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PK NS 36 and 20

Known as:PK NS 36 and 20; Pelliot Koutchéen Nouvelle Série 36; Pelliot Koutchéen Nouvelle Série 20
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn (collaborator). "PK NS 36 and 20". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-pkns36and20 (accessed 26 May 2024).


Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn (collaborator)
Date of online publication:2012-08


Main find spot:Duldur-akur
Expedition code:DA cour
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Araṇemijātaka
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):5.9 × 26.6-7 cm
Number of lines:5
Interline spacing:1 cm


Images from gallica.bnf.fr by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.


a1(–) ne ca ndra mu khe wa lo we s̝s̝aṃ au spa p[o] ks[e]¯ ¯ñä ma pi twe ne¯ ¯st || [ta] [ne] [a] (– – – – –) [w](·) lk(·) pa lsk(·) nt(·) ///
a2[wai] ke we ntsi • tu meṃ ca ndra mu kheṃ lā nta ś(·)e [s̝](·)[aṃ] (–) o ro ccu wa lo se ñi¯ ¯ś[ä] [a] (– – – –) wa lo ne sau || te ke kl(·)au ///
a3ṇe mi¯ ¯ñä lā nte pai ne yä ksau pa lwā (– –) ○ we s̝s̝aṃ ñä kte yo¯ ¯k sa s[w]a [ku]s[e] t[e] ta kā¯ ¯cä || de va da t[t]e ///
a4[ci] na ktsyā ñme : ke te wa t[n]o [l] (–) [ts]i ā ñme nrai ṣṣa na toṃ la kle nta sū ci klā te ñy[ā] tse ne [:] [kus]e nai ṅke ṣai ///
a5(–) (·)ai (– – – –) (·)ī [wä] (– –) [k](·)e [k](·)a a l(·)e [k]a ta¯ ¯ñä e [ṅ]sa te ya po¯ ¯yä : śa kko ṭa nma [re] t(·)e [ñ]i [s](·)e [ñ](·) ///
b1(– –) (·)[w]r(·) (·)[n](·)(·) n(·) – (·)k(·) – (– – –) k(·) ta [sn](·) [o] k(·) lkā sta¯ ¯r [ā] – – [2] [s]w(·) [s](·) ys(·) r(·) ṣṣ(·) sw(·) [sa] [s]k(·) [k](·) ///
b2[ā] nte yke po staṃ yā mma rp(·) [k](·) t[e] ntse ñi¯ ¯śä • yl[ai] ñä kte ra mno la re yo¯ ¯k sa swe • ta llā wra mno śe mñī·(·) ///
b3ka¯ ¯ñc śco ni ye mā sū ksa ne saṃ kuse ñi (–) ○ [m]ai yya sa cä mpa lle ṣai ce e [r](·)[a] t[ñ]e ne ka la tsi || a ptsa ra ///
b4[t]ā ke ntsa kuse ñī ta ñcī ci mpa mñe : ka ru [ṇ](·)(·) [ṣ](·) wa rka ltsa rī pa lsko ṣṣai yū [k](·) (– –) a kā lka ṣṣe re tke no we re t(·) ///
b5[a] ñma lā ṣl[ñ]e o ro tse sū ñi¯ ¯ś klā te ce y[k]e [ne] [:] [lkā] [sk]au ś[ai] ṣṣe [ta] llā n[t]o (– – –) ma¯ ¯s̝ kle śa nma¯ ¯śä – ///


a1n1 (ta)ne candramukhe walo weṣṣäṃ auspa pokse-ñ mapi twe nesttane a(raṇemi) (walo) w(a)lk(e) pälsk(o)nt(asa) ///
a2n2 waike wentsitumeṃ candramukheṃ lāntäś (w)eṣ(ṣ)äṃ (•) oroccu walo se ñiś a(raṇemi)walo nesaute kekl(y)au(ṣormeṃ) /// (ara)-
a3-ṇemiñn3 lānte paine yäksau pälwā(mane) weṣṣäṃ ñäkte-yok saswa kuse te takā-cdevadatte(ne) (॥)
1a/// a4 ci naktsy āñme :
1bkete wat no l(kā)tsi āñme ; nraiṣṣana toṃ läklenta ; ci klāte ñyātsene :
1dkuse nai ṅke ṣai (su) ; /// (1)
2aa5n4(n)ai (saswa) ; (ṣarm) (cw)ī wä(ntrentse) ; k(us)e k(s)a al(l)ek«†ä» tañ ; eṅsate yapoy :
2cśak koṭanma ret(k)e ñi s(t)e ; ñ· /// b1n5n6 ; (lakau) (k)wr(i) (y)n(eś)n(e)
2d(tär)k(au) (eṅkäl) – – k·t«†ä» ; sn(ai) ok(o) lkāstär ā – – 2
3asw(e)s(e) ys(a)r(a)ṣṣ(e) ; sw(ā)säsk(au) k(entsa) ; ///
3bb2 ānte yke-postäṃ ; yāmmar p(ā)k(e) tentse ñiś
3cylai-ñäkte ram no ; lare-yok saswe
3dtallāw ram no śem ñī (ypoyne) ; ///
b3-kañc śconiye ksa nesäṃ kuse ñi(ś) maiyyasa cämpalle ṣai ce er(k)atñene kalatsiaptsara(darśaṃne) (॥)
1b/// b4n7 kentsa ; kuse ñī tañcī cimpamñe :
1ckaruṇ(ä)ṣ(ṣe) warkṣältsa ; pälskoṣṣai yūk(āwa) (:)
1dakālkäṣṣe retke no ; were t(e) /// (1)
2bb5n8 añmalāṣlñe orotse ; ñiś klāte ce ykene :
2clkāskau śaiṣṣe tallānto ; (oś) (kakā)maṣ kleśanmaś
2d– ///


a1(Th)en king Candramukha speaks: “Indeed, tell me! [It] is you after all?” Then (king) Araṇemi after pondering for a long time (speaks to himself: “How shall this become now?)
a2(It is not my principle) to tell a lie.” Thereupon he speaks to king Candramukha: “O great king, I am the king A(raṇemi).”
a2+When he had heard this, (king Candramukha fell down from [his] lion-throne), grasped the feet of king Araṇemi and wai(ling) speaks:
a3“O divine lord, what has befallen you?” || (In) [the tune] devadatte ||
a3+one (whose) wish [it is] to ruin you, or whose wish [it is] to make [you] suffer the torments of hell, has brought you in this misery.
a4Who indeed was (this ignorant man?) 1.
a5(Do tell) (me) indeed(, o lord, the reason) for this matter! What other one has taken hold of your land? An army of ten myriads is at my disposal (... the life lived by me.)
b1(Wh)en (I see the enemy of the lord) face to face (I will release [my] passion,) (greetings or pity/mercy?, restrain?) will be seen fruitless. 2. A rain of blood I will let rain over the earth [and] (with a flood of missiles I will fill all corners of the world.)
b2(With dead people ...) the surface [of the earth?] (will be filled (?)), step by step. In this I will take part. Like Indra, the lord [is] looking lovely; but as a miserable one he came into my c(ountry, as such a one I leave [it] now, full of suffering.” 3. .... King Araṇemi speaks: “O great king, ....)
b2+After all, in this world there is no such hate that by [its] strength would be able to bring me into this anger.”
b3Thereupon he speaks: || In [the tune] aptsara(darśaṃ ||
b3+(“... let go [off] the hate, o great king. [There is nobody]) on this earth, who could restrain my power.
b4By the power of compassion I have vanquished the fortress of thought. And the army of wishing (has been turned by me) into a [mere] odour (...) 1.
b5(Grateful arrows have struck me painfully in my heart.) The great compassion has brought me to this place. I see the miserable world [that] has been (brought) under the control of the Kleśas.


a1Here king Candramukha says, «Truly, tell me! It is you, isn't it?» (cf 246) (Peyrot 2013b: 364)
a2How shall it be now? It is not my way to tell lies! (cf 246; 325) (Peyrot 2013b: 302)
a2+wurde .... von mir zum [bloßen] Geruch gemacht (Schmidt 1974: 230)
a4... einer, (dessen) Wunsch [es ist], dich zugrunde zu richten, oder dessen Wunsch [es ist], die höllischen Leiden zu erdulden, hat dich in [diese] Not gebracht. (Schmidt 1974: 393)
b1I will let rain a rain of weapons on the earth, and with a flood of weapons I will fill the cardinal directions. (cf 246; 325) (Peyrot 2013b: 670)
b2With [the bodies of the] dead the surface of the earth will be (covered?) bit by bit. I will take part in this (cf 246; 325) (Peyrot 2013b: 670)
b2Hieran will ich teilnehmen. (Schmidt 1974: 430)
b3There is no one in this world who could have brought me into this misfortune by [his] power. (Peyrot 2013b: 340)
b3+(Es gibt niemanden) auf dieser Erde, der mein Vermögen hemmen könnte: Mit der Kraft des Mitleids habe ich die Festung des Denkens bezwungen. Die Macht [wtl. das Heer] des Wunsches aber (ist so etwa von mir) zum [bloßen] Geruch (gemacht worden). (Schmidt 1974: 410-1)
b4Mit der Kraft des Mitleids habe ich die Festung des Denkens bezwungen. Die Macht [wtl. Heer] des Wunsches aber ist so etwa von mir zum [bloßen] Geruch gemacht worden. (Schmidt 1974: 263-4)
b4+wurde .... von mir zum [bloßen] Geruch gemacht (Schmidt 1974: 230)


Linguistic commentary

It seems that the Paris text has some more modernized morphological traits than the parallel Berlin manuscript THT 93 and THT 94; but note that THT 93 does have far more colloquial spellings:
n5The parallel THT 93 b 3 has krui yneśo instead of kwri yneśne, which is a more modernized version.
n7Note the colloquial spelling of cimpamñe for cämpamñe; otherwise this manuscript always has (even in the Ger. from the same root); there are no other colloquial forms (in contrast to the parallel THT 93, which has several colloquial spellings.)
n8Here we have a perl.pl. kleśanmaś, while in the parallel text THT 94 a 3 we have a gen.pl. kleśanmats; it is likely that the original construction with oś kāmā- had a depending genitive (i.e., depending on the noun ), and later oś kāmā- was reinterpreted as a phrase and lost its property to asign case.

Parallel texts

THT 93, THT 94, IOL Toch 69

Philological commentary

The first tune has 20|22|10|15 syllables (with the rhythm a=5/5/5/5, b=8/7/7, c=5/5, and d=8/7), the second 4 x 14 (7/7).
n1Note that the parallel THT 93 a 3 differs slightly by having nano instead of tane at the beginning of the sentence and, more interestingly, the imperative poñ "speak!" instead of pokse-ñ "tell me!".
n2The restoration (su) by Schmidt 2001: 324 is not warranted, because this anaphoric pronoun has no real function in this context; more likely is (ñem) "by the name".
n3Note that in the parallel THT 93 a 6 we have an introduction to the following direct speech (in verse): || tumeṃ weṣṣäṃ ||, which is somewhat redundant.
n4Instead of the usual restoration kontsa "days" (first proposed by Sieg/Siegling for the parallel THT 93 b 2), the different reading given above is now quite certain; we could fix the lacuna seen on the photograph given by Couvreur 1964: plate 3 by turning a misplaced piece of paper in the right direction on the original manuscript.
n6After the verb lkāstär the syntax requires the subject of the sentence, which should have tree syllables and start with ā; of the next two more damaged akṣaras the last one most likely resembles 〈haṃ〉, the first could be a 〈vva〉 or 〈wa〉. That would give us the Sanskrit word āvāhana- "invocation, invitation", i.e. āwāhaṃ. The complement of swese is not a derivative of tsain (as it has usually been read and restored on the basis of the attestation in the next line), but here one has to read ys(a)r(a)ṣṣ(e) "bloody".


The two fragments PK NS 36 and PK NS 20 can be joined neatly on line 1 of the recto and line 2 of the verso side; together they form approx. 2/3 of a leaf.



Couvreur 1964: 241-43; Couvreur 1955: 111; Schmidt 2001: 323-26


Meunier 2013: b2 (150); Peyrot 2013b: a1 (364), a2 (302), b1 (670), b2 (670), b3 (340), b4 (339); Schmidt 1974: a2 b4 (230), a4 (393), b2 (430), b3 b4 (410-1), b4 (263-4), b4 a2 (230)


Couvreur 1955

Couvreur, Walter. 1955. “Nieuwe Koetsjische fragmenten van de Bibliothèque Nationale te Parijs.” In Handelingen van het Eenentwintigste Vlaams Filologencongres, 110–16.

Couvreur 1964

Couvreur, Walter. 1964. “Nieuwe Koetsjische fragmenten van het Araṇemijātaka.” Orientalia Gandensia 1: 237–249 + I.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” {PhD}, Universität Göttingen.

Schmidt 2001

Schmidt, Klaus T. 2001. “Die westtocharische Version des Araṇemi-Jātakas in deutscher übersetzung.” In De Dunhuang à Istanbul. Hommage à James Russell Hamilton, edited by Louis Bazin and Peter Zieme, 299–327. Silk Road Studies 5. Turnhout: Brepols.