Work in progress

THT 94

Known as:THT 94; B 94; Bleistiftnummer 2326
Cite this page as:Melanie Malzahn. "THT 94". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 24 Apr. 2024).


Editor:Melanie Malzahn


Main find spot:Shorchuk
Expedition code:T III Š 93.13
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Araṇemijātaka
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Manuscript:Araṇemi α
Leaf number:40-5
Preceding fragment:THT 93
Following fragment:THT 95
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:6


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from THT 93)

a1sa ptā rka śco nai wro ccu wlo ///
a2te ra¯ ¯mt yā mṣa te¯ ¯ñä kra ///
a3śka ka ma¯ ¯s̝ kle śa nm[a][¯] [¯][ts] [p](·) ///
a4śle wi tsa kai pa¯ ¯stä nke ma ///
a5te me ñce e tte (–) lyñe ne ///
a6/// ṣke || a ///
b1/// cce pi l[k](·) ///
b2śpā lmeṃ tsai [ñ](·) (–) sa [p]ī ta ///
b3mai nta brā hma ṇeṃ kau tsi [wa] ///
b4mu khe wa lo a ra ṇe miṃ ///
b5pa la ntu ñña na yä rke [nta] ///
b6ka rtse ltu ṣa ñya po ///

(continues on THT 95)


(continues from THT 93)

1a a1n1 …sa ; ptārka śconai ; wroccu wlo
1b /// 14σ
1c 14σ
1d (akālkäṣṣe) ; (retke) (no) ; (were) a2n2 te ramt ; yāmṣate-ñ
2a krä(tājñeṣṣi) ; (preri) (cai) ; (aunar-ñ) (räskre) ; (arañcne)
2b (añmalāṣlñe) ; (orotstse) ; (sū) (ñiś) (klāte) ; (ce) (ykene)
2c (lkāskau) (śaiṣṣe) ; (tallānto) ; (o)a3ś kakamaṣ ; kleśanmats
p(ūdñäkte) /// (ṅke) (ñäś)
a4 śle witsakai päst nkema(r) ///
a5 temeñce ette (ya)lyñene ///
a6 n3n4 /// …ṣke ॥ a… ///
b1 /// (pärmaṅkä)cce pilk(osa) ///
b2 n5 śpālmeṃ tsaiñ(enta)sa pīta(ntse) ///
b3 mai nta brāhmaṇeṃ kautsi wa… /// (candra)-
b4 -mukhe walo araṇemiṃ ///
b5 ṣpä lantuññana yärkenta /// (a)-
b6 -pākärtse ltu ṣañ yapo(yne) ///

(continues on THT 95)


(continues from THT 93)

a1 ... let go off hate, great king! ...
a1+ (And the army of wishing into a [mere] odour) had been turned by me.
a2 Gra(teful arrows have struck me painfully in my heart. This great compassion has brought me to this place.
a2+ I see the miserable world [that]) has been brought under the control of the Kleśas.
a3 [As a] Bu(ddha) ...
a3+ (now) it will be (me) [who] will perish with the root.
a4 ...
a5 therefore in the (go)ing-downwards ...
a6 ...
b1 (with a hope)ful (?) glance ...
b2 with the most excellent ornam(ents) ... (of the) price (?) ...
b3 (by no) means I (intended??) to kill the Brahmin ...
b3+ king (Candra)mukha to (king) Araṇemi ...
b5 and ... royal distinctions ...
b5+ visible [for all (?)] he has gone away [and] (returned (?) to) his own land. ...

(continues on THT 95)


a2 Mit der Kraft des Mitleids habe ich die Festung des Denkens bezwungen. Die Macht [wtl. Heer] des Wunsches aber ist so etwa von mir zum [bloßen] Geruch gemacht worden. (Schmidt 1974: 263-4)
a2+ wurde .... von mir zum [bloßen] Geruch gemacht (Schmidt 1974: 230)
b4+ wurde .... von mir zum [bloßen] Geruch gemacht (Schmidt 1974: 230)


Parallel texts

m-ioltoch69, PK NS 36 and 20

Philological commentary

The restorations are based on the parallels. The translation basically follows Schmidt 2001: 324 and 326.
According to Schmidt, it is possible that the last words already belong to the end of the jātaka storyline. About 30 syllables are missing from there to the end of the line. They would easily hold the introduction of the end of the jātaka (about 20 syllables), missing from the beginning of THT 95. However, the possibility that there is a gap of one or even more leaves between this fragment and THT 95 cannot be rejected with certainty.
We have a meter of 4 x 14 (7/7) syllables.
n1 The proposal by Sieg/Siegling to restore (tu)sa is uncertian, the more since ptārka starts a new colon.
n2 Schmidt 2001: 325, fn. 142 argues that krätājñeṣṣi here means "rachsüchtig" (< "der (empfangenen Übel)taten eingedenk") instead of "grateful", which indeed seems to make more sense on first glance, but the fact remains that Skt. kṛtajña- has the positive meaning "grateful" < "mindful of former [good] deeds", and it highly unlikely that the Tocharians interpreted the form in the opposite sense.
n3 Schmidt 2001: 326 seems to restore a(raṇemi).
n4 Schmidt 2001: 326, fn. 147 proposes to restore (mā pkā)mai at the beginning of the line.
n5 Schmidt 2001: 326 seems to restore a genitive pīta(ntse) (with question mark) from pito "price", which is possible but uncertain.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Tamai 2011 C5
Tamai 2011 C14


Online access



Sieg and Siegling 1953: 31-32


Meunier 2013: b5 b6 (141); Peyrot 2013b: a4 (295); Schmidt 1974: a2 (263f), a2 (263-4), a2 + b4 (230), b4 + a2 (230); Schmidt 2001: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 (325-326); Sieg and Siegling 1983: a1 (248), a2 (248); Thomas 1968: a2 (203); Thomas 1993: a3 (192)



“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Schmidt 2001

Schmidt, Klaus T. 2001. “Die westtocharische Version des Araṇemi-Jātakas in deutscher Übersetzung.” In De Dunhuang à Istanbul. Hommage à James Russell Hamilton, edited by Louis Bazin and Peter Zieme, 299–327. Silk Road Studies 5. Turnhout: Brepols.

Sieg and Siegling 1953

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1953. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 2. Fragmente Nr. 71-633. Edited by Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Sieg and Siegling 1983

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1983. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. Edited by Werner Thomas. Neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Tamai 2011

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.

Thomas 1968

Thomas, Werner. 1968. “Zur Verwendung von toch. A oki/B ramt und A mäṃtne/B mäkte in Vergleichen.” Orbis 17: 198–231.

Thomas 1993

Thomas, Werner. 1993. Parallele Texte im Tocharischen und ihre Bewertung. Vol. 5. SbWGF. Stuttgart: Steiner.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”