Announcements

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  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.

Work in progress

PK AS 7G

Known as:PK AS 7G; Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 7G; K 7
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot. "PK AS 7G". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-pkas7g (accessed 25 Feb. 2024).

Edition

Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot
Date of online publication:2012-02

Provenience

Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Expedition code:496
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavibhaṅga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:verse
Meter:M25

Object

Manuscript:Karmavibhaṅga β
Leaf number:30-7
Preceding fragment:PK AS 7F
Following fragment:PK AS 7H
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Size (h × w):8.2 × 37 cm
Number of lines:6
Interline spacing:1.3 cm

Images

Images from gallica.bnf.fr by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.

Transliteration

(continues from PK AS 7F)

a1(– – –) (·)(·)[u] pa(·) [sk](·) (–) 10 6 kuse no su wno lme ke tśau lna nau tau yā mo rnta no ykā kne saṃ nne mā wknau ta nne po ykne sa : kuse [ce] [y]a (–) (·)[o] lmi [nr]ai yta m[eṃ] lai taṃ nrai n(·) ///
a2yā mo rnta¯ ¯ts (–) ma ndra lwā sa meṃ pre te nmeṃ lai taṃ śā mnā meṃ wa tlai taṃ wte ntse ta nma ske ntra nano kyśā mna : ñä kte meṃ wa tno lai taṃ nano(·) [y]ñ(·) kteṃ ta nma ske ntra [c]e [nt]so no [lm] ///
a3(–) 7 [ṣ]e mi ksa wno lmi skwa sso ñcpa rwe ṣṣe (–) tā ka rmeṃ tū o mpo staṃ la kle sso ñcno ma ske ntra : nau s̝la kle so ñco tā kaṃ pa rwe ṣṣe tu meṃ po staṃ ṣe mi no ksa skwa ntse pā ke ma ske [nt](·) ///
a4mo rna n[au] tau [ka] [r]·· [n]· lle ce klau tke ○ sa śau lno ykā kmā na nau tau : 10 8 kuse no ce ywno lmi ke tśau lna nau tau yā mo rra no pe stna nau tau kuce klau tke sa ai śa (–) ///
a5(– – – –) s̝a tu meṃ no pe styā mo rśau ls̝pa a ra nme : nrai meṃ lai to ntra lwā sa ne wa tno pre t(·) nne wa¯ ¯t ta nma ske ntra e pe yña kteṃ y[ś]ā mna wa¯ ¯t ce yte yä kne ///
a6(·)[o](·) (– –) (·)l(·) śau lpa a ntpi tā kaṃ na nau ta¯ ¯s̝ : 10 9 ku(·)e [yä] (– –) (·)o [cai] wno lmyai śa lyi ke te yā mo¯ ¯r mā na nau tau ma ra no śau lna nau tau : kle [ś](·) (–) no ceṃ tsna (·)au tau wa [p]e (–) ///
b1(– –) [t]ā koṃ ka rsa lyi : sro tā pa nne pe sa kṛ dā g(·) (– – – – –) a rha nte wa¯ ¯t na nau tau wwa s̝kle śa nma : ce ntso no lmeṃ tsmā yā [mo] (–) nau tau mā (– –) [w]ka ///
b2(– –) [su] yā mo¯ ¯r i ñce wsa wno lmi cme nta rra no e tte ymai nne kre ñcno lkā tsi ma ske ntra : ta ka rṣkñe rṣe ñca ñe śnai sa¯ ¯ñä wī [na] [ṣ]m· re ye tse [ṣma] re e re ṣ ///
b3c(·) [yo] no [l]m(·) (–) ṅ[ka] ltsa tsa ṅko¯ ¯s̝ ○ du śśī lñe sa trī keṃ s̝pa rkeṃ e tte cme lne tma ske ntra : kre ñcno ma ske ntra lkā [tsi] ta [ṅwa] ññe e śa nai sa¯ ¯ñä sa kwai ṣṣe [ñca] [ñ] ///
b4i(·) (·)su no yā mo rma kce wsa wno lmi ○ e tte cme lne ta nma ske ntra lkā tsi yo lai nmä ske ntra : ści re ñke ktse ñtsa lkā tsi (–) mpe lyi pi lko pa lsko kra mseṃ ///
b5kaṃ¯ ¯ts ta ne ṣe mi ksa wno lmi ma ske ntra śco nai ypa rwe du śśī lñe sa yo lai nyā mo ryā mo s̝a : tū sa yo lai ñce yra tsa ma ske ntra lkā tsye mpe lyi ści re ke k(·)e ///
b6(– – – –) [mo] rma ·e – wno lmi e tte ymai nne te te mo s̝a yo lo we re ma ske ntra : mā wä tkā ltsa na yu ṣo na yndri nta ma ske nta rme snai ta ṅwa (–) s̝pa lk[ā] tsi ne (·)ai ///

(continues on PK AS 7H)

Transcription

(continues from PK AS 7F)

16d 20σ a1 – – (skwass)u ; pa(l)sk(osa) 10-6
17a kuse no su wnolme ; ket śaul nanautau ; yāmornta no ; ykāk nesaṃn-ne ; māwk nautan-ne ; po-yknesa :
17b kuse cey«†ä» (on)olmi ; nraiy«n»tameṃ laitaṃ ; nrain(e) /// ; a2n1 ; yāmorntats (:)
17c mand ra lwāsameṃ ; pretenmeṃ laitaṃ ; śāmnāmeṃ wat ; laitaṃ wtentse ; tänmaskenträ ; nänok yśāmna :
17d ñäkte«ṃ»meṃ wat no ; laitaṃ näno(k) yñ(a)kteṃ ; tänmaskentra ; cents onolm(eṃts) ; (yāmor) (mā) ; (nanautau) (:) a3n2 (10-)7
18b ṣemi ksa wnolmi ; skwassoñc pärweṣṣe ; (ta)tākarmeṃ ; ompostäṃ ; laklessoñc no ; mäskenträ :
18c nauṣ läklesoñco ; tākaṃ pärweṣṣe ; tumeṃ postäṃ ; ṣemi no ksa ; skwantse pāke ; mäskent(rä) (:)
18d (ceṃts) (no) (onolmeṃts) ; (yā)a4mor nanautau ; kär(sa)n(a)lle ; ce klautkesa ; śaul no ykāk mā ; nanautau : 10-8
19a kuse no cey wnolmi ; ket śaul nanautau ; yāmor rano ; pest nanautau ; kuce klautkesa ; aiśa(lyi) (:)
19b /// ; a5 – ; (tetemo)ṣä ; tumeṃ no pest ; yāmor śaul ṣpä ; aran-me :
19c nraimeṃ laitonträ ; lwāsane wat no ; pret(e)nne wat ; tänmaskenträ ; epe yñakteṃ ; yśāmna wat
19d cey te-yäkne(sa) ; – – – – – ; (ceṃts) (yā)a6(m)o(r) (ai,śal)l(e) śaul ṣpä ; antpi tākaṃ ; nanautaṣ : 10-9
20a ku(c)e yä(knesa) (n)o ; cai wnolmy aiśalyi ; kete yāmor ; mā nanautau ; ma rano śaul ; nanautau :
20b kleś(anma) no ceṃts ; na(n)autauwa pe(st) ; (tākaṃ) (te-yäk,nesa) (wnolmi) b1n3n4 ; (mäkte) tākoṃ ; kärsalyi :
20c srotāpann= epe ; sakṛdāg(āmi) ; (anāgāmi) ; arhante wat ; nanautauwwa ; kleśanma :
20d cents onolmeṃts mā ; yāmo(r) (na)nautau ; mā (rano) wkä ; (śaul) (nanautau) ; /// b2n5 (20)
21a (kuse) (no) su yāmor ; iñcewsa wnolmi ; cmentär rano ; ette ymainne ; kreñc no lkātsi ; mäskenträ :
21b takarṣkñ= erṣeñcañ ; eśnaisäñ wīna ; ṣm(a)re yetse ; ṣmare ere ; ṣ(mare) (pilko) ; – – –
21c (kuse) b3n6 c(e)y onolm(i) ; (e)ṅkältsa tsäṅkoṣ ; duśśīlñesa ; trīkeṃ ṣpärkeṃ ; ette cmelne ; tmaskenträ :
21d kreñc no mäskenträ ; lkātsi täṅwaññe ; eśanaisäñ ; sakw aiṣṣeñcañ ; ///
22a b4 i(nt)su no yāmor ; mäkcewsa wnolmi ; ette cmelne ; tänmaskenträ ; lkātsi yolain ; mäskenträ :
22b ścireñ kektseñtsa ; lkātsi (e)mpelyi ; pilko palsko ; kramseṃ – – ; – – – – ; (alye)b5ṅkäṃts
22c tane ṣemi ksa ; wnolmi mäskenträ ; śconai-yparwe ; duśśīlñesa ; yolain yāmor ; yāmoṣä :
22d tūsa yolaiñ cey ; ra tsa mäskenträ ; lkātsy empelyi ; ścire-kek(ts)e(ñ) ; ///
23a b6n7n8 (intsu) (no) (yā)mor ; mä(kc)e(wsa) wnolmi ; ette ymainne ; tetemoṣä ; yolo-were ; mäskenträ :
23b mā wätkāltsana ; yuṣona yndrinta ; mäskentär-me ; snai täṅwa(ñ) ṣpä ; lkātsine (c)ai ; (mäskenträ)
23c (tane) (ṣemi) (ksa) ; (wnolmi) (mä…) 17σ

(continues on PK AS 7H)

Translation

(continues from PK AS 7F)

a1 ... happy (neither with respect to the body nor) with respect to the mind. [16d] But which [is] the being whose life has disappeared, but whose deeds are still there [and] will not disappear for him in any way? [17a] But which [is] the being whose life has disappeared, but whose deeds are still there [and] will not disappear for him in any way? [17a] These [are] the beings who, [if] they fall out of the hells, (they will be reborn for a second time) in hell, (for them there is not yet the end) of the deeds. [17b] Likewise [if] they fall out of the [existence as] animals [and] of the [existence as] ghosts, or [if] they fall out of the [existence as] humans, they will a second time be reborn among humans. [17c] Or [if] they fall out of the [existence as] gods, they will be reborn again among gods. For these beings (the deed has not disappeared.)
a3 [17d] Some beings after having been happy first, afterwards they become full of suffering; [18b] [and] some [if] they are full of suffering firstly and before, following that they take part in happiness. [18c]
a3+ (Then for these beings) the deed has to be recognized as having disappeared by this behavior,
a4 but the life has not yet disappeared. [18d] But which [are] the beings whose life has disappeared [and] whose deed has completely disappeared too? By which behavior are they to be recognized? [19a]
a4+ ... having been (reborn),
a5 thereupon, however, their deed and life will cease completely. [19b] They fall out of hell and are reborn among the animals or among the ghosts or among the gods or among the humans. [19c] These (beings if acting) in such a manner ...
a5+ (for them) the deed and the life, both will be (recogniz)ed as having disappeared.
a6 [19d] But in which way are these beings to be recognized whose deed has not disappeared and [whose] life has not disappeared either, [20a] but their passions have disappeared completely?
a6+ (Those beings with such behavior,) how would they be recognized? [20b]
b1 The srotāpanna, or the sakṛdāgāmin, [or] the anāgāmin, or the arhat; the passions [of those] have disappeared. [20c] For these beings, however, the deed has not disappeared
b1+ nor (the life has ever disappeared), ...
b2 [20d] But which [is] the deed through which the beings, even [if] they are reborn in inferior existences, they become good to look at, [21a] evoking gracefulness, a pleasure for both eyes, having lovely skin, having a lovely form, having lovely (gaze) ...? [21b]
b2+ These beings (if they) err [and] go astray because of ill conduct caused by passion, are reborn in an inferior birth, [21c] but are good to look at, giving loveliness [and] happiness to both eyes, ... [21d]
b4 But which [is] the deed through which the beings are reborn in an inferior birth [and] are bad to look at, [22a] harsh with respect to the body, awful to look at, they disturb gaze [and] mind, ... of others? [22b]
b5 There are some beings here having done bad deeds because of their ill conduct that originates in hatred. [22c] Therefore they are indeed bad, awful to look at, having a harsh body. ... [22d]
b6 (But which) [is] the deed through which the beings having been reborn in inferior existences, are of bad smell, [23a] they have undistinguished [and] dull senses and (they are) unpleasant to look at? [23b] (There are some beings here ...)

(continues on PK AS 7H)

Other

a1+ Those beings, who, if they fall out of the hells, (are born) in hell [again], (have not yet reached the end?) of their deeds; just like that, if they fall from the animals [or] the ghosts, or if they fall from the humans, they are born again, for the second time, among humans; or if they fall from the gods, they are born again among gods, [and] the deed of these beings has not disappeared. (cf 29) (Peyrot 2013b: 687)
a3+ Some beings that have been happy first become sorrowful after that; but some, if they are happy first, become part of happiness after that; the deed of these beings, though, by this conduct is to be recognised as having disappeared, but [their] life as not yet having disappeared. (cf 29–30) (Peyrot 2013b: 689)
a5 Sie fallen aus der Hölle [und] werden bei den Tieren oder bei den Gespenstern [wieder]geboren oder bei den Göttern oder den Menschen. (Schmidt 1974: 112)
a5+ These … in that way, … deed and … life will both have disappeared. (cf 30) (Peyrot 2013b: 714)
b2 But what is the deed through which beings, even if they are born in lower states, become good to look at, … (cf 32) (Peyrot 2013b: 327)
b3 The beings that are born in a lower birth if they err [and] go astray because of their bad character that has come about because of their passion, however, are good to look at, and give love and happiness to the eyes … (cf 32) (Peyrot 2013b: 687)
b6 causing faith, [who become] a pleasure to the eyes, of fine skin, of fine appearance, of fine … (Peyrot 2013b: 327)

Commentary

Linguistic commentary

Like in the other fragments of this manuscript, there are some archaic spellings: śāmnāmeṃ (a2), antpi (a6 for āntpi, variant of antapi), ma (a6), ṣpärkeṃ (b3); and the archaic form pest (a5, a6); again, there are also o-mobile forms in pāda- or colon-final position with the exception of (tetemo)ṣa in a5, where it is colon-internally.
On the other hand, we also have progressive forms: gen.pl. in -ats in a2, tmaskenträ (b3) for tänmaskenträ with syncope metric causa, the conjunction ṣ instead of ṣpa´ (b1).
n3 The particle chain māwk+ ok has been altered by tmesis into mā (rano) wkä (b2) because rano requires second position. Consequently, due to the final -o of rano, the variant ok could not have been used because of vowel sandhi. wkä is simply the more archaic structure of the particle.
n5 . Pāda 20b has a series of bāhuvrihis in the Sanskrit original (snigdha-kāya-, snigdha-cchavi-), which are here, however, not transposed by real compounds but by phrases of adjective + substantive. But note that later due to metrical reasons we have a real compound in Tocharian: ścire-kektseñ ‘having a harsh body’ (b5) matching Skt. rūkṣa-kāya-. Actually, this compound is uninflected because the second member could not receive an adjectival suffix for metrical reasons. When the translator had five syllables at his disposal, he transposed the same Sanskrit compound by the phrase ścireñ kektseñtsa (b4).
n6 The form täṅkwaññe in 21d cannot be the adjective (pace Sieg 1938: 32) because a nominative plural masculine is expected. Therefore it is an abstract which is the direct object of the present participle aiṣṣeñcañ parallel to sakw.
n7 snai täṅwa(ñ) ought to be a compound of sorts because the corresponding phrase would be snai taṅw. It is clear that this form is used as an adjective in the nominative plural parallel to empelyi in b4 and b5. As noted by Sieg 1938: 33 it would be speculative to set up an a-stem adjective snai-täṅwa. Therefore it may be assumed that this nominative plural reflects the underlying nasal stem of the noun täṅkw, cf. the adjective täṅkwaññe and the denominative täṅkw-aññ-. But one may also consider that the preceding nom.pl. bahuvrīhi ścire-kektseñ played some role as a model. The pattern could actually have been the substantives: täṅkwaññe :: kektseñe vs. °kektseñ :: x, x = täṅkwañ.

Parallel texts

Mahākarmavibhaṅga §§ 40-42, 43bis, 49-50 (Lévi 1932: 71-74, 75, 77, 136-139, 141)

Remarks

The fragment PK AS 7F immediately precedes this one. Only one line (a4) has a string hole.

Philological commentary

n1 Note the un-Tocharian spelling mand for mant.
n2 The first pāda of stanza 18 containing the question has been omitted by mistake, no doubt due to the repetitive character of the text. It ought to match Skt. katamasya pudgalasya karma kṣīṇaṃ nāyuḥ “which is the being for which the deed has disappeared but not the life?”.
n4 Pāda 20c lists the four stages of religious development: Skt. srotāpanna ‘who has entered the stream’, sakṛdāgāmin ‘who is destined to return once’, anāgāmin ‘who is destined to return no more’, arhat ‘venerable’.
n8 Note the sandhi yuṣona yndrinta.

References

other

Lévi 1933: 91-92, 103; Sieg 1938: 28-33

Translations

Meunier 2013: a3 (150), b2 (171); Peyrot 2013b: a1 (687), a1 a2 a3 (687), a3 a4 (689), a5 a6 (714), b2 (327), b3 (687), b6 (327); Schmidt 1974: a5 (112)

Bibliography

Lévi 1932

Lévi, Sylvain. 1932. Mahākarmavibhaṅga (La grande classification des actes) et Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa (Discussion sur le Mahā Karmavibhaṅga). Paris: Leroux.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain. 1933. Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien». Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg 1938

Sieg, Emil. 1938. “Die Kutschischen Karmavibhaṅga-Texte der Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 65: 1–54.