• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress


Known as:THT 1; B 1; THT 1a; THT 1b; Bleistiftnummer 3380
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner. "THT 1". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 05 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 94, T III Š 96
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Book 1 (Anityavarga), strophes 75d-87a
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra A
Leaf number:10-2
Following fragment:THT 3
Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):12 × 10 cm
Number of lines:8
Interline spacing:1 cm


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// e nt[e] ·[k]· [s]· – ·l· – [70] ///
a2/// la kle ssu ntsai lyā ka we rts[yai] ///
a3/// nä kse ntrama skeṃ ntr·ṃ ṣke tse ·[ts]· ///
a4/// [ntse] pe lai kne śtwā re mpre nmau rtse sa : ///
a5/// nt[w]ā¯ ¯t yku we rmeṃ la lai ka rmeṃ ṣa [r]n[e] 70 ///
a6/// te te mwa ka klo yo ntra ///
a7/// – ke ntra t[e] te mo ṣkā ///
a8/// [le] ·[e] ·[o] ///
b1/// ṣ· – ·s· ///
b2/// sau mā¯ ¯wk ñä¯ ¯ś srū ka· [l]· ///
b3– – /// ·[trä] no po nta ra [ṣ]ye ntra : ma ///
b4/// ṣra¯ ¯mt srū ka lñe ṣṣe ma dā rntse yai ·[o] ///
b5/// prā kre : te tkā¯ ¯kp śma nme srū ka l[ñe] ///
b6/// [nt]s· śe¯ ¯m po yśiṃ¯ ¯śä : po sklo ka [n]· ///
b7/// wno lme ntsa : a kṣā ne po y[ś]i ///
b8/// [80] [6] lā – o ·[o] ·[e] ///

(continues on THT 3)


75d a1n1 /// ente ·k· s· – ·l· – 70(-5)
76c /// a2/// läklessuntsai lyāka wertsyai ///
77b a3n2 /// näksenträ mā mäskeṃntr (e)ṃṣketse (:)
78a ·ts· /// a4n3 /// (ākṣa) ; (wertsiya)ntse pelaikne ; śtwār= emprenm= aurtsesa :
78d /// a5n4 /// (pi)ntwāt ykuwermeṃ ; lalaikarmeṃ ṣarne 70(-8)
79c /// a6/// tetemwa ka kloyonträ ///
80b a7n5 /// (ywārcä) (sru)kenträ tetemoṣ kā… ///
82b a8/// le ·e ·o /// b1/// ṣ· – ·s· /// b2n6 /// (maiwe) (ne)sau māwk ñäś srūka(l)l(e) ///
83b b3n7 /// (kloyon)trä ; no ponta räṣyenträ :
83c ma(nt) 17σ ///
84b b4n8 /// (wnolmi) (aknātsañ) (triko)ṣ ramt ; srūkalñeṣṣe madārntse ; yai(p)o(ṣä) (koyne) (cai) ///
84c b5n9 /// 16σ prākre :
84d tetkāk ṣp śman-me srūkalñe ; (kärnānm=) (eṅkalñenta)
85b /// b6n10 /// (jātiśroṇe) (ñem) (brāhmaṇe) ; (tsäṅkoṣ) (sklone) (empelye) ; (pälsko)nts(e) śem poyśiṃś :
86a po sklokan(ma) 14σ /// b7/// 18σ wnolmentsa :
86b akṣā-ne poyśi /// 16σ
86d b8n11 /// 80-6
87a lā(ñc) o(nts)o(yttñ)e(sa) /// 16σ

(continues on THT 3)


a1 ... [75d] ...
a2 ... He saw the sorrowful assembly ... [76c]
a3 ... they perish [and] do not last ... [77b]
a4 ... (he recited before the assembly) the law [and] the four truths in detail ... [78a]
a5 ... having gone the almsround [and] having washed the hands [78d] ...
a6 ... having just emerged they fall .... [79c]
a7 ... they die having just been born .... [80b]
a8 ...
b1 ...
b2 ... I am (young), I will not die yet ... [82b]
b3 ... they all fall as well, they have been ripped off. [83b] Therefore ...
b4 ... [83d] (the foolish beings) like (confused ones) they have passed into (the maws) of the monster of death ...
b5 ... firm. An when death suddenly comes to them, (it severs their bonds) [84d] ...
b6 ... (A Brahman named Jātiśroṇa) came (in the emerged, terrible doubt of his spirit) to the Omniscient: [85b] (O thou Severer) of all doubt, (o God, sever) ... [85c]
b7 ... with the beings.” [86a] To him recited the Omniscient ... [86b]
b8 ... 86 (When) the kings (out of insatiability)

(continues on THT 3)


a6 ... kaum entstanden, fallen sie [scil. die Früchte des Baumes] ... (Schmidt 1974: 105)


Parallel texts

Uv 1.8-1.11

Philological commentary

Contains fragments of strophes 75d – 87a of the Anityavarga (I); the metre is 21, 21, 18, 13 syllables. The rhythm in a and b is 8/7/6, in c it is 9/9 (or 4/5, 4/5 respectively), in d it is 7/6. The content is partly the same as in THT 2, which ascertains important text supplements. Since this leaf directly preceded THT 3, it was leaf 12 of the manuscript.
n1 At the end of the line there is a remnant of an akṣara which can be interpreted as the lower part of the number 70 according to Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 8 fn. 1.
n3 (ākṣa wertsiya)ntse supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949 II, 3 fn. 1 and Sieg and Siegling 1983: 139.
n4 (pi)ntwāt and 7(8) emended according to Sieg and Siegling 1949 I, 8 fn. 5.
n5 (ywārcä sru)kenträ supplemented based on THT 2 a1.
n6 (maiwe) supplemented based on THT 2 a6; (ne)sau and srūka(lle) amended according to Sieg and Siegling 1949 I, 8 fn. 8.
n7 (kloyont)rä supplemented and amended according to ··yonträ based on THT 2 a8; ma(nt) also based on THT 2 a8 .
n8 (wnolmi aknātsañ triko)ṣ supplemented based on THT 2 b1; (ṣä koyne cai) supplemented according to Sieg and Siegling 1949 II, 3 fn. 6.
n9 (kärnānm= eṅkalñenta) supplemented based on THT 2 b3.
n10 (jātiśroṇe ñem brāhmaṇe tsäṅkoṣ sklone empelye pälsko)nts(e) supplemented based on THT 2 b4 and according to Sieg and Siegling 1949 II, 4 fn. 1.
n11 lā(ñc) o(nts)o(yttñ)e(sa) supplemented based on THT 2 b8.


The fragment is badly damaged. It is composed of two smaller fragments.

Linguistic commentary

n2 eṃṣketse for eṃṣketstse.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Tamai 2011a C5
Tamai 2011a C14


Online access



Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 8-9


Carling 2000: b6 (234); Hackstein 1995: a5 (121); Krause 1952: b5 (205); Malzahn 2012b: b3 (159); Schmidt 1974: a6 (105); Sieg and Siegling 1949: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 (II, 3-4 notes 139-140); Sieg and Siegling 1983: a4 (139), b3 (140), b4 (140), b5 (140), b6 (140)


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Malzahn 2012b

Malzahn, Melanie. 2012b. “Position matters: The placement of clitics in metrical texts of Tocharian B.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 13: 153–62.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1949

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1949. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 1. Die Udānālaṅkāra-Fragmente. Text, Übersetzung und Glossar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Sieg and Siegling 1983

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1983. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. Edited by Werner Thomas. Neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Tamai 2011a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011a. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”