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PK AS 7B

Known as:PK AS 7B; Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 7B; K 2
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot. "PK AS 7B". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-pkas7b (accessed 29 Feb. 2024).

Edition

Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot
Date of online publication:2012-02

Provenience

Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Specific find spot:DA cour
Expedition code:M 500.3'; DA cour
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavibhaṅga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:verse
Meter:M13; M12

Object

Manuscript:Karmavibhaṅga β
Leaf number:30-2
Following fragment:PK AS 7C
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Number of lines:6

Images

Images from gallica.bnf.fr by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.

Transliteration

a1/// – – – [ts]· śa ks[o] lme – ka krau [pau] wwa mā mai yyā [ts](·) (– – – – – –) 4 ce yta nma ske ntraka ssi śe lme cc(·)[ṃ] śai ṣṣe nne : pa ri ni rmi t(·) (–) [ś](·) w(·) [r]tt[i] wa rñai eṃ ṣke : kuse (–) e rsnā sso¯ ¯ñcä
a2(–) [kt](·) [kl] (–) wo ntra o m[p]ra ·o to na(·)[¯] [¯ts] [v](·)[ā] [kṣe] [psa] [yā] [maṃ] [ne] (– –) ṣa rmtū ne 70 5 yā mwa ke ttā kaṃ ka krau pau wwa s̝a pyā mo rnta : śa kpo ā stro na mā ke k[l](·)[u] [t]ku wa kra ke tsts[e] : toṃ yā mo rnta
a3sa e rsnā sso nta nne [ñ](·) [kte] [n]ne ○ cme lñe ma ske(·) [ra] ma ntwe we ño rste po yśi ntse 70 6 tu meṃ oṃ s̝a pno ña kti klyo wo ntra snai e rsna : ṣu ktpe l(·) kne nta o mpte cme lla ññe spā
a4rtta skeṃ : o mpa lsko ññe nta ne saṃ ○ ṣu¯ ¯kt śpā lmeṃ wro tsa na : tū yai ru tā kaṃ sū ceṃ ña kteṃ ne ta nma stra 70 7 || || a rā ḍe ntsa || we ñau nano kya kne(·) yā mo rnta tstū pa klyau ṣso :
a5kre nta yo lai naṃ¯ ¯ts e trī wai tsā naṃ tsra no : te ke klyau ṣo rmeṃ e pa stya ññe yä nma ce¯ ¯r yā mo rnta yā mtsi mā s̝pa tri śce rma kā ykne : 1 ne saṃ sū yā mo¯ ¯r ne mce kcme tsi¯ ¯ś spo rto tra [:] kuce te [ma]
a6ntwñā wa tu ñke we ñau a nai śai : ma kce wyā mo rnta ya ma(·) (·)e (–) [t](·)e [wn]o [l]mi : cm(·) la ścyu wä skeṃ ce ma nta kā lkñä ske ntra : 2 ce ñä śyā mo rsa ce wce wä kca ī ke ne : cme tsi ka llo yma kre ntyā mo
b1rtu ścyu wä s̝s̝aṃ : sū ce wyā mo rsa o mpe kra tsa ta nma – tra (– – – –) yā mo rne mce kcme tsi śtma ske tra 3 i ntsu no yā mo rmā ne mce kta nma ṣṣe ñca : i ñce wyā mo(·) s(·) mā s̝pa cme tsi ścyu
b2wä s̝s̝aṃ : cme la [ai] wä stra yā mtra kre nta yā mo rnta [:] ce wyā mo rsa sū mā ne mce kpa ta nma stra 4 kuse no sū yā mo¯ ¯r a lye kī ne yā mtra : a lye kī (–) ne pke lñe tu ntse yä nmā s̝s̝aṃ :
b3ma kcwi yā mo rntse śa kta lye ā laṃ ○ kto wä a lye kī ke ne yku we ṣe pi pa kta rne 5 kre ñce pi wa tno yo lo pi wa tyā mo rntse : tai kne sa ne saṃ ya kne o ko pke lñe ntse : ma
b4kte mai tra jñā ka ryo rtta [nt]e nau ṣtā ○ ka sū dṛ ṣ[ṭ]ā (–) ta ne ka rsa na lle au rtse sa 6 ma ksū no yā mo rma kce wsa tne o no lmi [:] nrai nta ne cme ntra so lme no mte śau [lś](·) yeṃ : mā
b5– [nau] s̝a [kcai] tsa lpā lla ññe [yä] nmā(·) [keṃ] : (–) [ra] [e] p[i] ṅkte srū (– –) [ññ](·) ne sa nme 7 ta ne ksa ṣe mi o no lmi nrai yne cme tsi¯ ¯ścä : ya ma ntra yā mo¯ ¯r krau p(·) [nta] rs̝pa po ykne sa : ce yce wyā
b6(– –) mā pa rskaṃ mā ykāṃ ṣñe ntra : mā kwi pe ññe ntra mā o n[mi](·) (– – –) [n]· 8 kā tkeṃ plo nto ntrapa kka mai yya tsa mse nne : ma kte yā mṣa te de [v]a [d]a tte yā mo rnta : nrai yne [t]e te mo ṣcai yt[ai] (– –)

(continues on PK AS 7C)

Transcription

74c /// ; – – – ts· śak ; solme
74d kakraupauwwa mā ; maiyyāts(tsana) (yā,morntasa) (70-)4
75a cey tänmaskenträ ; ṣkäss iśelmecc(e)ṃ ; śaiṣṣenne :
75b parinirmit(a;va)ś(a)w(a)rtti war;ñai eṃṣke :
75c kuse (no) ersnāssoñc ; a2 (ña)kt(i) kl(yo)wonträ ; omp ra(n)o
75d tona(ṃ)ts v(y)ākṣepsa ; yāmaṃ-ne (nesäṃ) ; ṣarm tūne 70-5
76a yāmwa ket tākaṃ ; kakraupauwwa ṣäp ; yāmornta :
76b śak po āstrona ; mā kekl(y)utkuwa ; kraketstse :
76c toṃ yāmorntaa3sa ; ersnāssontänne ; ñ(a)ktenne
76d cmelñe mäske(t)rä ; mant weweñor ste ; poyśintse 70-6
77a tumeṃ oṃṣäp no ; ñakti klyowonträ ; snai ersna :
77b ṣukt pel(ai)knenta ; ompte cmelläññe ; spāa4rttaskeṃ :
77c ompalskoññenta ; nesäṃ ṣukt śpālmeṃ ; wrotsana :
77d yairu tākaṃ ; ceṃ ñakteṃne ; tänmasträ 70-7 ॥
arāḍentsa
1a weñau nänok yakne(ṃ) ; yāmorntats ; päklyauṣso :
1b a5n2 krenta yolainaṃts ; etrīwaitsā;naṃts rano :
1c te keklyauṣormeṃ ; epastyaññe ; yänmacer
1d yāmornta yāmtsi ; mā ṣpä triścer ; makā-ykne : 1
2a nesäṃ yāmor ; nemcek cmetsiś ; sportoträ :
2b kuce te maa6ntn3 wñāwa ; tu ñke weñau ; anaiśai :
2c mäkcew yāmor nta ; yama(sk)e(nträ) ; t(n)e wnolmi :
2d cm(e)laśc yuwäskeṃ ; ce mant akālk ; ñäskenträ : 2
3a ce ñäś yāmorsa ; cew-cewä kca ; īkene :
3b cmetsi källoymä ; krent yāmob1rn4 tuśc ; yuwäṣṣäṃ :
3c cew yāmorsa ; ompek ra tsa ; tänma(ske)trä (:)
3d (sporttotär) yāmor ; nemcek cmetsiś ; tmäsketrä 3
4a intsu no yāmor ; mā nemcek tän;maṣṣeñca :
4b iñcew yāmo(r)s(a) ; mā ṣpä cmetsiśc ; yub2wäṣṣäṃn5n6 :
4c cmela aiwästrä ; yāmträ krenta ; yāmornta :
4d cew yāmorsa ; mā nemcek ṣpä ; tänmasträ 4
5a kuse no yāmor ; alyek ī«ke»;ne yāmträ :
5b alyek ī(ke)ne ; pkelñe tuntse ; yänmāṣṣäṃ :
5c b3 mäkcwi yāmorntse ; śäktalye ā;läṃ ktowä
5d alyek īkene ; ykuweṣepi ; pakṣtär-ne 5
6a kreñcepi wat no ; yolopi wat ; yāmorntse :
6b taiknesa nesäṃ ; yakne oko ; pkelñentse :
6c b4kten7n8 maitrajñā ; käryorttante ; nauṣ tāka
6d dṛṣṭā(nt) tane ; kärsanalle ; aurtsesa 6
7a mäksū no yāmor ; mäkcewsa tne ; onolmi :
7b nraintane cmenträ ; solmen omte ; śaul ś(ā)yeṃ :
7c b5 (ṣpä) nauṣäk cai ; tsälpālläññe ; yänmā(s)keṃ :
7d (te) ra epiṅkte ; srū(kallä)ññ(e) ; nesan-me 7
8a tane ksa ṣemi ; onolmi nraiy;ne cmetsiśc :
8b yamanträ yāmor ; kraup(a)ntär ṣpä ; po-yknesa :
8c cey cew b6(morsa) ; mā parskaṃ mā ; ykāṃṣñenträ :
8d mā kwipeññenträ ; mā onmi(ṃ) (ya,maske)n(trä) 8
9a kātkeṃ plontonträ ; ṣpäkka maiyya ; tsämsen-ne :
9b mäkte yāmṣate ; devadatte ; yāmornta :
9c nraiyne tetemoṣ ; caiy tai(knesa) ;

(continues on PK AS 7C)

Translation

a1 ... the ten (karmapatha) completely (done), [74c] because of the powerful deeds which have not been accumulated. [74d] They are reborn in the six worlds of desire [75a] until the Parinirmitavaśavarti [= gods related to magical enjoyments] etc. [75b] But even those who are there called the gods provided with form [75c], there even [if] they do it by negligence of those [deeds], [there is a] cause in that.
a2 [75d] By whom deeds have been done and accumulated, [76a] ten [deeds] entirely pure and not having become dirty, [76b] because of these deeds his rebirth will take place [76c] among the gods with form.
a3 Such is the saying of the omniscient [= Buddha]. [76d] But beyond that [there are] gods called without form; [77a]
a3+ seven rules cause the rebirth to take place there. [77b]
a4 These are the seven great [and] excellent meditations [= stages of meditation]. [77c] [If] one has practiced that one will be reborn among these gods. [77d] According to the Arāḍa [tune]. I will further tell the ways of the deeds. Listen (pl.) to it! [1a]
a5 Of the deeds [which are] good, bad, [and] mixed also, [1b] after having heard this, you will obtain the skill [1c] to do deeds, and you will not err in many ways. [1d] There is such a deed [that] evolves into a specific rebirth. [2a] What I said in this [short] manner, I will now clarify [lit. say clearly]: [2b]
a6 Whichever is the deed [that] the beings here do, [2c] [when] they transform for rebirths? They seek for the following wish: [2d] Through this deed may I obtain at this and that place [3a] to be reborn.
a6+ He transforms the good deed for that [= rebirth]. [3b]
b1 Through that deed this one will be reborn precisely there, wherever indeed [that may be]. [3c] The deed (evolves) to a specific rebirth [and] one will be reborn. [3d] But which [is] the deed, [by which] one does not [become someone who is] reborn specifically? [4a]
b1+ And through which deed does one not transform for rebirth? [4b]
b2 One is turned towards rebirths, [when] one does good deeds, [4c] but through such a deed [alone], one is not reborn [at a] specific [place]. [4d] But what deed [is] it, [if] one does [it] in a different place, [5a] [and] from which one obtains the ripening at a different place? [5b] From which deed the seed [has been] sown elsewhere, [5c] it becomes ripe for the one who has gone to a different place.
b3 [5d] So for a good deed as well as for a bad deed [6a] the way of making the fruit ripe is in such a manner, [6b] as it happened before for the merchant Maitrajña. [6c]
b4 This parable is to be known at length here. [6d] But which [is] the deed through which the beings here, [7a] [if] they are reborn in hells, live the whole life there, [7b] and do not previously obtain redemption, [7c] and in the meantime death happens to them?
b5 [7d] [If] here some beings do a deed leading to rebirth in hell, [8a] they will accumulate [it] in every manner. [8b] They are not afraid of this deed,
b6 [and] they are not disgusted, [8c] they are not ashamed, they do not show remorse. [8d] They are glad [and] they rejoice, [and] even more they increase its power [i.e., of the bad deed] [9a] as Devadatta did his deeds. [9b] Being reborn in hell, these (beings live) in that manner [= PK AS 7C a1]

(continues on PK AS 7C)

Other

a1+ But who are called the gods with form there? If one takes part with them, … the cause therein. (cf 5) (Peyrot 2013b: 715)
a1+ Welche jedoch die gestalthaften (Götter genannt) werden ... (Schmidt 1974: 249)
a2+ Who has done deeds and accumulated them, ten all pure and not having made dirty, by these deeds [he] has a birth among the gods with form; so is the saying of the omniscient [Buddha]. (cf 5) (Peyrot 2013b: 715)
a3 Darüber hinaus jedoch werden die Götter gestaltlos genannt. (Schmidt 1974: 248)
a3+ Seven laws there determine [lit. lead] the birth; there are seven great and excellent meditations—if he has practised that, he is born among these gods (scil. without form). (cf 6) (Peyrot 2013b: 346)
a4+ I will further tell the ways of the deeds, listen to it; the good, the bad, and the mixed too. Having heard this, you will get skills in doing deeds and not err in many ways. (cf 6–7) (Peyrot 2013b: 660)
a5 Es gibt eine Tat, [die] zum Bestimmt-Geboren-werden führt [wtl. sich wendet]. (Schmidt 1974: 281)
a5+ What I said like that, that I will say in detail. (cf 7) (Peyrot 2013b: 372)
b2 But what deed is it, if one does it in another place, from which one obtains the ripening in another place? (cf 9) (Peyrot 2013b: 684, 689)
b2 If he aspires to [re]births [and] does good deeds, he is through this deed not certainly [re]born. (cf 9) (Peyrot 2013b: 684, 689)
b2+ Er macht sich zu Geburten reif, wenn er gute Taten tut, aber durch solche [gute] Tat [allein] wird er nicht bestimmt geboren. Welches aber [ist] die Tat, davon er, [wenn] er [sie] an einem Ort tut, an einem anderen Ort die Reife [Vergeltung] erlangt? [wtl. Welches aber [ist] die Tat: Tut er [sie] an dem einen Ort, [dann] erlangt er das Reifen davon an einem anderen Ort?] [Antwort:] Das ist die Tat, deren Same [wtl. von welcher Tat der Same], anderswo gesät [wtl. gestreut], an ihm, dem an einen anderen Ort gegangenen, reift. (Schmidt 1974: 130, 130 fn. 4, 443-4)
b4+ But what is the deed through which the beings here, if they are [re]born in the hells, live [their] whole live[s] there, [and] they do not obtain redemption earlier [and] within that time have their death[s]? (cf 10) (Peyrot 2013b: 684)
b5+ If some beings here do a deed [leading] to be [re]born in hell, and they accumulate it in all ways, and [then] they are not afraid because of this deed, they do not feel disgust, they are not ashamed, [and] they do not repent it, [but] they are glad [and] rejoice, [and] increase their power even more. (Peyrot 2013b: 685)
b5+ [Wenn] hier einige Wesen eine Tat zum In-der-Hölle-Geborenwerden tun und [sie] in jeder Weise anhäufen, [so] fürchten sie sich (infolge) einer solchen Tat nicht [und] empfinden nicht Abscheu, schämen sich nicht, (bereuen) nicht. Sie freuen sich, sind vergnügt [und] mehren deren Kraft noch mehr. (Schmidt 1974: 143, 444)

Commentary

Linguistic commentary

The text shows some preservations of final or its classical form o-mobile; all instances are placed at the usual positions (i.e., colon- and pāda-finally, as well as preceding a clitic). Sometimes we find incorrect vowels such as yāmaṃ-ne (a2), oṃṣäp (a3), ñakteṃne (a4), yänmacer (a5).
n2 The privative etrīwaitstse* designates a category of deeds supplementary to good (Skt. kuśala-) and bad (Skt. akuśala-), i.e., Skt. avyākṛta- ‘not distinguished’.
n3 yuwäskeṃ in a 6 and yuwäṣṣäṃ in b 1 were interpreted by Sieg 1938: 7 as causative of yu- ‘to ripen’ in the meaning “reif machen zu” + allative., since it corresponds to Skt. pariṇāmayati ‘ripen, mature, develop towards, change into’ (Edgerton 1953: 323b) in the Sanskrit Mahākarmavibhaṅga 30 (Lévi 1932: 50). However, due to morphological reasons, it was analyzed as a form of yu- ‘to seek, inspire, incline towards’ by Malzahn 2010: 806. This assumption can now be confirmed by the text, because the notion of ripening, maturing is here expressed by derivatives of the root päk- ‘to cook, ripen’. On the other hand, the same phrase with cmela ‘births’ but another root with the meaning ‘to turn towards’ has to be read in b 2 as well; see below.
n4 Pace Sieg 1938: 8, Lévi’s reading tänmaṣṣeñca is certain, and there is no need to correct the text in order to get a causative form. tänmaṣṣeñca refers to an agent, lit. ‘reborner’.
n5 One has to read [ai]wästrä ‘turns towards’; the semantically induced reading [yu]wästrä by Lévi and Sieg 1938: 9 is not warranted.
n7 solme is here (and also in PK AS 7C a1) used as an adjective (epithet of śaul) and shows the inflection of the type astare with an oblique singular masc. in -n.

Parallel texts

Mahākarmavibhaṅga §§ 20-22 (Lévi 1932: 47, 121) (line a1-a4); Mahākarmavibhaṅga §§ 30-32 (Lévi 1932: 50,123), §§ 27-28 (Lévi 1932: 48-49, 122) (after line a4)

Philological commentary

Until a4 the meter is 4 x 13 (5/8); afterwards 4 x 12 (5/7).
n1 The colon break falls in to the compound parinirmitavaśa-wartti borrowed from Skt. pari-nirmita-vaśa-vartin-, which refers to the highest class of gods of the realm of desire (Edgerton 1953: 319a; Bechert and Waldschmidt 1973: s.v. paranirmitavaśavartin-).
n6 The scribe forgot the akṣara ‹ke›.
n8 The form maitrajñā is a wrong re-sanskritization of a corrupted form of the proper name maitrayajña- or maitrāyajña-, which is itself an interpretation of a Middle Indic original, cf. Lévi 1933: 51, note 10. Pace Sieg 1938: 9, one cannot read and restore māträdṛṣṭā(ntne), which was based only on the correction of Lévi's edition without autopsy of the manuscript. One has here a colon of five syllables, the two last ones are clearly tane. It is then impossible to read the loc.pl. of the borrowing of Skt. dṛṣṭānta- "parable, comparison"; the remaining alternative is to restore dṛṣṭā(nt) as nom.sg. agreeing with the preceding demonstrative pronoun.

Remarks

Fragment PK AS 7C immediately follows this one.

References

other

Lévi 1933: 84-86, 99-100; Sieg 1938: 4-10; Couvreur 1949b: 77

Translations

Meunier 2013: b2 (181), b6 (177); Peyrot 2013b: a1 a2 (715), a2 a3 (715), a3 a4 (346), a4 a5 (660), a5 a6 (372), b2 (684, 689), b2 (684, 689), b4 b5 (684), b5 b6 (685); Schmidt 1974: a1 a2 (249), a3 (248), a5 (281), b2 b3 (130, 130 fn. 4, 443-4), b5 b6 (143, 444)

Bibliography

Bechert and Waldschmidt 1973

Bechert, Heinz, and Ernst Waldschmidt. 1973. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Couvreur 1949b

Couvreur, Walter. 1949b. “De Tochaarse Karmavibhaṅga en de Baraboedoer.” In Handelingen van het Achttiende Vlaamse Filologencongres, Gent, 19-21 April 1949, 74–80.

Edgerton 1953

Edgerton, Franklin. 1953. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Lévi 1932

Lévi, Sylvain. 1932. Mahākarmavibhaṅga (La grande classification des actes) et Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa (Discussion sur le Mahā Karmavibhaṅga). Paris: Leroux.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain. 1933. Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien». Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Malzahn 2010

Malzahn, Melanie. 2010. The Tocharian verbal system. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg 1938

Sieg, Emil. 1938. “Die Kutschischen Karmavibhaṅga-Texte der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 65: 1–54.