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IOL Toch 307

Known as:IOL Toch 307; St Ch.00316.b; St.1; S 3
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "IOL Toch 307". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-ioltoch307 (accessed 16 Jul. 2024).

Edition

Editor:Michaël Peyrot

Provenience

Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:British Library (London)

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānastotra
Passage:12a-18b [shorter version] (= 18a-24b [longer version])
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:verse

Object

Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Number of lines:6

Images

Images from idp.bl.uk by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project and the British Library.

Transliteration

a1·[n]· ·[k]· – ñ[ä]¯ ¯ś[ä] ṣ[e] [k]t[ā] k[o]¯ ¯ymä po kre ntau na śca : e kwa la tte tsi rau ñe nau ta ssi – (– –) – [mñ]e nā [sa] – rñai : pri ya vā rgsa la rau ñe śau lke ktse [nn]·
a2– [ṣ]k· ra [cä] mpi¯ ¯m mu ṣsi kuse ce kwa rñai la kle ste tu ntse ṣa rmpo e ṅka lyñe te ṣe kka rso[¯] [¯]y[m] [•] – [2] ma hū rra mno śā sa ntse śi la vā rgṣe nau mye ce pai yka
a3[l]· [ñe] [s]a : śau ltsa au ṣa¯ ¯p ○ pa ṣṣī ma¯ ¯r śī la ṣṣa na sa lyai no po yke po staṃ : ṣu kyä kne sa śau¯ ¯l śī lo wä tkau ra no po yśi nmeṃ mā ce¯ ¯u
a4(–) – [¯][ym]ä : śa¯ ¯k ka rma ṣṣai ytā ○ ri tā¯ ¯u pa ṣṣi ma rñi¯ ¯ś kā rpa ṣṣi¯ ¯m a lye ṅkaṃ nne : 10 3 su ca ri ta vā¯ ¯rgä śpā lmeṃ pai yka lyñe sa tā ko
a5·mñ·¯ ¯ś[ä] tu kne stmau wo : ke ktse ñre ki pa lsko sa ṣe¯ ¯k wlā wo yma¯ ¯r a nai śai du śca ri tmeṃ : snai mī yä ṣlñe ṣe ktā ko¯ ¯ymä ke ktse ñre ki pa lsko sa po wn[o]
a6[l]·· [nn]· : rṣā keṃ tslā nte śe śśa rso¯ ¯s̝ yä nmo ymī ke ke ke so¯ ¯s̝ cwī la re mpa : 10 4 pai yka lñe sa vā ca vā¯ ¯rgä wai yke re ki ma nta nta la ññi¯ ¯ñä ·[o]
b1[y]nm·[ṃ] – [ku]ce sa ṣa ña ñmä ka rsto yma¯ ¯r a lye ke pi ka lo ymwa¯ ¯t mī yä s̝s̝a lyñe : ma mā nta s̝pa pa lsko sa mā ñi śre ki we ñi mnta kre ntaṃ tsmā rta¯ ¯s̝ : [wai]
b2[y]k· re ki s̝a rma meṃ kuse te te mo ṣnrai nta ne cai tsa lpo ntra : 10 5 ka rma vā rgä pai ykā mai ṣa rmo ko ne i ma su ṣe kñī śtā ko¯ ¯ymä : lyka śke ra no to (–)
b3[ra] [y]ā mo rntso ko mā na kta¯ ¯r ○ te ṣe kka rso ymä : po cme la ne po pre śyaṃ yā mo rnta meṃ yo lai na klau tko yñä pa lsko : eṃ ṣke a lye¯ ¯k ś·
b4·[e] ·[e] yā mo rso lpo mā ne ○ saṃ ka rsoṃ wno lymi : 10 6 śra ddha vā rgṣe nau mye sa ka llo¯ ¯ymä o ko ne mce kce po cme la ne : pe rā ka ññe
b5– [y]y[ā] [t]sts[e] ṣe kñi tā ko¯ ¯yä yā mo rne kreṃ¯ ¯nt yo laiṃ wa¯ ¯t : pa pā la¯ ¯s̝ cau ai śau myeṃ¯ ¯t[s] [kr]e ntaṃ¯ ¯ts la reṃ e ñcī ma¯ ¯r ya se kwī pe : śī lne au [s]u
b6··[ṃ] ·[e] ·e ·e lai kne y[k]ū i [m]e ṣe [k]ñī tā ko¯ ¯[y]ä 10 7 śra ma ṇa vā rgä śp[ā] l·eṃ ce ·ai – [l]y[ñ]e [sa] ka rs·o ymä ñi¯ ¯ś yo kai kle śo : na no ca me¯ ¯l [s]·ā

Transcription

12a a1n1n2n3n4 ; (s)n(ai-y)k(orñe) ñäś ; ṣek tākoym ; po krentaunaścä :
12bekwalatte;-tsirauñe ; nautässi – ; – – – mñen= ; āsa (wa)rñai :
12cpriyavārgsa ; larauñe ; śaul kektsenn(e) ; a2n5 (ynau)ṣk(a) ra ; cämpim muṣsi
12dkuse ce-k warñai ; lakle ste ; tuntse ṣarm po ; eṅkalyñe ; te ṣek karsoym • (10-)2
13amahūr ram no ; śāsantse ; śilavārgṣe ; naumye ce ; paiykaa3l(y)ñesan6 :
13bśaultsa auṣap ; paṣṣīmar ; śīlaṣṣana ; sälyaino ; po yke postäṃ :
13cṣuk-yäknesa ; śaul-śīlo ; wätkau rano ; poyśinmeṃ ; ceu a4 (tarko)ym :
13dśak-karmaṣṣai ; ytāri u ; paṣṣimar ñiś ; kārpäṣṣim ; alyeṅkäṃnne : 10-3
14asucarita;vārg śpālmeṃ ; paiykalyñesa ; tākoa5(y)mn7n8 ñ(i)ś ; tu-kne stmauwo :
14bkektseñ reki ; palskosa ; ṣek wlāwoymar ; anaiśai ; duścaritmeṃ :
14csnai mīyäṣlñe ; ṣek tākoym ; kektseñ reki ; palskosa ; po wnoa6l(me)nn(e)n9n10 :
14drṣākeṃts lānte ; śeśśarsoṣ ; yänmoym īke ; kekesoṣ ; cwī larempa : 10-4
15apaiykalñesa ; vācavārg ; waiyke reki ; mantanta ; läññi-ñ (k)ob1ynm(e)ṃ (:)
15bkucesa ṣañ-añmä ; karstoymar ; alyekepi ; kaloym wat ; mīyäṣṣälyñe :
15cmamāntaṣ «ṣ»pä ; palskosa ; ñiś reki ; weñim nta ; krentaṃts m= ārtaṣ :
15dwaib2yk(e) reki ; ṣärmameṃ ; kuse tetemoṣ ; nraintane ; cai tsälponträ : 10-5
16akarmavārgä ; paiykāmai ; ṣarm okone ; imasu ; ṣek ñīś tākoym :
16blykaśke rano ; to(tka) b3n11 ra ; yāmornts= oko ; nakṣtär ; te ṣek karsoymä :
16cpo cmelane ; po preśyaṃ ; yāmorntameṃ ; yolaina ; klautkoy-ñä palsko :
16deṃṣke alyek ; ś(ai)b4(ṣṣ)e(n)en12 ; yāmors= olpo ; nesäṃ ; karsoṃ wnolymi : 10-6
17aśraddhavārgṣe ; naumyesa ; källoym oko ; nemcek ce ; po cmelane :
17bperākäññe ; b5n13 (mai)yyātstse ; ṣek ñi tākoy ; yāmorne ; kreṃnt yolaiṃ wat :
17cpapālaṣ cau ; aiśaumyeṃts ; krentaṃts lareṃ ; eñcīmar ; yase kwīpe :
17dśīlne ausu ; b6n14n15n16n17 (e)ṃ(ṣk)e(ts)e ; (p)elaikne ; ykū-ime ; ṣek ñī tākoy 10-7
18aśramaṇavārgä ; śpāl(m)eṃ ce ; (p)ai(ka)lyñesa ; kars(t)oym«†ä» ñiś ; yokai kleśo :
18bnano camel ; s(p)ā (rtässi) ; 11σ

Translation

a1... may I always be without negligence towards all virtues, having indefatigable energy in order to destroy ...!
a1+May I through the Priyavarga be able to remove the love for the life [and] the body forever!
a212.
a2What[ever] little sorrow [it] is, its cause [is] all clinging. May I always know this!
a2+May I through the writing of this jewel of a Śīlavarga, [which is] like a diadem of instruction, observe more than [my own] life all rules of good conduct, one by one.
a3+May I not let go the sevenfold conduct of life, even [when] separated from the Omniscient!
a413.
a4May I observe the way of the ten actions; may I make [it] descend onto others.
a4+May I through the writing of the excellent Sucaritavarga be standing on precisley that.
a5May I with body, speech [and] mind always refrain carefully from bad conduct!
a5+May I always be without harm towards all beings with body, speech [and] mind!
a614.
a6May I reach the place of extinction that has been made known by the king of the Ṛṣis together with someone dear to him!
a6+May through the writing of the Vācavarga never go out from my mouth untrue speech by which I might destroy myself or bring harm upon someone else.
b1And may I not with irritated mind say any word that [would] not [be] approved of by the good ones!
b1+May those who have been born in the hells because of untrue speech be redeemed!
b215.
b2I have written the Karmavarga – may I always be conscious of cause [and] effect!
b2+The fruit of an act, even a fine one, even a little one, does not disappear –
b3may I always know that! May my spirit in all births [and] in all times turn away from evil deeds!
b3+Even in the other world there is nothing more [important] than the deed –
b416.
b4may the beings know [it]! May I by the jewel of a Śraddhāvarga obtain this fruit for sure in all births:
b4+May I always have strong faith in the deed, good or bad.
b5May I seize the shame [and] modesty praised by the wise [and] dear to the good.
b617.
b6May I always have the consciousness [that is] (permanently?) dressed in good conduct [and] directed towards the law. May I through the writing of this excellent Śramaṇavarga destroy the passion of thirst! (May I recognise the fault in the cauldron of clinging to) turning the [cycle of] birth!

Other

a3Mehr als das [eigene] Leben möchte ich fortwährend die Richtlinien des sittlichen Verhaltens ganz bewahren. (Schmidt 1974: 405)
a5Mit Körper, Wort [und] Denken möchte ich mich stets sorgfältig von dem schlechten Wandel zurückhalten [wtl. beherrschen]. (Schmidt 1974: 307)
a6+Durch das Schreiben des Vācavarga möge mir niemals ein Lügenwort (aus) dem Munde herausgehen, durch das ich mich selbst zerstören oder einem anderen Schädigung bringen könnte. (Schmidt 1974: 313, 389-90)
b2+Den Karmavarga habe ich geschrieben [in dem Wunsche]: Der Ursache [und] Wirkung möchte ich stets eingedenk sein. [Mag] sie [scil. die Tat] auch klein [und] auch gering [sein], die Frucht der Tat geht nicht zugrunde, dies möchte ich immer erkennen. In allen Geburten, zu allen Zeiten möchte sich mein Denken von den bösen Taten abwenden. (Schmidt 1974: 452-3)

Commentary

Linguistic commentary

The diphthong ai is consistently written ‹aiy› before k: a2-3 paiykal(ñ)esa; a4 paiykalyñesa; a6 paiykalñesa; a6 waiyke; b1-2 waiyk(e); b2 paiykāmai. The only exception is b6 (p)elaikne. Remarkable is further the ly in b4 wnolymi. Virāma is lacking a couple of times; see the metrical analysis above.

Parallel texts

PK NS 28, PK AS 4A

Remarks

Lines a1-b6, i.e. the whole leaf, correspond to PK NS 28 a1-b5; lines b5-6 correspond to PK AS 4A a1-2.

Philological commentary

The text is written in a metre of 4x18 syllables, divided 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 4; each unit of 7 can be further subdivided into 4 + 3 syllables. This leaf comprises pādas 12a–18b. [a1] ¦ (s)n(ai)-(y)k(orñe) ñäś ṣek tākoym ¦ po krentaunaścä : [12a] ekwalatte-tsirauñe ¦ nautässi – – – – mñen= ¦ āsa (wa)rñai : [12b] priyavārgsa larauñe ¦ śaul kektsenn(e) [a2] (ynau)ṣk(a) ra ¦ cämpim muṣsi [12c] kuse cek warñai lakle ste ¦ tuntse ṣarm po eṅkalyñe ¦ te ṣek karsoym • (1)2 mahūr ram no śāsantse ¦ śilavārgṣe naumye ce ¦ paiyka [a3] l(y)ñesa : [13a] śaultsa auṣap paṣṣīmar ¦ śīlaṣṣana sälyaino ¦ po yke postäṃ : [13b] ṣuk-yäknesa śaul-śīlo ¦ wätkau rano poyśinmeṃ ¦ mā ceu [a4] (tarko)ym : [13c] śak-karmaṣṣai ytāri tāu ¦ paṣṣimar ñiś kārpäṣṣim ¦ alyeṅkäṃnne : 13 sucaritavārg śpālmeṃ ¦ paiykalyñesa tāko [a5] (y)m ñ(i)ś ¦ tukne stmauwo : [14a] kektseñ reki palskosa ¦ ṣek wlāwoymar anaiśai ¦ duścaritmeṃ : [14b] snai mīyäṣlñe ṣek tākoym ¦ kektseñ reki palskosa ¦ po wno [a6] l(me)nn(e) : [14c] rṣākeṃts lānte śeśśarsoṣ ¦ yänmoym īke kekesoṣ ¦ cwī larempa : 14 paiykalñesa vācavārg ¦ waiyke reki mantanta ¦ läññi-ñ (k)o [b1] ynm(e)ṃ (:) [15a] kucesa ṣañ-añmä karstoymar ¦ alyekepi kaloym wat ¦ mīyäṣṣälyñe : [15b] mamāntaṣ 〈ṣ〉pä palskosa ¦ mā ñiś reki weñim nta ¦ krentaṃts m= ārtaṣ : [15c] wai [b2] yk(e) reki ṣärmameṃ ¦ kuse tetemoṣ nraintane ¦ cai tsälponträ : 15 karmavārgä paiykāmai ¦ ṣarm okone imasu ¦ ṣek ñīś tākoym : [16a] lykaśke rano to(tka) [b3] ra ¦ yāmornts= oko mā nakṣtär ¦ te ṣek karsoymä : [16b] po cmelane po preśyaṃ ¦ yāmorntameṃ yolaina ¦ klautkoy-ñä palsko : [16c] eṃṣke alyek ś(ai) [b4] (ṣṣ)e(n)e ¦ yāmors= olpo mā nesäṃ ¦ karsoṃ wnolymi : 16 śraddhavārgṣe naumyesa ¦ källoym oko nemcek ce ¦ po cmelane : [17a] perākäññe [b5] (mai)yyātstse ¦ ṣek ñi tākoy yāmorne ¦ kreṃnt yolaiṃ wat : [17b] papālaṣ cau aiśaumyeṃts ¦ krentaṃts lareṃ eñcīmar ¦ yase kwīpe : [17c] śīlne ausu [b6] (e)ṃ(ṣk)e(ts)e ¦ (p)elaikne ykū ime ¦ ṣek ñī tākoy 17 śramaṇavārgä śpāl(m)eṃ ce ¦ (p)ai(ka)lyñesa kars(t)oym ñiś ¦ yokai kleśo : [18a] nano camel s(p)ā(rtässi) [18b] Virāma is lacking a couple of times. According to the metre, one has to read: 12a po krentaunaśc for po krentaunaścä; 15b ṣañ-añm for ṣañ-añmä; 16b karsoym for karsoymä; 16c klautkoy-ñ for klautkoy-ñä; 18a śramaṇavārg for śramaṇavārgä. In general, one can say that if an extra final syllable is metrically needed, it is mostly written ‹-o›, not ‹-ä› (13b sälyaino; 13c śīlo; 14a stmauwo; 18a kleśo). An exception is 16a karmavārgä. Not conforming to the internal 4+3 pattern of the 7-syllable unit is 14a sucaritavārg śpālmeṃ. On 17c see the text notes.
n1krentaunaśca: read with final a = ä instead of a because of the preceding ś (Peyrot 2008: 179-180). However, according to the metre one should read rather krentaunaśc\ (see below).
n2ñäś: this reading is the most likely, in spite of the fact that the manuscript has ñiś elsewhere.
n3ekwalatte-tsirauñe: a bahuvrīhi compound referring to the subject, the "I".
n4nautässi – – – – mñen= āsa (wa)rñai: Pinault and Malzahn (see PK NS 28) restore nautässi(ś yolo śā)mñen= āsa (wa)rñai 'in order to destroy (evil) in (human) [nature] beginning with the head'. This is possible, but needs the assumption that āsa stands for āssa, a later form of āṣtsa (Peyrot 2008: 73, 87).
n5(ynau)ṣk(a): this restoration, suggested by Pinault and Malzahn (see PK NS 28), is possible only if ynauṣkak, attested two times (PK NS 27 b3, THT 313 a1), stands for /ynáwṣkak/ (not for /ynawṣkə́k/). This in turn implies that ynauṣak, attested only once (PK AS 5B a1), is either a reading or a writing mistake for ynauṣkak, because there is no suffix to derive /ynáwṣkak/ from **/ynawṣə́k/.
n6śaul-śīlo: apparently a compound.
n7stmauwo: w seems a correction of some other akṣara, perhaps m.
n8wlāwoymar: literally 'may I control myself'.
n9īke kekesoṣ: literally 'extinct place', here without doubt 'place of extinction'.
n10kekesoṣ: the transcription of Peyrot 2007: №307 incorrectly has postäṃ instead (Ronald I. Kim, p.c.).
n11yolaina: misread as yolaine in Peyrot 2007: №307.
n12nesa: ne and sa seem to be corrections of other akṣaras; sa probably of ka.
n13(mai)yyātstse: PK NS 28 b3 reads eṃṣketstse instead. The reading in Peyrot 2007: №307 was not correct.
n14(e)ṃ(ṣk)e(ts)e: a reading laukañe v.s. as in PK AS 4A a1 can be excluded. If this reading is correct, the following (p)elaikne may have to be corrected into pelaiknene because of the metre (see directly below).
n15(p)elaikne ykū: certainly a calque, cf. Skt. dharmagata "auf den Dharma gerichtet" (Bechert and Waldschmidt 1973: II, 523b). According to the metre, (p)elaikne is to be corrected into pelaiknene (cf. PK AS 4A a1). However, if the reading (e)ṃ(ṣk)e(tsts)e (see above) is wrong, one could also consider taking the preceding syllable syntactically with this expression, e.g. (kr)e(nt p)elaikne 'the good law'.
n16kars(t)oym: for this reading, cf. PK NS 28 b5. Though illegible, a trace of the element below the ‹s› can be discerned.
n17yokai: missing in the transcription of Peyrot 2007: №307.

References

Online access

IDP: IOL Toch 307

Edition

Peyrot 2007: №307; Stein 1921; Broomhead 1962: 174-175; Lévi 1933: 58-59; Thomas 1966a: 166-168; Pinault 1990a: 60

Translations

Carling 2000: b3 (285); Hackstein 1995: a3 (174), a6 b1 (308), b1 (314), b5 (337); Krause 1952: b2 (29); Peyrot 2013b: a1 a2 (789); Pinault 1990a: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 (63-64); Schmidt 1974: a3 (405), a5 (307), a6 b1 (313, 389f), a6 b1 (313, 389-90), b2 b3 (452f), b2 b3 (452-3); Thomas 1957: a6 (156), b1 b2 (270 and n.1), b2 (154); Thomas 1958a: a3 (143); Thomas 1960a: a6 (198); Thomas 1966a: a1 a2 (166), a2 (166), a3 (166), a4 (167), a6 (167), b1 (167), b1 b2 (167), b2 b3 (167), b3 b4 (168); Thomas 1972: a5 (459), a5 (469), b2 (449); Thomas 1987: b1 b2 (180); Thomas 1997: b3 (141)

Bibliography

Bechert and Waldschmidt 1973

Bechert, Heinz, and Ernst Waldschmidt. 1973. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Broomhead 1962

Broomhead, J.W. 1962. “A textual edition of the British Hoernle, Stein and Weber Kuchean manuscripts. With transliteration, translation, grammatical commentary and vocabulary. I = Edition.” PhD, Cambridge: Trinity College.

Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

IDP

“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain. 1933. Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien». Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Peyrot 2007

Peyrot, Michaël. 2007. “An edition of the Tocharian fragments IOL Toch 1 – IOL Toch 822 in the India Office Library.” International Dunhuang Project. 2007. http://idp.bl.uk/database/oo_cat.a4d?shortref=Peyrot_2007.

Peyrot 2008

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008. Variation and change in Tocharian B. Vol. 15. Leiden Studies in Indo-European. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Pinault 1990a

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 1990a. “Compléments à l’Udānālaṅkāra et à l’Udānastotra en koutchéen.” In Documents et archives provenant de l’Asie Centrale. Actes du Colloque Franco-Japonais, Kyoto, 4–8 octobre 1988, edited by Akira Haneda, 51–69. Kyoto: Association Franco-Japonaise des Études Orientales.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD, Universität Göttingen.

Stein 1921

Stein, Marc A. 1921. Serindia. Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China. 5 vols. Oxford: Clarendon.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1958a

Thomas, Werner. 1958a. “Zum Ausdruck der Komparation beim tocharischen Adjektiv.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 75: 129–69.

Thomas 1960a

Thomas, Werner. 1960a. “Zur Verwendung des tocharischen Verbalsubstantivs auf -r im Perlativ.” In Indogermanica. Festschrift für Wolfgang Krause zum 65. Geburtstage am 18. September 1960, 194–203.

Thomas 1966a

Thomas, Werner. 1966a. “Tocharische Udānastotras der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 80: 163–81.

Thomas 1972

Thomas, Werner. 1972. “Zweigliedrige Wortverbindungen im Tocharischen.” Orbis 21: 429–70.

Thomas 1987

Thomas, Werner. 1987. “Ein neues Pātayantika-Fragment in Toch. B.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 1: 169–91.

Thomas 1997

Thomas, Werner. 1997. Interpretationsprobleme im Tocharischen. Unflektiertes A puk, B po “ganz, all, jeder”. Vol. 3. SbWGF, XXXV. Stuttgart: Steiner.