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PK AS 4A

Known as:PK AS 4A; Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 4A; S 4
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn (collaborator). "PK AS 4A". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-pkas4a (accessed 26 May 2024).

Edition

Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn (collaborator)
Date of online publication:2013-08

Provenience

Main find spot:Duldur-akur
Expedition code:M 500.6, M 500.7
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Add. linguistic characteristics:late
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānastotra
Passage:23b-28d [longer version] (= 18b-22d [shorter version])
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:verse
Meter:M18

Object

Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Size (h × w):7.5 × 43.4 cm
Number of lines:5
Interline spacing:1.6 cm

Images

Images from gallica.bnf.fr by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.

Transliteration

lf60 5
a1tse ṣe kñi tā ko¯ ¯yä (–) m[o] rne kreṃ ntyo l[ai](·) (– – –) pā la¯ ¯s̝[ä] ai śau myeṃ¯ ¯ts kre ntaṃ¯ ¯ts la reṃ e [ñ]c(·) (–) ¯r ya se kwī pe (–) śī lne au kṣu [l](·) [k](·) [ñ](·) p[e] l[ai] [kn](·) [n](·) (·)kū [i] (–)
a2ṣe kñī tā ko¯ ¯yä 20 3 śra ma ṇa vā rgä śpā lmeṃ ce pai yka lñe sa ka rso¯ ¯ymä ñi¯ ¯śä yo kai kle śo na no ca me¯ ¯l spā r (–) ssi e ṅka lñe ṣṣe [ai] se ne ka rso¯ ¯ymä nā k[i] :
a3ṣa mā ññe mpa e rai twe ci mpi ○ mpa lsko yā ta ssi ā streṃ yā mtsi • śī la ṣṣa na sa lyeṃ no prā kre ys[o] mo e ñcī ma¯ ¯r mā ā¯ ¯k kulo yta¯ ¯rñä 20 4 pa
a4ra mā rthä pe lai kne trai śai ṣe ntso ta rne ne a ṣāṃ ai tsi : mā rga vā rgṣe kauṃ śpā lmeṃ pai yka lyñe sa sta mo ysā «wa» «lke» «ytā» rye : te kyä kne sa śpā lmeṃ ñi¯ ¯śä ya [m]i¯ ¯[m] pā [k]ri [o] kta
a5tsai klyo mñai ytā ri : śtwā re mpre nma lkā tsi sa ai śa mñe ṣṣi ā strye śne po [ka] llo yeṃ 20 5 sa tkā ra vā rgä pai ykā mai po kre ntau naṃ¯ ¯ts [s]a (– –) ulā [bha] [sa] [tkā¯] [¯r]
b1ra ṣṣiṃ ye tse śī la ṣṣe ai śa mñe ṣṣeṃ mī sa po ka rsna[ṃ] lyka śke : tsi rau wñe ṣṣe k[au] ṣnā ya o mpa lsko ṣṣe mre stī we pa kaṃ yso mo • ma tre wse [r](·) (–) (·)[ṣā] klai tū sa [o](·) ṣa¯ ¯p
b2wī śi mñi¯ ¯śä ka llau ynā mñe • 20 6 pai yka lñe sa dro ha vā rgä a kā¯ ¯lk kñī [ta]¯ ¯rñä se rke ne po cme la ṣṣe : ma mā nta ṣra yo lai nne mā ñi t(·) k[o] y[ä] mā nta lyñ[e] kuse¯ ¯s̝
b3kre nta[ṃ] nne : kau ṣe ntai ra sa naṃ ○ ne mā we rśo no wṣi ñä nta ta rko¯ ¯ym[ä] tra ṅko : a knā tsai mpa ṣe śma lyñe mā ñī tā ko¯ ¯ī śa nmī ma¯ ¯r kre ntaṃ mpe ṣe
b420 7 po kre ntau naṃ¯ ¯ts śmo ññai ce pai yka lñe sa smṛ ti vā rgä a kā¯ ¯lk kñī [ta]¯ ¯rñä : ke ktse nne ykwe ṣṣī me [sa] pe lai [kn]eṃ nta po ka rso¯ ¯[y]mä ṣñā rṣo tri [s]a : kre¯ ¯nt
b5ā ksa lñe ṣe¯ ¯k ā(·) (·)o¯ ¯ymä ta rya śpā l(·)eṃ (·)au mye nta a raṃ śne ṅku : pa pā ṣṣo rñe ai śa m(·)e o mpa lsko ñe [m]ā ma rso¯ ¯y[m]ä s(·)ai mī ya ṣly[ñ]e : [20] [8] (–) [k]ī [rṇ](·)

Transcription

lf60-5
23b ; (eṃṣke)a1tsen1n2n3 ; ṣek ñi tākoy ; (yā)morne ; kreṃnt yolai(ṃ) (wat) (:)
23c(pa)pālaṣ «cau» ; aiśaumyeṃts ; krentaṃts lareṃ ; eñc(īma)r ; yase kwīpe (:)
23dśīlne aukṣu ; l(au)k(a)ñ(e) ; pelaikn(e)n(e) ; (y)kū-i(me) ; a2n4 ṣek ñī tākoy 20-3
24aśramaṇavārg«†ä» ; śpālmeṃ ce ; paiykalñesa ; karsoym ñiś ; yokai kleśo
24bnano camel ; spār(tä)ssi ; eṅkalñeṣṣe ; aisene ; karsoym nāki :
24ca3ṣamāññempa ; eraitwe ; cimpim palsko ; yātässi ; āstreṃ yāmtsi
24dśīlaṣṣana ; sälyeṃno ; prākre ysomo ; eñcīmar ; āk kuloytär-ñ 20-4
25apaa4ramārthä ; pelaikne ; trai śaiṣentso ; tarnene ; aṣāṃ aitsi :
25bmārgavārgṣe ; kauṃ śpālmeṃ ; paiykalyñesa ; stamoy ; walke ytārye :
25cte-k yäknesa ; śpālmeṃ ñiś ; yamim pākri ; oktaa5tsain5 ; klyomñai ytāri :
25dśtwār= emprenma ; lkātsisa ; aiśamñeṣṣi ; āstry eśne ; po källoyeṃ 20-5
26asatkāravārg«†ä» ; paiykāmai ; po krentaunaṃts ; sa(naṃ) (ce)u ; lābhasatkār
26bb1räṣṣiṃ yetse ; śīlaṣṣe ; aiśamñeṣṣeṃ ; mīsa po ; karsnaṃ lykaśke :
26ctsirauwñeṣṣe ; kauṣn āya ; ompalskoṣṣe ; mrestīwe ; pakṣäṃ ysomo
26dmatre-wse r(amt) ; (ar)ṣāklai ; tūsa o(ṃ)ṣap ; b2n6 wīśim ñiś ; kallau ynāmñe • 20-6
27apaiykalñesa ; drohavārg«†ä» ; akālk kñītär-ñ ; serkene ; po cmelaṣṣe :
27bmamāntaṣ ra ; yolainne ; ñi t(ā)koy«†ä» ; māntalyñe ; kuse b3krentäṃnne :
27ckauṣentai ra ; sanaṃne ; wer śono ; wṣi-ñä nta ; tarkoym traṅko :
27daknātsaimpa ; ṣe śmalyñe ; ñī tākoī ; śänmīmar ; krentäṃmp= eṣe b420-7
28apo krentaunaṃts ; śmoññai ce ; paiykalñesa ; smṛtivārg«†ä» ; akālk kñītär-ñ :
28bkektsenne ykweṣṣ ; īmesa ; pelaikneṃnta ; po karsoym ; ṣñār ṣotrisa :
28ckrent b5n7 āksalñe ; ṣek ā(ks)oym ; tarya śpāl(m)eṃ ; (n)aumyenta ; araṃśn= eṅku :
28dpapāṣṣorñe ; aiśam(ñ)e ; ompalskoñe ; marsoym ; s(n)ai mīyaṣlyñe : 20-8
29a(pra)kīrṇ(a) (ka,vārg) ; 13σ

Translation

a1May I have (trust thorough)ly [and] always in the good (or) bad act. [23b] May I seize the shame [and] modesty [that is] the one praised by the wise ones [and that is] dear to the good ones. [23c] May I always have the consciousness grown in moral behavior [and]
a2directed at the Law for long. 23. Through the writing of this excellent Śramaṇavarga may I recognize the thirst as a torment (kleśa). [24a] Again may I recognize the blame in the cauldron consisting in the clinging to let turn the birth[cycle]. [24b]
a3In connection with monkhood may I be able to tame the spirit [and] to make it pure. [24c] May I seize firmly [and] completely the rules pertaining to moral behavior; may my zeal not recede. 24.
a4The Law as the supreme goal [is] worthy of being taken on the top of the three worlds. [25a] Through the writing of the excellent sun of the Mārgavarga may this path remain for a long time. [25b] In this way indeed may I make manifest the excellent eightfold
a5noble path. [25c] Through the seeing of the four truths may all obtain the pure eyes of wisdom. 25. I have written the Satkāravarga [understanding] this gain [and] pride (= Skt. lābha-satkāra-) as the e(nemy) of all the virtues. [26a]
b1He [= the enemy] tears out the skin of moral behavior [and] he cuts into small pieces the whole meat of wisdom. [26b] He breaks the bones of the energy [and] he cooks the marrow of meditation completely. [26c] Like the snake with sharp venom, even more than that,
b2may I avoid gain [and] pride. 26. Through the writing of the Drohavarga may my wish come true in the circle of all births. [27a] May I not feel anger towards an evil person, even an angry one, and even less
b3towards good people. [27b] Even towards a murderous enemy may hate [and] enmity not reside in me at all [and] may I abandon the sin. [27c] May I not have a meeting with an ignorant one [and] may I come together with good people.
b427 Through the writing of the Smṛtivarga, this foundation of all virtues, may my wish come true. [28a] By consciousness directed towards the body may I understand all qualities [= dharma], each by its own mark. [28b] May I always
b5awake the good awakening having seized in the heart the three excellent jewels. [28c] May I not forget the observance, the wisdom, the meditation, without making harm. 28 (I have written) the Prakīrṇakavarga ...

Other

a3Möchte ich die Richtlinien des sittlichen Verhaltens insgesamt fest erfassen; möchte mein Eifer nicht nachlassen! (Schmidt 1974: 103-4, 397)
a3+Das höchste [Ziel ist] das Gesetz, würdig [bzw. das Gesetz als das höchste [Ziel ist] würdig], von den drei Welten auf den Scheitel genommen zu werden [bzw. auf dem Scheitel getragen zu werden]. (Schmidt 1974: 365)
a4+Durch das Schreiben der vortrefflichen Mārgavarga-Sonne möge dieser Pfad lange bestehen! Auf ebendiese Weise möchte ich den achtgliedrigen edlen Pfad [als] besten offenbar machen! (Schmidt 1974: 349)
b2Durch das Schreiben des Drohavarga möge mir der Wunsch im Kreislauf aller Geburten in Erfüllung gehen: ... (Schmidt 1974: 102)
b3Mit einem Unwissenden möge mir nicht Zusammenkommen sein. Mit Guten möchte ich zusammenkommen! (Schmidt 1974: 473)
b4Durch das Schreiben des Smṛtivarga, dieser Grundlage aller Tugenden, möge mir der Wunsch in Erfüllung gehen: ... (Schmidt 1974: 102)

Commentary

Linguistic commentary

The text has some colloquial spellings: cimpim for cämpim in a3, araṃśne for arañcne in b5, and degemination in śaiṣentso (a4) and ompalskoñe (b5). Whether sälyeṃno in a3 shows colloquial monophthongization or is simply an error for sälyaiṃno is difficult to judge. Since the text is metrical, forms with o mobile (or even preserved -ä as in wṣi-ñä in b 3) are often used.
The text has interesting spellings of virāma position: sometimes one has double marking with virama stroke and dot (e.g., pāla[ä]\ in a 1); the chapter names xy-varga- > xy-vārgä borrowed from Sanskrit are never written with virama (even if the syllable is not counting metrically), which fits a more general writing habit also found in prose texts (cf. Malzahn 2012a). We also have virāma marking of the akālk-type with a small stroke between the la and the lower ka.
n1Judging by the spelling (which is confirmed by both parallel texts), ykū-ime can only be a compound, to be more precise a pseudo-bahuvrihi 'having the consciousness of arriving'; it seems to be based on Skt. nityaṃ dharmagatā smṛtiḥ "always reflecting upon the Law" (attested in Uv. 15.10d and 13d) by a literal transposition of °gata- 'arriving' with the PPt yku ‘gone'.

Parallel texts

IOL Toch 307, PK NS 27, PK NS 28, THT 313

Philological commentary

The meter is 4 x 18 (7/7/4).
n2The meter requires an additional syllable, which is the pronoun cau, judging from the parallel IOL Toch 307 b5. Note the different version śīlne ausu in the parallel.
n3Pace Lévi and Thomas, one has to read [l](·)[k](·)[ñ](·) based on an autopsy of the original.
n4Pace Lévi and Thomas, one has to read [ai]sene based on an autopsy of the original. Note the variant verb fom karstoym in the parallel texts PK NS 28 b 5 and IOL Toch 307 b 6. Actually, both verbs make acceptable sense, but one should note that karsoym is effectivley attested in the next pāda.
n5At the end of the line there seems to be not enough space for the expected double dots.
n6In ynāmñe the second ligatura shows some kind of anusvāra sign above the ña, but ynāmñeṃ makes no sense.
n7Pace Lévi and Thomas, one has to read miyaṣly(·)e : [28] (–)[k]ī[rṇ](·) based on an autopsy of the original. There are no traces of ä-dots over the ya in miyaṣly(ñ)e. The form (although from the kausativ paradim) preserves A-character (cf. Malzahn 2011).

Remarks

A complete leaf. It contains the Udānastotra in the longer version where the stanzas of the text proper are numbered 16 - 46 instead of 10 - 40.

References

Miscellaneous

Edition

Lévi 1933; Thomas 1966a: 168-171; Pinault 1990a

Translations

Schmidt 1974: a3 (103-4, 397), a3 a4 (365), a4 a5 (349), b2 (102), b3 (473), b4 (102)

Bibliography

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain. 1933. Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien». Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Malzahn 2011

Malzahn, Melanie. 2011. “Die tocharischen Präsens- und Konjunktivstämme auf suffixales -sk- und eine innertocharische Vokalschwächungsregel.” In Indogermanistik und Linguistik im Dialog. Akten der 13. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft vom 21. Bis 27. September 2008 in Salzburg, edited by Thomas Krisch, Thomas Lindner, Michael Crombach, and Stefan Niederreiter, 361–66. Wiesbaden: Reichert.

Malzahn 2012a

Malzahn, Melanie. 2012a. “Now you see it, now you don’t — Bewegliches –o in Tocharisch B.” In Linguistic developments along the Silk Road: Archaism and Innovation in Tocharian, edited by Olav Hackstein and Ronald I. Kim, 834:33–82. Sitzungsberichte der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse. Wien: Verlag der ÖAW.

Pinault 1990a

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 1990a. “Compléments à l’Udānālaṅkāra et à l’Udānastotra en koutchéen.” In Documents et archives provenant de l’Asie Centrale. Actes du Colloque Franco-Japonais, Kyoto, 4–8 octobre 1988, edited by Akira Haneda, 51–69. Kyoto: Association Franco-Japonaise des Études Orientales.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” {PhD}, Universität Göttingen.

Thomas 1966a

Thomas, Werner. 1966a. “Tocharische Udānastotras der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 80: 163–81.