• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress


Known as:THT 4; B 4; Bleistiftnummer 3322
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner. "THT 4". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 08 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 69.42
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Book 1 (Anityavarga), part 2, strophes 25c-35b
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra C
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:8


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// rwaṃ¯ ¯ts tsre lñe ā ke po sta nmeṃ : to ///
a2/// : te ki ktsai tsñe ke¯ ¯s yo ko toṃ ñya ///
a3/// lñe ste sa mpau ca 20 6 ṣe me pre [ke] ///
a4/// ·t· a ka lṣle kā¯ ¯ś kau ///
a5/// ·[ñ]· kte ne ta ṅwa sū : ta ry· ///
a6/// [s]w· śrā ddhe sru ka ntweṃ nrai ne mpe lye te mtsa te ///
a7/// ·s· te : a lle kno ksa a rhā nte ṣā llā ntse ṣṣe ///
a8/// ·e tsa ṅkau wa : o¯ ¯t toṃ [we] – ślo ka nma ///
b1/// ya neṃ ya rp· nrai nts· – – sa 30 ///
b2/// [t]sn· mñe : yā mo rntso ko mā na kṣ[ta]¯ ¯r yā mo ///
b3/// ne je ta vaṃ ne ma skī ta¯ ¯r • śrā va sti ne ///
b4/// ne ma ske ñca¯ ¯ñä śtwe r[ṣa] ///
b5/// [¯][śä] e ro¯ ¯s̝ ka ma rti ki [r]· – ///
b6/// śa sru ka lñe 30 3 wa te lya ma keṃ ///
b7/// rṣle ntse tro ṅkne lya mo mpa lsko ññe : ///
b8/// sta a rā me : po cai mai ta¯ ¯r nke lñe ///


25b a1///
25c (po) (larona) (wänta)rwaṃts ; tsrelñe āke postanmeṃ :
26a to 13σ /// a2n1 /// 14σ :
26b teki ktsaitsñe kes yoko ; toṃ ñya(tsenta)
26d /// a3n2 /// ; (sruka)lñe ste sampauca 20-6
27c ṣeme preke 10σ /// a4n3 /// ·t· akalṣle kāś kau ///
28a a5n4 /// ; (pud)ñ(ä)ktene täṅwasū :
28d tary(a) 12σ /// a6/// sw (a)śrāddhe sruka =ntweṃ ; nrain= empelye temtsate
29b /// a7/// 13σ ·s· te :
29c allek no ksa arhānte ; ṣāll= āntseṣṣe (perpette)
30a /// a8/// 10σ ·e tsäṅkauwa :
30d ot toṃ we(ña) ślokanma ; /// b1n5 /// yaneṃ ; yarp(o) nraints(e) (oko)sa 30
31b /// b2n6 /// 11σ (snai) tsn(a)mñe :
32a yāmornts= oko mā nakṣtär ; yāmo /// b3/// ne ; jetavaṃne mäskītär
32d śrāvastine 10σ /// b4n7 /// ne mäskeñcañ śtwer ṣa(māni) ///
33b b5n8 /// ś eroṣ kamartiki r(amt) ///
33d b6n9 /// 11σ ś«†ä» srukalñe 30-3
34c wate lyama keṃ(tsa) ; /// b7n10 /// (sme)r-ṣlentse ; troṅkne lyam= ompalskoññe :
35a /// b8n11 /// 10σ sta arāme :
35b po cai maitar nkelñe(ne) ; ///


a1 ... separation from (all dear) things [is] finally the end. [25c] ...
a2 ... [26a] Sickness, old age, hunger [and] thirst, these [are] the plagues ... [26b]
a3 ... (death) is the one who takes (away). [26d] At one [and the same] time ...
a4 ... the pupil Kāśa Kau(salya) (?) ... [27c]
a5 ... to the Buddha lovingly. [28a] The three (jewels ?) ...
a6 ... He died an unbeliever [and] then in a terrible hell he was [re]born. [28] ...
a7 ... but another one, an Arhat, threw off (the burden) of the Skandhas ... [29c]
a8 ... the emerged (doubts?). [30a] Then (the Buddha) spoke the strophes ...
b1 ... they will pass through (the fruit) of merit and hell. [30d] ...
b2 ... (without) influence [from the outer world]. [31b] The fruit of the deed never fades, the deed ...
b3 ... (The Buddha) was staying in the Jetavana. [32a] In Śrāvastī ...
b4 ... resident four monks ... [32d]
b5 ... those having caused, (like) rulers ... [33b]
b6 ... (there came to him) death. [33d] The second sat (on the) ground ...
b7 ... in a cave of the Sumeru-mountain he sat in meditation [34c] ...
b8 ... it came to end for them. All these went to destruction ... [35b]


Parallel texts

Uv 1.22-1.25

Philological commentary

Anityavarga (I), part two. Contains strophes 25c-35b in a 4x14 syllable-metre (rhythm: 7/7). From each verse, on average 25 syllables are missing.
n1 Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 28 fn. 2.
n2 Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 146.
n3 In Sieg and Siegling 1949: II, 8 it is proposed to read the name Kāśa Kausalya and refer to A 431 a 3, where the same name (?), unfortunately, is also precisely damaged after ‹kau›.
n4 Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 28 fn. 4.
n5 Emendations according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 28 fn. 8.
n6 Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 147.
n7 Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 147.
n8 Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 28 fn. 12.
n9 Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 28 fn. 13.
n10 Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 28 fn. 14.
n11 Emendation according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 28 fn. 15.


The original manuscript is missing, but was a left-over bit of the left-hand side of a leaf with schnurloch. Since THT 5 is leaf 29 of the manuscript, this leaf must have been number 25.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Tamai 2011a C5
Tamai 2011a C14


Online access



Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 13-15; Sieg and Siegling 1983: 28-30 notes 146-147


Carling 2000: a6 (142), b7 (144, 344), b8 (239); Sieg and Siegling 1949: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 (II, 8-9); Sieg and Siegling 1983: a3 (146); Thomas 1952: a1 (55); Thomas 1957: b3 (29); Thomas 1968b: b1 (211); Thomas 1972b: b1 (444); Thomas 1973: b1 (164); Thomas 1988a: b7 (246); Thomas 1993: b1 (187); Thomas 1997: b8 (71)


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Sieg and Siegling 1949

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1949. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 1. Die Udānālaṅkāra-Fragmente. Text, Übersetzung und Glossar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Sieg and Siegling 1983

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1983. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. Edited by Werner Thomas. Neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Tamai 2011a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011a. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.

Thomas 1952

Thomas, Werner. 1952. Die tocharischen Verbaladjektive auf -l. Deutsche Akad. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung 9. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1968b

Thomas, Werner. 1968b. “Zur Verwendung von toch. A oki/B ramt und A mäṃtne/B mäkte in Vergleichen.” Orbis 17: 198–231.

Thomas 1972b

Thomas, Werner. 1972b. “Zweigliedrige Wortverbindungen im Tocharischen.” Orbis 21: 429–70.

Thomas 1973

Thomas, Werner. 1973. “Zur tocharischen Übersetzung der Sanskrit-Nominalkomposita des Udānavarga.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 87: 161–89.

Thomas 1988a

Thomas, Werner. 1988a. “Toch. AB säm-/läm- ‘sitzen’ in transitivem Gebrauch.” Central Asiatic Journal 32: 244–59.

Thomas 1993

Thomas, Werner. 1993. Parallele Texte im Tocharischen und ihre Bewertung. Vol. 5. SbWGF. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Thomas 1997

Thomas, Werner. 1997. Interpretationsprobleme im Tocharischen. Unflektiertes A puk, B po “ganz, all, jeder”. Vol. 3. SbWGF. Stuttgart: Steiner.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”