• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.

Work in progress


Known as:PK AS 6A; Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 6A
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot. "PK AS 6A". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 25 Feb. 2024).


Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot
Date of online publication:2012-02


Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Cittavarga, 1.9b-15c
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra PK AS 6 etc.
Leaf number:30- (4/5)
Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):8.4 × 31.1 cm
Number of lines:7
Interline spacing:1.2 cm


Images from by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.


a1ke ścm[e] [l](·) [ṣṣe] s[e] [rke] [ma] ko rm(·) nano nano¯ ¯st yā m[ṣe] ñc[ai] : [ñ](·) [sk](·) [m](·) [ne] [tw](·) l(·) kle c(·) m(·) lyñe [nano] nan[o] śl(·)¯ ¯k ypa rwe : (–)
a2styā [mṣ](·) [ñ]c[ai] lye lyku ne¯ ¯st mā na no o styā mtta ra [9] poṃ [cta¯] [¯ñ] [kle] ñcaṃ ka kau ta¯ ¯s̝ o sta ntse mrā ce ka sko wä :
a3ka sk[ā] lla ññe ykū ○ we [ṣn](·) (–) ls[k]o ne ta n[e] [a] (– –) : [n]au [ta] [l]la ññe yo nma sta se [w]ce [p]i ā ke śl[o]
a4ka ntse : we we ño [ṣ](·)i ○ ślo ka nmi e· twe cce¯ ¯k sp(·) (–) [lyñ](·) [ypa] (– –) [ś]e[¯] [¯m] a ka rtte [je] t[aṃ] v[aṃ] [pū] dñä kte
a5lau [k]eṃ lya kā ne : ○ wñā ne śa lau ka rwa śi [r] (– –) ¯k wñā n(·) (–) [lau] [ka¯] [¯r] lye lya ku : dha rma ru ci
a6we ñā ne¯ ¯ś po yś[e] ñ[c]ai [lau] k(·)¯ ¯r o lypo tstse : kā rpa [ke] ntsa po yśi [n]ts[e] wi (–) ṣṣa ne pai (·)e l(·) laṃ [ṣ](·)[i] 10-1
a7[a] nā ṣka rai (·)(·)e(·) (·)ai ne te we s[k]eṃ o mp(·)o [t](·)iṃ ṣe yeṃ : dha r[m]a (–) [c]i p(·) dñä kte¯ ¯[s̝]p tu meṃ cai (– – – – –) ///
b1a (–) khy[ai] k(·) [l]p(·)(·) ma sa la lyy[au] ñ(·)¯ ¯ś [r]ṣ(·) ka ñ(·) [t]we [c]c(·) (– –) (·)ts(·) [ñ](·) nta [k]r[au] pa ma¯ ¯r mā (– – – –) ///
b2ne rv[ā] nne 10 2 [wa] t[e] w[e] ña t[o] tpa rkre pre ke ntsa mā ñä śta llā lle : toṃ [la] [kl]e nta sa(·) [s](·) (– – –) (·)s(·)
b3tā k[au] a rhā nte (–) kuse ○ su po yśñi a rttā te se (·)[ā] ka śā k(·)a mu ni ñke [:] a rha nte ññe a rttā te
b4se tā ka ñ(·)¯ ¯m dha ○ rma rū ci 10 3 a saṃ kh(·)ai (–) [lp](·)(·) [m](·) [n](·) te we skeṃ ta rya pre śyaṃ ne : dha
b5rma ru ci ka mtsa ○ te (·)[o] yś[i] mpa bo dhi s(·)(·) (·)[ñ](·) [ne] [:] [ñ](·) ke[¯] [¯s̝p] wc[e] ka ca me l[ne] te [t]e mu
b6ṣai ma tā raṃ ne : saṃ wa rtwi wa rtka lpa nma mā [k](·) cwi [ṣe] y[eṃ] [ka] tkau wa 10 4 tū sa po yśi we ñā [n]e (–)
b7ślau [k]a nma o lypo ts[t]se lau ka¯ ¯r : ke kl[y]au ṣo rme[ṃ] (– – –) [ntsa] (·)au [c]sa t[k]a [pe] rn[e] ṣa rm[ts]a ṅ[k]e (–) rma rū [c]i


9b (snai) a1n1 keś cmel(a);ṣṣe serke ; mäkorm(eṃ) ; näno-nän= ost-yāmṣeñcai :
9c ñ(ä)sk(e)m(a)ne ; tw(e) l(a)kle ; c(ä)m(e)lyñe ; näno-näno śl(o)k yparwe :
9d (o)a2st-yāmṣ(e)ñcain2 ; lyelyku nest ; mā nano ; ost yāmttarä 9
10a poṃc tañ kleñcaṃ ; kakautaṣ ; ostantse ; mrāce käskowä :
10b a3käskālläññe ; ykūweṣn(e) ; (pa)lskone ; tane a(ttsaik) :
10c nautalläññe ; yonmasta ; se wcepi ; āke śloa4kantsen3n4 :
10d weweñoṣ (w)i ; ślokanmi ; e(ṃ)tweccek ; sp(ārtta)lyñ(e) ypa(rwe) (10)
11a śem akartte ; jetaṃvaṃ ; pūdñäkte ; a5n5 lau keṃ lyakā-ne :
11b wñā-neś«†a» laukar ; waśir(ṣe) ; (su)k wñā-n(eś) ; laukar lyelyaku :
11c dharmaruci ; a6weñā-neś ; poyśeñcai ; lauk(a)r olypotstse :
11d kārpa kentsa ; poyśintse ; wi(nā)ṣṣa-ne ; pai(n)e l(a)laṃṣ(k)i 10-1
12a a7n6n7 anāṣkarai ; (pr)e(ścy)aine ; te weskeṃ ; omp(r)ot(r)iṃ ṣeyeṃ :
12b dharma(ru)ci ; p(ū)dñäkte ṣp ; tumeṃ cai ; – – – – –
12c b1n8 a(saṃ)khyai k(a)l;p(an)masa ; lalyyau ñ(ä)ś ; rṣ(ā)käñ= (eṃ)twecc(ek) (:)
12d (kär)ts(au)ñ(e)nta ; kraupamar ; mā(ka) (spän;taitse) b2nervānne 10-2
13a wate weña ; tot pärkre ; prekentsa ; mā ñäś tallālle :
13b toṃ läklenta ; sa(ṃ)s(ārmeṃ) ; (tsälpāt)s(i) ; b3n9 tākau arhānte (:)
13c kuse su poyśñi ; arttāte ; se (t)āka ; śāk(y)amuni ñke :
13d arhanteññe ; arttāte ; b4se tāka ; ñ(e)m dharmarūci 10-3
14a asaṃkh(y)ai (ka)l;p(an)m(a)n(e) ; te weskeṃ ; tarya preśyaṃne :
14b dhab5rmaruci ; kamtsate ; (p)oyśimpa ; bodhis(ātw)ñ(e)ne :
14c ñ(a)ke ṣp wce ka ; camelne ; tetemu ; b6n10 ṣai matāräṃne :
14d saṃwartwiwart ; kalpanma ; māk(a) cwi ; ṣeyeṃ kätkauwa 10-4
15a tūsa poyśi ; weñā-ne(ś) ; b7n11 ślaukanma ; olypotstse laukar :
15b keklyauṣormeṃ ; (ślokanma)nts«†ä» ; (k)auc satka ; perne ṣarmtsa ṅke
15c (dha)rmarūci ; 11σ


a1 Having run again and again through the cycle of countless rebirths, [9b] you [were] longing for a house builder; rebirth again and again [means] suffering. The first strophe. [= Uv 31.6]
a2 O maker of houses, you have been seen: you will not make a house again. All your rafters are broken and the top of the house is destroyed. [10a]
a3 In your mind having come to destruction, here you have certainly reached disappearance. This is the end of the second
a4 strophe. [10c] [= Uv 31.7] These two stanzas have been told; thereupon precisely [follows] the commentary: first [it is said:] [Someone] came in the surroundings of the Jetavana-grove [and] the Buddha lord
a5 saw him [= Vajraka, i.e. one adorned with a jewel] from afar on the earth. [11a] Vajraka spoke to him [= Buddha] from afar. This one [= Buddha] indeed told him: “I have seen you from afar.” [11b] Dharmaruci
a6 said to him [= Buddha]: “O Omniscient, a very long time ago, [11c] he [= Vajraka] went down to the earth and honored the tender feet of the omniscient.” [11d]
a7 In a remote time, they say, Dharmaruci and the Buddha lord [12a] were brothers. Then they (made vows and the first brother said): [12b]
b1 “In innumerable kalpas I will thereupon indeed strive for the ṛṣi-hood, [12c] I will accumulate virtues in gre(at number having faith)
b2 in the nirvāṇa.” [12d] The second [brother] said: “Through such long times I will not suffer. [13a] In order to be freed from those sufferings [and] from the saṃ(sāra),
b3 I will become an Arhat.” [13b] The one who chose the status of omniscient, he has become Śākyamuni now. [13c] (The one who) chose the status of Arhat,
b4 he has become Dharmaruci by name. [13d] In innumerable kalpas, they say, in three time periods, [14a]
b5 Dharmaruci made encounter with the Omniscient [= Buddha] [who still was] in the Bodhisattva state. [14b] And now in the second birth indeed he [= Vajraka] has been
b6 born among the sea monsters; [14c] numerous kalpas of destruction and evolution had been crossed by him. [14d] Therefore, the Omniscient [= Buddha] told him
b7 the stanzas from wide afar. [15a] Having been heard, the glory of the stanzas spread high for a cause indeed. [15b] Dharmaruci ... [15c]


b1+ [In a former life, the Buddha said,] «in asaṃkhyeya kalpas I will then strive for the ṛṣi-hood: I will accumulate virtues, [and] (I will) not (enter) the nirvāṇa (before).» The second, [Dharmaruci in a former life,] said, «through such a long time I cannot bear, through sorrows … I will become an arhat.» (Georges-Jean Pinault, p.c.) (Peyrot 2013b: 660)


Parallel texts

Uv 31.6-7 (Bernhard 1965: 409-410)

Philological commentary

The metre is 4 x 7+8 (in principle 4+3 + 3+5). In general, the Tocharian translation does not preserve the segmentation of the Sanskrit pāda structure, because it is metrical itself. Final ś in this manuscript is consistently written with non-fremdzeichen 〈śa〉 and virāma, which is not uncommon in classical texts.
The leaf number is 34 or 35.
n4 The form jetaṃvaṃ in effect stands for the expected jetavaṃ (cf. jetavanne in the same manuscript PK AS 6D a 4, b 1 and passim in other Udānālaṅkāra texts), a borrowing of Skt. jetavana-.
n7 After the beginning of the narrative we have to assume at the end of this line a short sentence introducing the following direct speech. Since in line b2 the direct speech of the second brother is precisely introduced by wate weña, here we have to assume a similar reference to the first brother and speaker (= the future Buddha Śākyamuni). One may very tentatively restore cai (añmaññante ṣe) ‘they made wishes; the first one [wished]’.
n8 The best restoration seems to be a derivative of the root späntā- ‘to trust, to be faithful’, which usually constructed with the locative, and the phrase “having trust in the Nirvana” is already recorded (B 241 a 5).
n10 The form saṃwartwiwart qualifying the kalpas is formed by the combination of two loan words from Sanskrit terms: saṃvarta- ‘destruction (of the world)’ and vivarta- ‘evolution (of the world)’ (cf. Edgerton 1953, 499b and 540a).
n11 The plural form ślaukanma is hypercorrect for ślokanma; cf. the ślaukantse in B 95 a 6. Therefore it remains uncertain if the genitive plural, which may be restored later in the same line, had o or au.


This series of fragments PK AS 6 consists of the 12 pieces, in theory PK AS 6A-L. But for some unknown reason fragment PK AS 6G was reclassified as PK NS 22, and the fragment PK AS 6F was joined with PK AS 6E. All these pieces belong to the same seven-line manuscript except PK AS 6J, which has only 5 lines, a different size and ductus and does not contain Udānālaṅkāra proper.

Linguistic commentary

n1 The nominal phrase ost yāmṣeñcai (= Skt. gṛha-kāraka-) has to be understood as the direct object of the participle ñäskemane from the beginning of the next pāda. It has a metaphorical meaning of the mind influenced by desire. The translation of the Sanskrit stanza Udv. 31.61 ends with näno näno ‘again and again’ translating Skt. punaḥ punaḥ. The following words belong to the commentary.
n2 The PPt käskowä for standard käskau shows the preservation of final usually written as -o in classical texts; however, other classical texts also show preservation (cf. Malzahn 2012a).
n3 One can restore sp(ārtta)[lyñ](e), the verbal noun of spārtt(ā)- ‘to turn; behave’. It is recorded already with the meaning ‘behavior, evolution’. Here sp(ārtta)[lyñ](e) is the calque of Skt. vṛtti-, abstract of the synonymous verb vṛt- ‘to roll, turn, behave’ in the specialized sense ‘commentary, gloss, explanation (of a sūtra)’.
n5 We clearly have a derivative of TB waśīr, which is a borrowing of Skt. vajra- ‘diamond’. The adjective TB waśiräṣṣe (similarly TA waśirṣi) is recorded so far with the meaning ‘pertaining to a diamond, made of diamonds’. But here we have to assume that waśirṣe is the rendering of a proper name, Buddhist Sanskrit vajraka-, the name of a spirit (yakṣa) that has been converted by the Buddha (cf. Edgerton 1953, 467a); note that also Sanskrit vajraka- is used as an adjective meaning ‘adamantine, hard like a diamond’.
n6 The adjective anāṣkarai is the oblique singular fem. of anāṣkare* which is based on the adverb TB aṣkār ‘back’. This expression certainly refers to a remote past, so that the prefix an-*ān-*æn- has intensive function here. The form omp(r)o[t](r)iṃ ought to be interpreted as omprotriñ, nominative plural of an adjective in -i with the function of appurtenance, cf. with different suffixes the TB compound forms omprotärcci ‘co-brothers’ and TB eṣerñana ‘co-sisters’ based on the oblique stems protär and ṣer, respectively.
n9 The form poyśñi as such makes no sense. In addition, we would expect the abstract poyśiññe parallel to arhanteññe arttāte in the next pāda here. The only sensible possibility is to assume a wrong copying of the metrically correct text poyśiññ=arttāte with sandhi involving inversion in the graphemes.


Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Edgerton 1953

Edgerton, Franklin. 1953. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Malzahn 2012a

Malzahn, Melanie. 2012a. “Now you see it, now you don’t — Bewegliches –o in Tocharisch B.” In Linguistic developments along the Silk Road: Archaism and Innovation in Tocharian, edited by Olav Hackstein and Ronald I. Kim, 834:33–82. Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse. Wien: Verlag der ÖAW.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.