🔎︎

[Error: Requires JavaScript.]

Announcements

Work in progress

PK AS 7H

Known as:PK AS 7H; Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 7H; K 8
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn (collaborator); Michaël Peyrot (collaborator). "PK AS 7H". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-pkas7h (accessed 29 May 2024).

Edition

Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn (collaborator); Michaël Peyrot (collaborator)
Date of online publication:2012-02

Provenience

Main find spot:Duldur-akur
Expedition code:496
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Add. linguistic characteristics:archaic
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavibhaṅga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:verse
Meter:M25; M15

Object

Manuscript:Karmavibhaṅga β
Preceding fragment:PK AS 7G
Following fragment:PK AS 7I
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Size (h × w):8.2 × 37 cm
Number of lines:6
Interline spacing:1.3 cm

Images

Images from gallica.bnf.fr by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.

Transliteration

(continues from PK AS 7G)

lf30 8
a1(– – –) kn[ā] [tsa] (–) m(·) mtsa tri kseṃ du śśī la ñ[ñ]e (–) ma skeṃ : cme ntra kwr(·) yśā mna ka rpi ma ske ntra yu ṣe yndri nta yo lo we r(·) ce wyā mo rsa [ma] (– –) ///
a2pū dñä kte nts[e] we we ño s̝aṃ su ta rma meṃ sa lkā mai : ṣe sa ṣña ṣṣeṃ mpa po se ñye ki ta ya ma ṣa re ce po sta ka¯ ¯ścä pai yka tsi ñi ś[y]ā [tka] [wa] (– – –) [nt]yā m· (– –) ///
a3śpā l(·)eṃ ka llo yeṃ cai po pū dñä kti ○ tā koṃ s̝pa : kuce no te wñā wa yā mo rntso ko nta te meṃ ma nte kuce no we ñau tu ñke pklyau ṣso po ā [ñmtsa] [20] 4 [||] ///
a4kre nta yā ·o(·) (·)t(·) ṣṣ[ai] ytā ri n(·) ○ pa lsko ssu śau mo : yā mi spe ltke po ā ñmtsa ā ñme ke¯ ¯t tsa lpā tsi tā ko¯ ¯yä : śa le ce [cm]e l[n]e śle ka l[y]e ///
a5– – sk· [kus](·) ś(·) kkre nta yā mo rnta pa ṣṣe ñca ñä tā kaṃ : 1 mā nta lñe sa śa kkre nta yā mo rnta¯ ¯ts ṣpa rkaa lñe sa : śa kyo lai na yā mo rṣṣ[a] [na] [yt](·) (·)[i] ///
a6ś[ai] ṣṣeṃ ts[e] ne mce kpo ka re pma ske tra : pa rnā ñña na (– –) (·)(·)ṃ (–) ś(·)aṃ ts[t]ū sa spa rkā lñe we stra 2 kau ṣe nta ñkrui o no lmi mā ka [tne] au na ntra ·e – ///
b1ñyai a lyai kpa wno lmi : lyśī no mā ka krui tā kaṃ tu – – – – ñ· śa lā pa : ma ścī tsi s̝pa pe ṣe li śai ṣṣe ne ma ske ntra pā kri 3 ke tra yśe ///
b2t(·) (–) ṣa [r](·)(·) (·)a tā mo tau rtwe ye ma ske tra pā kri : snai pre ke ye nti tse ṅke ntra snai pre ke su waṃ s̝pa swe se : śä ktā lye nta o no lmeṃ [tspr]e ke ///
b3ka tā k[aṃ] (–) [n]o lmi tu ntse no ṣa ○ rmtsa : ko yna meṃ yo lo we re o no lme ntsau na stra wrā tsi : wa ṣe re ki no lā re ya ma ntra [tu] ntse o ko ///
b4nma s̝pa ko tai ñma ske ntra 5 ○ ści re re ki o no lmi mā ka krui au na ntra ne ssi : ka rwe ñi ya re ta rśka ñsa la ñce ma ske ntra [pā] kri : [re] ///
b5[k]ne rw[a] nta a tstse nta : ści ro nā tya ñtsa kā tstse kau mi s̝pa ma ske ntra pā kri 6 ke ta ra s̝a ññe wno lmi e ntse ṣṣi krui mā ka tā kaṃ : tu sa [st]ā [na] [śl]e (–) r[mna] ly ///
b6(– – –) no w(·)o(·) (·)i mā ka krui au na ntra ne(·) (·)i [:] ra ska ro na ma tro na stā na s̝pa ma ske ntra tū sa 7 a ṅkaiṃ pi lko no o no lmi t(·) ///

(continues on PK AS 7I)

Transcription

(continues from PK AS 7G)

lf30-8
23c(tane) (ṣemi) (ksa) ; (wnolmi) (mä)a1(skenträ) ; (śl=) (ā)knātsa(ññe) m(ai)mtsa trikseṃ ; duśśīläññe (ya)maskeṃ :
23dcmenträ kwr(i) yśāmna ; kärpi mäskenträ ; yuṣe-yndrinta yolo-wer(e) ; cew yāmorsa mä(skentär) (20-3)
24a/// ; ; a2n1 pūdñäktentse weweñoṣäṃ ; sutarmameṃ sälkāmai :
24bṣesa ṣñaṣṣeṃmpa ; po se ñy ekita ; yamaṣare ce postakäśc ; paiykatsi ñiś yātkawa (:)
24c(ce) (kre)nt yām(orsa) ; /// ; a3n2 śpāl(m)eṃ källoyeṃ cai ; po pūdñäkti tākoṃ ṣpä :
24dkuce no te wñāwa ; yāmornts= okonta ; temeṃ mante kuce no weñau ; tu ñke pklyauṣso po āñmtsa 20-4 ॥
1a(śak) a4 krenta yā(m)o(rn)t(a)ṣṣai ; ytārin(e) palskossu śaumo :
1byāmi speltke po āñmtsa ; āñme ket tsälpātsi tākoy :
1cśale ce cmelne śle-k alye(k) ; ///
1da5n3 – – sk· kus(e) ś(a)k krenta ; yāmornta paṣṣeñcañ«†ä» tākaṃ : 1
2amāntalñesa śak krenta ; yāmorntats ṣparkäṣälñesa :
2bśak yolaina yāmorṣṣana ; yt(ār)i(ntsa) (ṣpä) (yalñesa) (:)
2c– – – – a6n4 śaiṣṣeṃtse ; nemcek po karep mäsketrä :
2dpärnāññana (wäntarwa)ṃ(ts) ; ś(r)aṃts tūsa spärkālñe westrä 2
3akauṣentañ krui onolmi ; māka tne aunanträ ·e
3b/// (snai) (pe)b1ñyain5 alyaik ṣpä wnolmi :
3clyśī no māka krui tākaṃ ; tu – – – – ñ· śalāpä :
3dmaścītsi ṣpä peṣeli ; śaiṣṣene mäskenträ pākri 3
4aket ra yśe(lme) – – – ; ///
4bb2n6 t(untse) ṣar(mtsa) atāmo taur ; tweye mäsketrä pākri :
4csnai preke yenti tseṅkenträ ; snai preke suwaṃ ṣpä swese :
4dśäktālyenta onolmeṃts ; preke ///
5a(waikecci) (mā)b3ka tākaṃ ; (o)nolmi tuntse no ṣarmtsa :
5bkoynameṃ yolo were ; onolments aunasträ wrātsi :
5cwaṣe reki no lāre ; yamanträ tuntse oko(sa)
5d/// b4n7 nma ṣpä kotaiñ mäskenträ 5
6aścire reki onolmi ; māka krui aunanträ nessi : n8
6bkärweñi yare tarśkañ ; salañce mäskenträ pākri :
6cre(ki) /// b5n9n10 knerwanta atstsenta :
6dściron= ātyañ tsakātstse ; kaumi ṣpä mäskenträ pākri 6
7aketara ṣäññe wnolmi ; entseṣṣi krui māka tākaṃ :
7btusa stāna śle (sā)rmna ; ly· ///
7cb6n11 (māntalñecci) no w(n)o(lm)i ; māka krui aunanträ ne(ss)i :
7dräskarona matrona ; stāna ṣpä mäskenträ tūsa 7
8aaṅkaiṃ pilko no onolmi ; t(ākaṃ) (krui) (māka) (tusa)
8b(snai) (okonta) (mä) (nträ)

(continues on PK AS 7I)

Translation

(continues from PK AS 7G)

a1(There are some beings here,) (full of) ignorance, they err in their judgment [and] they show ill conduct. [23c] If they are reborn among humans, they are mean, of dull senses, [and] of bad smell because of such a deed. [23d] ...
a1+(Since) I have extracted (this lesson?) from the sūtras spoken by the Buddha lord, [24a] together with my relatives who all have supported me for this book, I have ordered to write [it], [24b]
a2+through this good deed, ... may they obtain the excellent (nirvāṇa)
a3and may they all become buddhas! [24c] Then what I have told about the fruits of the deed and likewise what I will tell from here onwards, listen (pl.) to it now with your whole self! [24d] (name of a meter)
a3+On the path of the (ten) good deeds the thoughtful man [1a] should make effort with his whole self, [if] he has the wish to be redeemed. [1b]
a4Likewise in this bir(th) as in the other (birth), ... [1c]
a5(these ones obtain the roots of merit?), who will be observing the ten good deeds. [1d] Through malice [and] through the dissolution of the ten good deeds [2a] and through the going on the paths of the ten bad deeds [2b], ... the whole damage of the world for sure comes about. [2c]
a6The dissolution is therefore said [to be] the removing of external (objects). [2d] If many beings [are] killers [and] they begin here to ... [3a] ... the other beings [are] also without splendor. [3b]
b1But if there are many thieves, (then there are hail, parrot), locust, [3c] mice, [and] worms [that] appear in the world. [3d] By whom also sexual misconduct [is] committed ... [4a] for that reason appear infertile soil, dust, [and] ashes. [4b]
b2Untimely winds arise and untimely rain, [4c] [and] the seeds of the beings (do not come up at the right) time. [4d]
b2+[If] many beings [are] (liars), for that reason then [5a] from the mouths of the beings a bad smell begins to smell. [5b]
b3But [if] they love slanderous speech, as a fruit of that [5c] ... (on the ground) appear (pebble)s and pits.
b4[5d] If many beings begin to be harsh-speaking, [6a] then rocks, gravel, potsherds, [and] salty soil appear. [6b]
b5[If] (the beings are idle talkers), there appear fissures (?), thickets, [6c] harsh grasses, thorny [bushwood], and (harsh) shoots. [6d] If many beings are greedy for someone else’ own, [7a] then the trees as well as the grains ... (become fruitless). [7b]
b6If many beings begin to be provided with malice, [7c] the trees become bitter and sharp because of that. [7d] (If many) beings (are) of false view, (then) [8a] (see PK AS 7I)

(continues on PK AS 7I)

Other

a1If they are [re]born among humans they are mean, [and] they are of dull senses and of bad smell by such deed. (cf 34) (Peyrot 2013b: 687)
a3What I have told as fruits of the deeds, that I will tell from here onwards likewise; listen to it with all your heart[s]! (cf 34–35) (Peyrot 2013b: 657)
a6+If many beings (are) killers, and they begin to … here …, [then] the other beings too, are … without splendour, but if there are many thieves, then (as a result thereof?) grasshopper[s], mice and worms appear in the world. (cf 36–37) (Peyrot 2013b: 687)
b2Zur Unzeit erheben sich die Winde, und zur Unzeit regnen die Regen. (Schmidt 1974: 73, 283)
b3Aber auf Grund davon beginnt ein übler Geruch aus dem Munde der Wesen zu riechen. (Schmidt 1974: 369)
b3[Wenn] sie aber verleumderische Reden lieben ... (Schmidt 1974: 433)
b3+(If) many beings are (liars), for this reason a bad smell begins to smell from the mouths of the beings, but if they love calumny, as a result of this … there are … and holes. (cf 38) (Peyrot 2013b: 688)
b4If many beings start being harsh-worded, stones, gravel (?), potsherds (?) and saline soil (?) appear. (cf 39) (Peyrot 2013b: 688)
b5+If many beings are greedy for the proper nature of somebody else, that is why trees and seeds … (appear with empty fruits?). If many beings start being (ill-disposed), the trees become bitter and sharp because of this. (Peyrot 2013b: 688)

Commentary

Linguistic commentary

As in other fragments of this manuscript, we meet some archaic spellings and forms: kärpi (a1, for kärpyi, verse form of kärpiyi, nom.pl. masc. of kärpiye), ṣäññe (b5); on the other hand, we have a progressive genitive plural ending in yāmorntats (a5) and the late variant of the relative pronoun se (a2, for kuse ). It is striking that this variant is attested precisely in the colophon, whereas the text proper always shows the classical form.
n1The plural form sutarma shows a simplification of the cluster rnm, which seems to be regular in classical language, cf. sutarma (B 33 b5, B 429 b3) and śastarma (B 110 b8, B 425 b1, B 428 b4, IOL Toch 543 a3). However, judging from the derivative sūtärnmāṣṣe in B 134 a2, the cluster was still present in archaic language.
n4Sieg 1938: 36 restored a form śaṃtsnasa on the basis of Lévi's reading; it was taken as a perlative of a loan word from Sanskrit śaṃsana-. But that would mean that the TB form is hybrid as such a syncope of a middle vowel cannot be taken for granted. But the reading [t]ūsa is certain based on an autopsy of the original, and it is preceded by a word ending in -ts. It is possible to read and restore ś(r)amts, a borrowing of Skt. śraṃsa- = sraṃsa- "perishing, destruction".
n9The adjective tsakātstse cannot be an epithet of kaumi, because it is apparently a singular form. It ought to be substantivized, to refer to a thorny landscape.

Parallel texts

Mahākarmavibhaṅga §§ 50-60 (Lévi 1932: 77-79, 141-142)

Philological commentary

The meter is 4 x 25 (5/5/8/7) until stanza 24 (a3), afterwards 4 x 15 (7/8 or 8/7).
n2At the end of the line the name of the next meter would be expected to stand between || ||, approximately seven akṣaras. The form pklyauṣso shows syncope due to metrical reasons.
n3One may consider a restoration (kälpā)sk(eṃ) at the beginning of pāda 1d.
n5Due to the Sanskrit parallel, we know that this is a list of calamities: aśani-śuka-śalabha-mūṣika-kīṭa- “hail, parrot, locust, mouse, worm”. The last two appear in the next pāda in plural forms, while the loan word śalāpä seems to be uninflected; since there is no virāma written, it looks like, again, a case of preservation of final in colon-final position. However, in the preceding lacuna there is space for four akṣaras, which are in fact needed for the restoration of still two terms. But this would make the pāda too long. In any case, the first word has to be tu(sa) or tu(meṃ).
n6The second colon of pāda 4c has one syllable to many. It remains possible to read ṣpä as the more progressive form ṣp or .
n7mna is the certainly the end of a plural noun referring to ‘gravel’, ‘pebble’ according to the Sanskrit text. The form had only two syllables. Since the fault is slander (Skt. piśuna-vacana-), the punishment also implies slanderous ground, i.e., slippery stones and pits. By contrast, the next fault concerning harsh speech (Skt. paruṣa-vacas-) causes harsh and rough ground, where it is painful to walk on. Therefore, the meaning ‘(pot)sherd’ for tarśke assumed by Sieg 1938: 39 is justified, even though it has no direct parallel in the Sanskrit original. At the beginning of the next pāda one may venture to restore re(ki käskaucañ tākaṃ ; wnolmi), because this fault refers to confused, senseless talk (Skt. saṃbhinna-pralāpa-). This restoration is based on the phraseology used elsewhere for the rendering of this fault, cf. TB käskau welñe and TA käsko weñlune (see Pinault 1999: 230).
n8nessi only makes sense here if we take ścire-reki as a (bahuvrīhi) compound.
n10The hapax nom.pl. knerwanta should designate something like some kind of cliff, fissure due to the Sanskrit parallel (Skt. kandara-). Here we deal with landscapes which are confusing, through which there is no clear path. In pada 7c (sā)rmna lit. ‘seeds’ used as a generic term for ‘grains’ is certain, cf. the similar list in the following leaf PK AS 7I a1 (sarmana taisāk ra stāna) and also in PK AS 6D a3 pyapyaiṃ stāna sārmna okonta “flowers, trees, seeds, fruits”. Note that there is no mention made of trees in the Sanskrit original but various species of grain and rice. Apparently, the Tocharian translator adapted this passage more freely than usual.
n11At the beginning of pāda 7c we can safely restore a possessive adjective from the abstract māntalñe matching TA māntlune, both known as equivalents of Skt. vyāpāda- ‘malice’, cf. Pinault 1999: 231.

Remarks

The fragment PK AS 7G immediately precedes this one, PK AS 7I follows.

References

other

Lévi 1933: 92-93, 103-104; Sieg 1938: 33-40

Translations

Meunier 2013: a2 (173), b3 (139), b4 (133); Peyrot 2013b: a1 (687), a3 (657), a6 b1 (687), b3 (820), b3 b4 (688), b4 (688), b5 b6 (688); Schmidt 1974: b2 (73, 283), b3 (369), b3 (433)

Bibliography

Lévi 1932

Lévi, Sylvain. 1932. Mahākarmavibhaṅga (La grande classification des actes) et Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa (Discussion sur le Mahā Karmavibhaṅga). Paris: Leroux.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain. 1933. Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien». Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Pinault 1999

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 1999. “Restitution du Maitreyasamiti-Nāṭaka en tokharien A: Bilan provisoire et recherches complémentaires sur l’acte XXVI.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 8: 189–240.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg 1938

Sieg, Emil. 1938. “Die Kutschischen Karmavibhaṅga-Texte der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 65: 1–54.