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THT 45

Known as:THT 45; B 45; Bleistiftnummer 3337
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner. "THT 45". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-tht45 (accessed 24 Apr. 2024).

Edition

Editor:Hannes A. Fellner

Provenience

Main find spot:Shorchuk
Expedition code:T III Š 69.39, T III Š 72.26
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Book 1 (Anityavarga), strophes 29b-40a.
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:verse
Meter:M21_21_18_13

Object

Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra A
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Size (h × w):11 × 15 cm
Number of lines:8

Images

Images from idp.bl.uk by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.

Transliteration

a1– [¯m] w· st· m[ā] ll· ts[i] a ra¯ ¯rcä po ṣa m· n· [:] [ñ]· [ś]m· – – ¯c [ṣ]· sk[e] s[ai] mwa sta kā twe ñ[ä]¯ ¯ś ñke ā rts[i] pa knā sta¯ ¯r : mai [w]e[ṃ] ///
a2k[ā]¯ ¯ñ sai¯ ¯m ske nte ceṃ po staṃ ṣe¯ ¯k ynū ca¯ ¯ñ : ñä¯ ¯ś ta l[l]ā¯ ¯u wno lme pwā llo ṅkna cä rkā wā rtte wä nta rwa ta¯ ¯ñä pai ne sai myā mu : krui ñi tsre /// /// ·ñ· ña kta ya – ka [l]· – [m]· – ·l· ///
a3sai¯ ¯m yā mma rpo kse¯ ¯ñ sai mwa sta 30 tu ypa rwe mā ka plya wā re ña kti śā mna la kle sso¯ ¯ñc lkā ṣyeṃ po yśiṃ snai [p]ts· /// /// krū na ṣ[ṣ]e p[i] rs[ā] re [k]eṃ po wno lmi ce wpre [k] (–) – lr· nts· ///
a4[tt]ā n[t]e : la kle ssu ññai lyā ka tā¯ ¯u we rtsyai trai śai ṣṣe ntso ka ṣṣi pū dñä kte : śtwā – [w]e rtsyaṃ tsā rwä stsi¯ ¯ś ā kṣa kre¯ ¯n· ·[e] /// /// 30-1 nano nwa ksa skau me pe lai [k]n· [ṣ]o tri yā mci mā ///
a5nu – ·[tra] pa l· ·o [nta] : mā tno [nu] [wa] ññe [ś]ā ya nau¯ ¯s̝ mā ra śaiṃ ksa to mpo staṃ kuc[e] – – [y]ne śa ññe : kauṃ yṣi ·eṃ /// /// ts· yo kaṃ śau [la] [ṣṣa] na wra nta wno lme ntso : srū ka lñe ṣṣe ///
a6/// [30] [2] – ri – – – mā [n]e saṃ keṃ [p]o yt· ne saṃ ṣā rne e – – smā sru kā¯ ¯m : pi ś /// /// ·[tt]· ta ttā rmeṃ – ·e – ·e te mtsa mte po śu tkā¯ ¯m sa rwe [c]ä¯ ¯n :
a7/// [t]· sru kye – – – – – – – – s· ke [ntra] – – ·e l·e sā lyai¯ ¯k 30 [3] /// /// [te] – – ñi – – – [tta] kpa ta lwa snai ṣaṃ s̝a¯ ¯l snai ya rmo –
a8///
b1///
b2/// lyai¯ ¯k t[u] – – – – – ·c· – – ·c· m· ṣṣ·ṃ – – – – [m]· p· śka nte tte¯ ¯śä kw· /// /// ·k· nts· – ·[m]· yte te mwa lo ka lymi ta llā ntaṃ ///
b3– – – – ¯k – – [ma] [s]k[e] – [:] [k]l· re – k[e]ṃ ño¯ ¯r ṣu¯ ¯k[t] nrai nta toṃ tmā n (–) ñu [l]· [k]wä [r]sa rwe ṅkwa keṃ [:] /// /// ¯[t] wī tmā ne [k]wä· s – – tte¯ ¯śä ño¯ ¯r su 30 6 toṃ y[k]e nta [wn]o lmeṃ ///
b4ne [s]ts[i] ne śtwā rka [w]ṣe ññaṃ ne wsa sk[e]ṃ kau¯ ¯c bha vā gr – ttā pi¯ ¯ś : po toṃ yke po staṃ – – – ne ske ra mno ña ṣta· – /// /// o no lmeṃ [:] – ryye t[e] ṅke mā p[s]ā[¯] [¯l] mā mā s[k]wo srū ka [lñe] ///
b5c[e]ṃ śtra ce kwa rñai : po pi ścme lṣeṃ¯ ¯ts so mpa stra la ro na śau la nma 30 7 ta ryā saṃ ·y· ṣṣ[i] yä rpo nta śa ko¯ ¯kt śpā lmeṃ pe /// /// yśi nt[s]e sa nt· ṣṣi : [po] pa¯ ¯st [m]e lya nme srū ka lñe [po] ///
b6dñä kteṃ¯ ¯ts ke ktse ñä¯ ¯n sru ka lñe nä kṣa nme : po pra tyai ka pu dñä kteṃ ā śaṃ po rā rhā nteṃ po wro cceṃ rṣā keṃ : po ntaṃ /// /// lmeṃ srū ka lñe [k]au [ṣ]a nme 30 8 snai [w]·· – – [n]o ///
b7rwa keṃ sā au rtsa saṃ sā rne sme rṣle wa rñai ṣa li : wro tsa na cke nta kau mai ño sa mu dta rnta ka tkro ne pi ṅkte kau ntso so ntra [:] /// /// ·au[ṃ] me ñe ści ri [p]o¯ ¯s̝[p] ///
b8– ··ṃ ·ä [n]e [n]· [t]oṃ [w]ä n[t]a rwa po n[ta] 30 [9] ·eṃ – – – [l]·[o] [ś]ai ṣ·e ne [k]·e [k]au¯ ¯[c]ä wä n· ·e [t]·· ṅko wo mā no nśī [t] – po staṃ : ///

Transcription

29b a1(sai)m w(a)st(a) ; ll(āṃ)tsi ; arar-c po ṣam(ā)n(i) :
29c ñ· ś m· – – c ṣ· ske saim wasta ; twe ñäś ñke ; ārtsi päknāstar :
29d maiweṃ /// 11σ
30a 11σ a2kāñ ; saim skente ; ceṃ postäṃ ṣek ynūcañ :
30b ñäś tallāu wnolme ; pw ālloṅkna ; cärkāw= ārtte ; wäntarwa ; tañ paine saim yāmu :
30d krui ñi tsre /// /// ·ñ· ñakta ya – kal· – m· – ·l· /// a3n1 saim ; yāmmar pokse-ñ ; saim wasta 30
31a tu yparwe māka ; plyawāre ; ñakti śāmna ; läklessoñc ; lkāṣyeṃ poyśiṃ snai pts· (:)
31b (wars=) (ā)krūnaṣṣe ; pirsāre ; keṃ po wnolmi ; cew prek(e) ; (śau)l r(i)nts(i) (ar)a4ttānten2 :
31c läklessuññai ; lyāka u wertsyai ; trai śaiṣṣentso ; käṣṣi pūdñäkte :
31d śtwā(ra) wertsyaṃ ; tsārwästsiś ; ākṣa kren(t) (p)e(laikne) 30-1
32a nÄno nw aksaskau-me ; pelaikn(e) ; ṣotri yāmci ; /// a5nu – ·trä päl(sk)onta :
32b tn= onuwaññe ; śāya nauṣ ; ra śaiṃ ksa ; t= ompostäṃ ; kuce – – yneśaññe :
32c kauṃ yṣi ·eṃ /// /// ts· yokäṃ ; śaulaṣṣana ; wranta wnolmentso :
32d srūkalñeṣṣe ; /// a6/// 30-2
33a ri – – – ; nesäṃ ; keṃ po yt· ne ; saṃṣārne ; e – – s srukām :
33b piś /// /// · tt· tättārmeṃ – ·e – ·e ; temtsamte ; po śutkām särwecän :
33d a7/// t· srukye – – – – – – – – s· kenträ – – ·el·es= ālyaik 30-3
Xx /// /// te – – ñi – – – ttak ; patälwa ; snai ṣaṃṣäl snai yarmo (:)
Xx a8/// b1/// b2/// (a)lyaik tu – – – – – ·c· – – ·c· m· ṣṣ(e)ṃ – – – – m· p(i)ś känt= etteś kw· /// /// ·k· nts· – ·m·y tetemw alokälymi tallāntäṃ /// b3– – – – k – – mäske – :
36c kl· rekeṃ ; ñor ṣukt nrainta toṃ ; tmān(e) ñul(tse) ; kwärsarw= eṅkwa keṃ :
36d /// /// t ; tmāne ; kwä(r)s(arw=) (e)tteś ñor su 30-6
Xx toṃ ykenta wnolmeṃ ; /// b4; nestsine ; śtwārka wṣeññaṃ;ne wsaskeṃ ; kauc bhavāgr (e)ttāpiś :
Xx po toṃ yke postäṃ – – – neske ram no ñaṣtä(r)·· /// /// onolmeṃ :
37c – ryye te ṅke mā= psāl māskwo srūkalñe /// b5; ceṃśträ ce-k warñai :
37d po piś cmelṣeṃts ; sompasträ ; larona śaulanma 30-7
38a tary= āsaṃ(kh)y(ai)ṣṣi ; yärponta ; śak okt śpālmeṃ ; pe /// /// yśintse sant(āṃ)ṣṣi :
38b po päst melyanme ; srūkalñe ; po (pu)b6dñäkteṃts ; kektseñän ; srukalñe näkṣanme :
38c po pratyaika-;pudñäkteṃ āśäṃ ; po r-ārhānteṃ ; po wrocceṃ rṣākeṃ :
38d pontäṃ /// /// lmeṃ ; srūkalñe kauṣanme 30-8
39a snai w·· – – no /// b7rwa ; keṃ aurtsa ; saṃsārne ; smer-ṣle warñai ṣali :
39b wrotsana ckenta ; kaumaiño ; samudtärnta ; kätkrone ; =piṅkte kaunts= osonträ :
39d /// /// (k)auṃ meñe ściri po ṣp /// b8– ··ṃ ·änen· ; toṃ wäntarwa ponta 30-9
40a ·eṃ – – – l·o ; śaiṣ(ṣ)ene ; k(us)e kauc wän(tr)e ; t(sä)ṅkowo ; no nśīt(rä) postäṃ :

Translation

a1 (You, o shelter and refuge, must (?)) not go away, have all reasons stopped for you? I alone (have not left you), o shelter and refuge, why are you intending to leave me now? The young [ones?] ... [29d] ...
a2 are the (venerable ones), shelter, who are going after this one always. I, miserable being [that I am], neglected all other things, having made your feet [my] shelter. If separation on me ... o god ...
a3 (Who now I) should make [my] shelter, announce to me, o shelter and refuge. [30d] Thereupon the gods [and] men lamented much, suffering they looked upon the Omniscient without winking an eye. (With the water) of tears the beings at that time were sprinkling all the earth,
a4 they opted (to leave life). The suffering assembly saw the teacher of the three worlds, the Buddha. [And] to comfort the four assemblies, the Buddha proclaimed the good (law): [31d] Again and again I proclaim the law to you, (but you have) not made [it] your mark,
a5 [it] does (not) oppress [your] thoughts. No-one lived eternally here earlier, nor will live after this, let (alone he, who) [is] present. (For) by day and night (the Rākṣara) will drink the waters of life of these being. Of death ...
a6 ... [32d] (There is no exception), there is no place in any step in the Saṃsāra, where we did not die. In judgement (of conduct) we were born (in all places) of the members of the five (kinds of birth), all forms of existence we gave substance to ...
a7 ... we died ... (some) die, others [die] by being born. [35d] .... likewise hells, countless [and] without measure.
a8 [is missing]
b1 ...
b2 ... Others ... earthly ... five hundred miles downwards ... (There) the born one (should be) solely (among) miserable ones ...
b3 ... are deep (?) below (this) earth the seven hells, which span the earth [for] a myriad and nine thousand miles [around], or (the Avīci-hell). Two myriads of miles down below it it [is]. [36d] These are the places in the beings'
b4 existence, in forty places they dwell, on top [is] the highest existence, at the bottom the Avīcis. In all these places one after the other (death) demands the beings as a tribute, as it were. (The difference), however, [is] this: No sword, no hindrance death
b5 do hinder in any way. From the members of all five kinds of birth he takes away the dear lives. [37d] The merits of three Asaṃkhyeyas, the eighteen most excellent laws of the Omniscient in [his] sequence of births, all [this] death crushes [for] them; all
b6 the Buddhas bodies, death destroys them. All Pratyekabuddhas he leads [away], also all Arhats, all great sages, all (good) beings, death kills them. [38d] Without (rests) are
b7 (all things), too, in the Saṃsāra; this wide earth, the mountains all the way to the Sumeru-mountain, the great rivers, lakes and the deep oceans in between are dried up by the sun ... sun, moon and all stars ...
b8 all such things. [39d] [It is] (the view of these humans) in the world: “A thing that has risen high should not be let perish afterwards either.” ...

Other

a1 O Schutz [und] Zuflucht, warum willst du mich jetzt verlassen? (Schmidt 1974: 148)
a2+ (Zu wem ich jetzt) meine Zuflucht nehmen soll, verkünde mir, o Schutz [und] Zuflucht. (Schmidt 1974: 433)
a3 (Mit dem Wasser) des Mitgefühls besprengten die Wesen die ganze Erde zu der Zeit; (das Leben zu verlassen), schickten sie sich an. (Schmidt 1974: 131, 296)
a5 No-one has lived immortally before here, and no-one will live [immortally] hereafter. (Peyrot 2013b: 384)
b4+ Nicht Schwert, nicht Festung hemmt (diesen) Tod irgendwie [d.h. wehrt ihn von sich ab]: Allen den fünf Geburtsarten Angehörenden nimmt er die lieben Leben. (Schmidt 1974: 409, 411)
b6+ Ohne (Ruhen) sind auch (alle Dinge) im Saṃsāra; diese weite Erde, die Berge bis zum Sumeru-Berg, die großen Ströme, Seen und die tiefen Ozeane dazwischen werden von der Sonne ausgetrocknet. (Schmidt 1974: 259)

Commentary

Philological commentary

From its content this leaf belongs to the Anityavarga (I), and also has the same metre as THT 1, THT 2, THT 3 and THT 4, i.e. 21/21/18/13 syllables (rhythm = ab: 8/7/6, c: 9/9, d: 7/6); the strophe number 29-40 is no obstacle either, since THT 1 includes strophes 78-86. Therefore it should actually be Nr. 1 in the collection. On the situation cf. THT 15 / THT 17 (conversation between Buddha and Ānanda after the first sickness). Ānanda is the speaker in strophes 29 and 30.
n2 Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 81 fn. 9.

Remarks

The original manuscript is partly missing, but consisted of two non-continuous fragments, the larger of which being in turn restored out of two smaller pieces and making up about 2/3 in length of the left side of the leaf from the left margin on. The smaller fragment, in turn restored from three smaller pieces, was a badly damaged remnant of the last third of the right side. The leaf number was not preserved. Line a8 is lost.

Linguistic commentary

n1 The reading proposed in Sieg and Siegling 1949: 66 fn. 6 as a -ṣṣe-adjective based on karuṃ 'compassion' does not hold because the vowel of the initial syllable is not reduced (cf. karūnäṣṣe et var.). It is safer to restore a -ṣṣe-adjective based on akrūna 'tears'. The phrase akrūnaṣṣe wär is attested in m-pkas12j a3. One can restore, as per Pinault 1997a: 223, (wars= ā)krūnaṣṣe with a metrically conditioned permutation of word order. At the end of this pāda Sieg and Siegling 1949: 66 fn. 7 restored (rai)ttānte, which is at variance with the attested verb . Since the the akṣara containing <ttā> is partly destroyed, one can safely restore , which is attested from the root ārt(t)ā- The same phrase 'sprinkle the whole earth' is also attested in THT 17 a4 in the form of pärsnoṃ po keno Therefore, one may consider restoring wars= ākrūnaṣṣe in the preceding lacuna, which would also complete the meter.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Tamai 2011 C3
Tamai 2011 C14

References

Online access

IDP: THT 45a, THT 45b; TITUS: THT 45

Edition

Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 66-68; Sieg and Siegling 1983: 81-83 notes 214-216

Translations

Carling 2000: a2 (330), a3 (281), a5 (297), b3 (327), b3 b4 (20), b4 (172), b7 (324); Hackstein 1995: a5 (181), b4 (218), b5 (316); Krause 1952: a2 (34), a4 (204), a4 (43); Malzahn 2012b: a5 (159); Meunier 2013: a2 a3 (144); Peyrot 2013b: a5 (384); Schmidt 1974: a1 (148), a2 a3 (433), a3 (131, 433), a3 (131, 296), a3 a4 (296), b4 b5 (411), b4 b5 (409, 411), b5 (409), b6 b7 (259); Sieg and Siegling 1949: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 (II, 65-68); Sieg and Siegling 1983: a1 (214), a5 (214); Thomas 1954: a1 (720), a1 (748), a4 (712), a4 (751), b3 b4 (756); Thomas 1957: a1 (242), a3 (13, 196), a3 a4 (13), a4 (112 n.5), a5 (181), a6 (232); Thomas 1969: a6 (258), b7 (243), b7 (243); Thomas 1970: b7 (264); Thomas 1979b: a1 (56), a5 (26); Thomas 1981: a1 (496); Thomas 1986: a4 (122); Thomas 1995: a3 (50); Thomas 1997: a2 (72), b4 (72), b5 (116), b6 (140), b6 (77)

Bibliography

Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

IDP

“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Malzahn 2012b

Malzahn, Melanie. 2012b. “Position matters: The placement of clitics in metrical texts of Tocharian B.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 13: 153–62.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Pinault 1997a

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 1997a. “Remarque sur le pluriel tokh. B akrūna, A ākrunt.” In Sound law and analogy. Papers in honor of Robert S.P. Beekes on the occasion of his 60th birthday, edited by Alexander Lubotsky, 9:219–33. Leiden Studies in Indo-European. Amsterdam/Atlanta: Rodopi.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1949

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1949. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 1. Die Udānālaṅkāra-Fragmente. Text, Übersetzung und Glossar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Sieg and Siegling 1983

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1983. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. Edited by Werner Thomas. Neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Tamai 2011

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.

Thomas 1954

Thomas, Werner. 1954. “Die Infinitive im Tocharischen.” In Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, edited by Johannes Schubert and Ulrich Schneider, 701–64. Leipzig: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1969

Thomas, Werner. 1969. “Bemerkungen zum Gebrauch von toch. A ptāñkät [B pañäkte, pudñäkte], A koṃ [B kauṃ]: A koṃñkät [B kauṃñäkte] usw.” Orbis 18: 235–68.

Thomas 1970

Thomas, Werner. 1970. “Zu einer stilistischen Besonderheit im Tocharischen.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 84: 254–80.

Thomas 1979b

Thomas, Werner. 1979b. Formale Besonderheiten in metrischen Texten des Tocharischen: Zur Verteilung von B tane/tne “hier” und B ñake/ñke “jetzt”. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 15. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

Thomas 1981

Thomas, Werner. 1981. “Indogermanisches in der Syntax des Tocharischen: Zum Ausdruck eines Gebotes und Verbotes.” In Festschrift der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, 481–97.

Thomas 1986

Thomas, Werner. 1986. “Zur Stellung von toch. A nuṃ, B nano ‘wieder’ innerhalb des Satzes.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 99: 117–46.

Thomas 1995

Thomas, Werner. 1995. Zur tocharischen Syntax. Adverbiales A māk, B māka “viel”. Vol. 2. SbWGF. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Thomas 1997

Thomas, Werner. 1997. Interpretationsprobleme im Tocharischen. Unflektiertes A puk, B po “ganz, all, jeder”. Vol. 3. SbWGF. Stuttgart: Steiner.

TITUS

Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”