Caravan

Announcements

print

Work in progress

PK AS 8C

Known as:PK AS 8C; Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 8C; M 3
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot. "PK AS 8C". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-pkas8c (accessed 01 Dec. 2023).

Edition

Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot
Date of online publication:2014-02

Provenience

Main find spot:Subeši
Specific find spot:Ouest, grande enceinte
Expedition code:M 777.3
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Medicine/Magic
Verse/Prose:prose

Object

Manuscript:PK AS 8
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Size (h × w):7.4 × 34.7 cm
Number of lines:8 [recto], 7 [verso]
Interline spacing:Varies between 0.8 and 0.9 [recto] and 0.8 and 1.2 [verso] cm

Images

Images from gallica.bnf.fr by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.

Transliteration

a1na mo rū rū sya • na mo [u] – sya • mā da (–) rā ja sya • [t](·) ṣāṃ na ma· [k]· tv(·) i māṃ – dyāṃ pra yo j(·) mi • sā me vi dyā sa mṛ ddhya tu • (–) (·)ya thā • hā hā hi hi hu (·)ū [hi] li • hi li • mi li • mi l(·) (– – –) [d]u me • ve ga vā hi ṇī (– – – – – –)
a2[ṇi] ca ṇḍā l· – [v]e tā ḍi – – – ka rī • mā yu rī • ya śa ka ri ṇī • śa ṅkha ve ga vā hi ṇī • vi ma la pā tra ne tri ke • pra ti krā nta ḥ ve tā ḍi • ci tra ke tu • pra bha [sva] re • gho rī ga ndhu ri • ca ṇḍā [l]· – da ṅgi ccha rja ni • gho ra cā y(·) (– – – – –)
a3ve ga – hi ṇī • vi – ·[i] trā ya svā ha • mā da ṅga ku la vaṃ śā ya svā ha • tṛ śa ṅgā ya svā ha • si ddhā ya pra si ddhā ya svā ha • mā da ṅga ku la vaṃ śa sya si ddhya ntu ma ndra pa dā svā ha || mā la da ṇḍi ke ke ne kne pi ṅka le (– – –)
a4(–) nto • vi dyā dha re e nte sa pai yne e tswai pi ṅka lle • ○ su mā nṣeṃ wa rke nsa mā la da ṇḍi ka rske me ne || śtwa ra ta sa nma ne i te i te mo¯ ¯t yo kaiṃ ta ṣa lle • e plyu wai ya sa rne śa tka roṃ pā li ne ta ṣa llo na ka nte o[¯] [¯kt] su māṃ nṣeṃ wa
a5rke nsa ka rṣa ly· [s]e vi· ·e ṣle • a ra ñce mpreṃ au na ṣle wa ○ rke sa po e ka ññe sa ke ke nu ma ṇḍā lya ma ṣle • ku rka la tu ñe • vi ci tra pyā pyai ma ṇḍā lne ta ṣa le • te yä kne sa se sā dhaṃ sta rne || ña ke u pa ca rwe ñau ne || ke te ā· ·[e] ·[ā] [kaṃ]
a6lā nta mpa la rau [w]ñe y· mtsī • rā ja vṛ kṣä sta ma tse a rwā meṃ ko ṣkī ye ya ma ṣlya • śā ñca po ṣu¯ ¯kt lykwa rwa n[ä] ssai tya ma ṣlya • pū wa rne ho mya ma ṣlya • lā nte ri ta le pa rka lle ma ske tra 1 || kṣa tri ye mpa la rau ñe [y]ā mtsi ā ñme – kaṃ ne (–)
a7[lṣa] na a rwā¯ ¯ts ko ṣkī ye ya ma ṣlya • ṣa lype wai ku ñci¯ ¯t pū wa rne ho mya ma ṣle • kṣa tri ye¯ ¯ts lā re ma ske tra 1 || ke te no ā ñme wī au la reṃ e we ta ta rka tsi śa mña na wī kwrā s̝aṃ tai nai sa¯ ¯ñä ñe mtsa nä sai tya ma ṣle 7 t(·) (–) e rkau ne lyi nā l[l]e ·ai – (– –)
a8[ma] ske tra 3 || śā mñe yā [ṣe] ṣa¯ ¯t ya ma ṣle ṣka¯ ¯s pra roṃ • o¯ ¯kt pra roṃ wa¯ ¯t sa nä tse ñe mtsa nä ssai tya ma ṣle 7 sa na tse twe re ne lyi nā lle sāṃ na kṣ[tra] 4 || kwri no sa naṃ pa knā tra o sta meṃ lyu tsi • kuṣai meṃ wa tno • ya rta ṣe [śe] r (– –) nma ṣle • kwa (·)o (– –)
b1n[i] – twe re ne ly(·) n(·) ll(·) (–) tko lyi ño¯ ¯r ṣu kta ñce k(·) lyu ta ske nne 5 || ke te ā ñme tā kaṃ twe r(·) ru wye ntra pa rtā kta ññe pi tke sa ṣa rne [s](·) n[o] pa ll(·) • na ssai tyā mo ṣsa n(·) (–) rsa ka twe ri ru se ntra 6 || ke t(·) (–) (·)m(·) tā kaṃ (– – – –)
b2(–) llā tsi • e rke nma meṃ śe¯ ¯rk pra lle • ce¯ ¯wä śe rkwa meṃ we nte ya ma ṣle • ce¯ ¯w we nte sa ñu we ku nti śke ta ṣa le • to nā ya rsa śwā tsi yo ktsi e neṃ ta ṣa lle • tu meṃ ṣu¯ ¯kt nä ssai tya ma ṣle e nte pa lsko tsā ṅkaṃ ne o¯ ¯t śwā tsi –
b3(–) ka lpā s̝aṃ 7 || kwri no ā ñme tā kaṃ ne pū wa¯ ¯r sta ma tsi ku rpe le tā ne ā rwa nä ssai tya ma ṣlo na 7 pū wa¯ ¯r ka ltra 8 || sa nä te ki ññe yā mtsi ā ñme tā kaṃ ne ke wi ye me lte ṣe so ye ya m(·) (–)
b4nä ssai «†ṣa» tya ma ṣle 20-1 kha di rṣṣe śā mñe yā ṣṣe ○ wa¯ ¯t ṣa¯ ¯t so ye tse pra tsā kai ne tso pa lle • sāṃ o rau cce te ki yi nmā s̝aṃ 9 || ke te ā ñme tā kaṃ a nta rdhi ṣne ssi • sau vi rā ja¯ ¯nä śā mñe pi tke (– –)
b5[wä] ṣle • e śa ne e pi ṅkte pa rwā ne wa tno lu ṣpa le a te ra tsa yaṃ mā lkā ne ksa 10 || kwri ā ñme tā kaṃ ne śā mña kwrā ṣe we ñi • ke wi ye me lte ṣe ma ṇḍā¯ ¯l ya ma ṣle • ma ṇḍā lne pa lyi ye • yo
b6k·· – nta ta ṣa lo na • [k]· rka¯ ¯l ku nta¯ ¯rk tu [ñ]e • pya pyaiṃ ta ka śā mña kwrā ṣe ma lkwe rsa lyi kṣa lya • ma ṇḍā lne ta ṣa lya • vi jwe ṣle 20-1 c[e] ra tsa pre kaṃ ne po we s̝s̝aṃ 10-1 || kwri no ā ñme tā kaṃ ne ra ddhi sa ya tsi • wa¯ ¯r nä ssai tya ma ṣ[l]e
b7[i] [pr]e r[n]e pa rsnā lle [ra] ddh[i] [sa] yaṃ¯ ¯nä 10 2 || [wai] pe ce ka lā tsi ā ñme tā kaṃ ne to tka [wai] pe ce ssa mya ma ṣle ke ktse tsa pra lle wai pe ce ka lpā [s̝s̝aṃ] 10 2 || gau la su ne syā ñme (– –) ·[e] • e rke nta ya kwā meṃ ṣo [rpo] [r]a (– –)

Transcription

a1 namo rūrūsya • namo u(ṣtra)sya • māda(ṅga)rājasya • t(e)ṣāṃ nama(s)k(ṛ)tv(ā) imāṃ (vi)dyāṃ prayoj(e)mi • sā me vidyā samṛddhyatu • (tad) yathā • hā hā hi hi hu (h)ū hili • hili • mili • mil(i) – – (du)dume • vegavāhiṇī – – – – – –
a2 ṇi caṇḍāl(i) (•) vetāḍi (•) (mahā)karī • māyurī • yaśakariṇī • śaṅkhavegavāhiṇī • vimalapātranetrike • pratikrāntaḥ vetāḍi • citraketu • prabhasvare • ghorīgandhuri • caṇḍāl(i) (•) (mā)daṅgiccharjani • ghoracāy(i) – – – – –
a3 n1n2 vega(va)hiṇī • vi(śvam)itrāya svāha • mādaṅgakulavaṃśāya svāha • tṛśaṅgāya svāha • siddhāya prasiddhāya svāha • mādaṅgakulavaṃśasya siddhyantu mandrapadā svāha ॥ māladaṇḍike kenekne piṅkale – – –
a4 n3 (pā)nto • vidyādhare entesa paiyne etswai piṅkalle • sumānṣeṃ warkensa māladaṇḍi= kär«†s»k«s»em{e/a}ne ॥ śtwara tasanmane ite ite mot yokaiṃ taṣalle • eplyuwai yasarne śätkaroṃ pāline taṣallona känte okt sumāṃnṣeṃ wa-
a5 -rkensan4 kärṣaly(e) se vi(j) (w)eṣle • arañc empreṃ aunaṣle warkesa po ekaññesa kekenu maṇḍāl yamaṣle • kurkalä tuñe • viciträ pyāpyai maṇḍālne taṣale • te-yäknesa se sādhaṃ starne ॥ ñake upacar weñau-ne ॥ kete ā(ñm)e (t)ākaṃ
a6 lāntämpa larauwñe y(ā)mtsī • rājavṛkṣä stamatse arwāmeṃ koṣkīye yamaṣlya • śāñcapo ṣukt lykwarwa nässait yamaṣlya • pūwarne hom yamaṣlya • lānte ritale parkälle mäsketrä 1 ॥ kṣatriyempa larauñe yāmtsi āñme (tā)kaṃ-ne (śā)-
a7 -lṣanan5 arwāts koṣkīye yamaṣlya • ṣalype wai kuñcit pūwarne hom yamaṣle • kṣatriyets lāre mäsketrä {1/2} ॥ kete no āñme wī aulareṃ eweta tarkatsi śamñana wī kwrāṣäṃ tainaisäñ ñemtsa näsait yamaṣle 7 t(aka) erkaune lyinālle (t)ai (eweta)
a8 n6 mäsketrä 3 ॥ śāmñe =yāṣe ṣat yamaṣle ṣkas praroṃ • okt praroṃ wat sanätse ñemtsa nässait yamaṣle 7 sanatse twerene lyinālle sāṃ nakṣträ 4 ॥ kwri no sanaṃ päknāträ ostameṃ lyutsi • kuṣaimeṃ wat no • yartaṣe śer(k) (śa)nmaṣle • kwa(ts) o(laṅk)
b1 n7n8 ni(ṣke) twerene ly(i)n(ā)ll(e) (ṣa)t kolyi ñor ṣuktañce k(auṃ) lyutasken-ne 5 ॥ kete āñme tākaṃ twer(i) ruwyenträ partāktaññe pitkesa ṣarne s(o)nopäll(e) • nassait yāmoṣ san(āpo)rsa ka tweri rusenträ 6 ॥ ket(e) (āñ)m(e) tākaṃ (śwātsi) (yoktsi)
b2 n9 (kä)llātsi • erkenmameṃ śerk pralle • cew śerkwameṃ wente yamaṣle • cew wentesa ñuwe kuntiśke taṣale • ton āyarsa śwātsi yoktsi eneṃ taṣalle • tumeṃ ṣukt nässait yamaṣle ente palsko tsāṅkaṃ-ne ot śwātsi (yo)-
b3 -(ktsi)n10n11 kälpāṣäṃ 7 ॥ kwri no āñme tākaṃ-ne pūwar stamatsi kurpele tāne ārwa nässait yamaṣlona 7 pūwar kalträ 8 ॥ sanä«tse» tekiññe yāmtsi āñme tākaṃ-ne kewiye melteṣe soye yam(aṣle)
b4 nässait yamaṣle 20-1 khadirṣṣe śāmñe =yāṣṣe wat ṣat soyetse pratsākaine tsopalle • sāṃ oraucce teki yinmāṣäṃ 9 ॥ kete āñme tākaṃ antardhiṣ nessi • sauvirājan śāmñe pitke(mpa) (tri)-
b5 -wäṣlen11 • eśane epiṅkte pärwāne wat no lu«†ṣ»p«ṣ»ale ate ra tsa yaṃ mā lkā«ṃ»-ne ksa 10 ॥ kwri āñme tākaṃ-ne śāmña kwrāṣe weñi • kewiye melteṣe maṇḍāl yamaṣle • maṇḍālne palyiye • yo-
b6 -k(aiwe)nta taṣalona • k(u)rkal kuntark tuñe • pyapyaiṃ taka śāmña kwrāṣe malkwersa lyikṣalya • maṇḍālne taṣalya • vij weṣle 20-1 ce ra tsa prekäṃ-ne po weṣṣäṃ 10-1 ॥ kwri no āñme tākaṃ-ne raddhisa yatsi • war nässait yamaṣle
b7 n12 iprerne pärsnālle raddhisa yaṃn 10-2 ॥ waipece kälātsi āñme tākaṃ-ne totka waipece-ssam yamaṣle kektsetsa pralle waipece kälpāṣṣäṃ 10-{2/3} ॥ {g/ś}aulasu nesy āñme (tākaṃ-n)e • erkenta yakwāmeṃ ṣorpor«†ä» – –

Translation

a3 A Māladaṇḍikā [is] to be painted on cotton cloth ...
a4 [as] (he)lp. A Vidyādhara [= supernatural being] [is] to be painted closely under [her] feet, with circles of jasmines [= Skt. sumanā-] that bind the Māladaṇḍikā. In four containers one [should] put wine drinks up to the brim [lit. full full]. Leeches [have] to be put [as] swimming in blood in a boiler [= Skt. pāli-]. With circles of 108 jasmine [flowers]
a5 it [has] to be bound. This charm [has] to be spoken. It [has] to be started with determination [lit. straight to the heart]. With a circle a Maṇḍala [is] to be made provided with all sorts of wealth. One [should] put perfume of bdellium [and] a flower of Citrullus colocynthis [Skt. vicitra-]; in that way this [process] of it is a success. Now I will tell the practice of it: [If] one has the desire
a6 to make friendship with the king, one [has] to make a hut from branches of a Cassia fistula tree [= Skt. rājavṛkṣa, lit. ‘king’s tree’], one [has] to cast [lit. make] a spell seven times on Dalbergia sisu, one [has] to put [lit. make] it as an oblation into the fire, [and] one becomes worth to be searched for and asked by the king. 1. [If] one has the desire to make friendship with a noble warrior, one [has] to make a
a7 hut of branches of the Śāla tree. Oil [and] sesame [have] to be put [lit. made] as an oblation into the fire, [and] one becomes dear to the noble warriors. 2. But [if] one [has] the desire to let two companions getting into a fight, one [has] to cast [lit. make] a spell under the name of these two ones on two human skeletons 7 times. To be sure, one [has] to leave those [two] in a cemetery, [and] these two will get
a8 into a fight. 3. A splitter of human bones [has] to be made, six fingers or eight fingers [long], under the name of the enemy a spell [has] to be cast [lit. made] 7 times. It [has] to be left in the door of the enemy, [and] the enemy is destroyed. 4. But if one intends to chase an enemy from the house or from the village, one [has] to bind a rope of ... , a de(ar) [or] ch(eap)
b1 co(in) should be left in the door, [and] a splitter under a hoof, [and] on the seventh day they will make him leave. 5. [If] one has the desire: the doors should open!, one [has] to smear both hands with spittle of viper [Vipera russelli], one has to cast a spell on them [= the doors], [and] just by smearing the doors will open. 6. [If] one has the desire to obtain (food and drink)
b2 one should take rope out of cemeteries, from this rope one should make a covering, with this covering one should cover [lit. set] a new pot. In the manner of giving those [little pieces] one should put food [and] drink inside. Thereupon one cast [lit. make] a spell seven times. Whenever the thought arises to anyone, then
b3 he obtains food [and] (drink). 7. But If one [who] worries has the desire to make fire set [down], one [should] cast [lit. make] a spell on [branches] of tāne wood 7 [times], [and] the fire stands. 8. [If] one has the desire to do ill [lit. ill doing] to an enemy, a puppet [should] be made out of cow dung,
b4 a spell [has] to be cast [lit.] 21 [times], a piece of Acacia catechu or of human bones [is] to be poked into the breast of the puppet, [and] the enemy gets a severe illness. 9. [If] one has the desire to become invisible [Skt. antardhiṣ-], a salve of antimony [is] to be mixed with human spittle
b5 and it [has] to smeared between the eyes or between the eyebrows; wherever one goes, nobody sees him/her. 10. If one has the desire: A human skeleton should speak! a Maṇḍala [should] be made out of cow dung, in the Maṇḍala [one has to put] a [special] boiler, different kinds of hair [should be put into it],
b6 and also flowers of bdellium, Saccharum sara, [and] perfume; the human skeleton [has] to be washed with milk, [and] it [should] be put in the Maṇḍala. The charm [has] to be said 21 [times], [and] whatever one asks him, he will tell everything. 11. But if one has the desire to move in a supernatural way, one [has] to cast [lit. make] a spell over water [and]
b7 sprinkle [it] in the sky, [and] one goes in a supernatural way. 12. [If] one has the desire to obtain possession, one [should] make a small possession duplicate, one [should] carry [it] on the body, [and] one will obtain possession. 13. [If] (one has) the desire to be long-lived, one [has] (to weave) trousers out of black wool ...

Other

a5 Now I will state its use. (cf 102) (Peyrot 2013c: 657)
a8 Ein Stück Menschenknochen ist zu machen, sechs Finger oder acht Finger [breit], [und] unter dem Namen des Feindes 7[-mal] zu besprechen [und] an der Tür des Feindes fallen zu lassen: der Feind geht zugrunde. (Schmidt 1974: 128)
b1 Wer den Wunsch haben sollte: "Die Türen möchten sich öffnen", soll sich mit Kamelspeichel(?) die Hände einreiben [wtl. salben]. Schon durch das besprochene ... öffnen sich die Türen. (Schmidt 1974: 77)
b6 If his wish is to go by magic power, a spell [over] water [is] to be cast. (cf 103; 337) (Peyrot 2013c: 705)

Commentary

Linguistic commentary

There are some spelling mistakes (such as kärskemane for kärksemane in a4, luṣpalle for lupṣalle in b5), late/colloquial forms (degemination; nom.pl. in - instead of -ñ in a4 and b6; ce for kuce in b6) and even a hypercorrect form (oraucce for orocce in b4).
The mobile paradigm of sāṃ 'enemy', obl.sg. sanaṃ, gen.sg. sanantse was apparently blurred, cf. the coexistence of correct forms beside the analogical forms gen.sg. sanätse in a8 and probably b3.
n9 The text correction by Sieg 1955: 82 is not warranted. The reading is perfectly safe. One can analyze this sequence as fem. accusative plural toṃ as direct object of the verbal noun of ai- 'to give'. As for the form āyarsa itself, it can be a spelling mistake for āy〈o〉rsa or being based on an alternative abstract āyar* from an analogical PPt *āyau.
n10 The text correction tā 〈keṃ〉ne "on this earth" proposed by Sieg 1955: 82 does not give a better sense than accepting that a hapax tāne characterizes ārwa.
n11 tekiññe is rather an adjective referring to yāmtsi as verbal noun than an abstract.

Remarks

An almost complete leaf, damaged on all margins. The line distance is more regular on the recto side. The leaf immediately continues PK AS 8B. The ductus on the verso side is by the same hand, but not so diligently written.

Philological commentary

n1 According to Sieg 1955, māladaṇḍike is due to the following form starting with ke, and not an alternative form. The actual form māladaṇḍik from Skt. māladaṇḍikā- is kept in sandhi before k- in a4.
n2 palyiye the nom.sg. of the loc.sg. paline met already in a3, i.e. ultimately derives from Skt. pāli- 'pot, boiler'. If yokaiwenta referred to different kinds of drinks, one would expect some precision about the ingredients and the mixing process. In the following, the only liquid mentioned is milk that serves to wash the skeleton. Therefore, it seems preferable to see in yokaiwenta the individualizing plural of yok 'hair' and not of yoko 'drink'.
n3 mot yok is not a bahuvrihi compound but rather means 'wine drink'.
n4 tuñe: on the meaning 'perfume', see Ching 2010: 167–168 and Ching 2014a.
n5 This means one has make sure to bring them back to a cemetery and not keep them in inhabited places.
n6 The phrase kwats olaṅk recurs elsewhere (cf. THT 337: b3).
n7 partāktaññe pitke has been translated as "spittle of camel" by Schmidt 1974: 77 with question mark. Based on that a form *partākto 'camel' has entered the handbooks and variously been etymologized on that alleged meaning (cf. Blažek 2009). However, this meaning is by no means certain, and note that the word for camel in this region is actually Skt. uṣṭra-, cf. Niya Prakrit uṭa-. It is accordingly rather based on a Prakrit form corresponding to Skt. pṛdāku-; this noun can refer to two animals: a poisonous snake or a leopard (panthera pardus). It has been demonstrated that the snake name is due to the pattern of its skin. This use is already known from AV(P) onwards. The best candidate for an identification is the Russell's viper (Vipera russelli), which is well-known in the Asian fauna and is famous for producing much poison; see Lubotsky 2004b (with previous lit.). The base *partākto has obviously the o-suffix and derivation of the animal names ending in -o. In order to account for the -to-suffix one may assume a Prakrit *padākuḍa- with a commonplace suffix -ḍa- = Skt. -ṭa-. This was then wrongly Sanskritized as *pardākuta- and borrowed into Tocharian as *partākät + o-suffix.
n8 san(āpo)rsa is the perlative of the abstract sanāpor* based on the expected PPt sanāpau of sānāpā - 'to anoint'.
n12 Sieg 1955: 83 proposed to restore and correct ssam to nässait, but this is a highly unlikely misspelling. The form is rather the known adverb sām 'similar, like'; either we are dealing with a misspelling for sām, or, more likely, with a compound waipecce-sam (sic!) 'similar to possession, possession duplicate', because this would explain the short a and the geminate. śaulassu is certainly the calque of Skr. āyuṣmant- 'healthy, having vital power, long-lived' (and does not simply mean 'alive'). For ṣorpor 'trouser', see Pinault 2004a: 260.

References

other

Filliozat 1948

Translations

Peyrot 2013c: a5 (657), b6 (705); Schmidt 1974: a8 (128), b1 (77)

Bibliography

Blažek 2009

Blažek, Václav. 2009. “Tocharian ‘camel’.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 11: 39–42.

Ching 2010

Ching, Chao-jung. 2010. “Secular documents in Tocharian: Buddhist economy and society in the Kucha region.” PhD thesis, Paris: École Pratique des Hautes Études.

Ching 2014a

Ching, Chao-jung. 2014a. “Perfumes in Ancient Kucha: On the word tuñe attested in Kuchean monastic accounts.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 15: 39–52.

Filliozat 1948

Filliozat, Jean. 1948. Fragments de textes koutchéens de médecine et de magie. Texte, parallèles sanskrits et tibétains, traduction et glossaire. Paris: Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient Adrien-Maisonneuve.

Lubotsky 2004b

Lubotsky, Alexander. 2004b. “Vedic pṛ́dākusānu-.” Indo-Iranian Journal 47: 1–6.

Peyrot 2013c

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013c. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Pinault 2004a

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 2004a. “Zum Tocharischen in der Turfanforschung.” In Turfan Revisited — The First Century of Research into the Arts and Cultures of the Silk Road, edited by Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst and et al., 17:256–63. Monographien zur indischen Archäologie, Kunst und Philologie. Berlin: Reimer.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg 1955

Sieg, Emil. 1955. “Die medizinischen und tantrischen Texte der Pariser Sammlung in Tocharisch B.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 72: 63–83.