3 (202); Thomas 1967a: b1 (68); Thomas 1967c: b4=B32a6 (167), b5 b6 (175); Thomas 1968: a2 a3 (210), a7 (198), b3 (203); Thomas 1970: a6 (268), a8 b1 (272); Thomas 1972: a5 (439), a7 (442), b3 (462), b4 (434), b6 (459); Thomas 1979b: a5 (25), a6 (30), a7 (16); Thomas 1979d: a7 (156); Thomas 1983: b6 (25); Thomas 1986: a5 (139); Thomas 1997: b3 (86), b4=B32a6 (84)

Bibliography

Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

IDP

“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1949

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1949. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 1. Die Udānālaṅkāra-Fragmente. Text, Übersetzung und Glossar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Sieg and Siegling 1983

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1983. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. Edited by Werner Thomas. Neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Thomas 1952

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Thomas 1954

Thomas, Werner. 1954. “Die Infinitive im Tocharischen.” In Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, edited by Johannes Schubert and Ulrich Schneider, 701–64. Leipzig: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1958a

Thomas, Werner. 1958a. “Zum Ausdruck der Komparation beim tocharischen Adjektiv.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 75: 129–69.

Thomas 1960a

Thomas, Werner. 1960a. “Zur Verwendung des tocharischen Verbalsubstantivs auf -r im Perlativ.” In Indogermanica. Festschrift für Wolfgang Krause zum 65. Geburtstage am 18. September 1960, 194–203.

Thomas 1967a

Thomas, Werner. 1967a. “Zu den Ausdrücken mit A ñom, B ñem im Tocharischen.” Indogermanische Forschungen 72: 58–78.

Thomas 1967c

Thomas, Werner. 1967c. “Zu wortverbindendem toch. A śkaṃ/ B ṣpä.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 81: 161–80.

Thomas 1968

Thomas, Werner. 1968. “Zur Verwendung von toch. A oki/B ramt und A mäṃtne/B mäkte in Vergleichen.” Orbis 17: 198–231.

Thomas 1970

Thomas, Werner. 1970. “Zu einer stilistischen Besonderheit im Tocharischen.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 84: 254–80.

Thomas 1972

Thomas, Werner. 1972. “Zweigliedrige Wortverbindungen im Tocharischen.” Orbis 21: 429–70.

Thomas 1979b

Thomas, Werner. 1979b. Formale Besonderheiten in metrischen Texten des Tocharischen: Zur Verteilung von B tane/tne “hier” und B ñake/ñke “jetzt”. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 15. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

Thomas 1979d

Thomas, Werner. 1979d. “Zur Verwendung von A śla, B śale, śle im Tocharischen.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 93: 150–73.

Thomas 1983

Thomas, Werner. 1983. Der tocharische Obliquus im Sinne eines Akkusativs der Richtung. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 6. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

Thomas 1986

Thomas, Werner. 1986. “Zur Stellung von toch. A nuṃ, B nano ‘wieder’ innerhalb des Satzes.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 99: 117–46.

Thomas 1997

Thomas, Werner. 1997. Interpretationsprobleme im Tocharischen. Unflektiertes A puk, B po “ganz, all, jeder”. Vol. 3. SbWGF. Stuttgart: Steiner.

TITUS

Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”