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Announcements

  • The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.

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A 18

Known as:A 18; THT 651
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling. "A 18". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-a18 (accessed 04 Dec. 2023).

Edition

Editor:Gerd Carling

Provenience

Main find spot:Šorčuq
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 72.18
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Language:TA
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Puṇyavantajātaka
Passage:r
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse
Meter:M18

Object

Manuscript:A 1-54
Leaf number:(80-2), 70-3
Preceding fragment:A 17
Following fragment:A 19
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Number of lines:6

Images

Images from titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de by courtesy of the Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS).

Transliteration

(continues from A 17)

a1kpā ra mi taṃ twaṃ ptā ñka tka ṣṣi tri a saṃ khe skä¯ ¯nt ka lpsaṃ ā klye yā mtsā¯ ¯t sā mnu a saṃ khe ṣi pra¯ ¯s̝t ṣo kyo [pa]
a2rkri kya lte sa¯ ¯k ski ñciṃ ga ṇi ta sthā naṃ ma hā ka lpa¯ ¯ñä śme¯ ¯ñcä tā mpra ṣṭaṃ sa¯ ¯s a saṃ khe ma ska ta¯ ¯r ga –
a3– sthā nṣiṃ ka śa ṣi la me ka rsnā¯ ¯l o ktu¯ ¯k a nta ra ka lpa ñka tke¯ ¯ñcä sa¯ ¯s ma hā ka¯ ¯lp [ma] –
a4(–) – rsa¯ ¯s ma hā ka lptā¯ ¯s̝ ma lto wi nu¯ ¯nt ga ṇi ta sthā naṃ ka lytra wu tre o kā¯ ¯k ñu ma –
a5– – ·ā ke¯ ¯ñcä ma lto wi nu nta nä kka¯ ¯ts klyaṃ ta rśä¯ ¯k ma hā ka lpa¯ ¯ñä tā ke¯ ¯ñcä wcaṃ ga ṇi ta sthā n[aṃ]
a6– – – ·i – ·ā¯ ¯k o kā¯ ¯k nmu ktā ke¯ ¯ñcä wca na na kka¯ ¯ts klyaṃ ta rka¯ ¯nt ma hā ka lpa¯ ¯ñä tā ke –
b1– – – – – – naṃ klyaṃ tra || he tu pha laṃ || tri cäṃ ga ṇi ta sthā na ṣlo tka¯ ¯s̝ wra so¯ ¯m ku pre ne pu –
b2– – – – kha ḍga vi ṣā ṇa ka¯ ¯lpä ño¯ ¯m mska ta rpra tti ka ptā ñka¯ ¯t yä ṣne rvā naṃ : prā kra pra ti¯ ¯m kā ru ṇi
b3– ·u pre ne nu mā lo tka¯ ¯s̝ tri cäṃ sthā na¯ ¯s̝ : tma ṣṣo rto ce¯ ¯m ptā ñä kta¯ ¯ñä pu tti śpa rna¯ ¯cä vy·
b4ka ri¯ ¯t yne śwä tkā¯ ¯lts ype¯ ¯ñcä : 1 || ā ṣā ni¯ ¯k ptā ñka tka ṣṣi nu ä ntā ne ma hā pra bhā –
b5ño mā wä lṣe¯ ¯s̝ wa śi rro ki prā kraṃ pra ti myo sne lo tklu ne yu ma¯ ¯nt pu tti śpa rṣiṃ śä ktā lyi ṣñi sa [nt]· –
b6sā ryā¯ ¯t tma ṣṣa ci pñi ṣi nā¯ ¯s sa mbhā rntu kro pnmāṃ o kā¯ ¯k tri cäṃ ga ṇi ta sthā naṃ ye¯ ¯s̝ tma ṣpe nu [m]·

(continues on A 19)

Transcription

(continues from A 17)

a1 k pāramitäṃtwaṃ ptāñkät käṣṣi tri asaṃkhes känt kalpsaṃ āklye yāmtsāt sām nu asaṃkheṣi praṣt ṣokyo pä-
a2 -rkri kyalte säkskiñciṃ gaṇitasthānaṃ mahākalpañ śmeñc tām praṣṭaṃ sas asaṃkhe mäskatär ga(ṇi)-
a3 -(ta)sthānṣiṃ kaśaṣi lame kärsnāl oktuk antarakalpañ kätkeñc sas mahākalp mä(ska)-
a4 -(tä)r sas mahākalp tāṣ malto winunt gaṇitasthānaṃ kälyträ wu tre okāk ñu ma(hā)-
a5 -(kalpañ) (t)ākeñc malto winuntanäkk ats klyaṃtär śäk mahākalpañ tākeñc wcaṃ gaṇitasthānaṃ
a6 (klyaṃträ) (w)i(ki) (tary)āk okāk nmuk tākeñc wcananäkk ats klyaṃtär känt mahākalpañ tāke(ñc)
b1 n1 (tricäṃ) (gaṇitasthā)naṃ klyaṃträ ॥ hetuphalaṃ
1a tricäṃ gaṇi;tasthānäṣ ; lotkaṣ wrasom ; kupre ne ; pu(tti) b2 (śparnäṣ) (:)
1b khaḍgaviṣā;ṇakalp ñom ; mskatär pratti;ka ptāñkät ; yäṣ nervānaṃ :
1c prākra pratim ; kāruṇib3(k) ; (k)uprene nu ; lotkaṣ ; tricäṃ sthānäṣ :
1d tmäṣṣ orto cem ; ptāñäktañ ; puttiśparnac ; vy(ā)b4karit ; yneś wätkālts ypeñc : 1 ॥
āṣānik ptāñkät käṣṣi nu äntā ne mahāprabhā(se)
b5 ñomā wäl ṣeṣ waśirr oki prākräṃ pratimyo sne lotkluneyumänt puttiśparṣiṃ śäktālyi ṣñi sant(ānaṃ)
b6 sāryāt tmäṣṣ aci pñiṣinās sambhārntu kropnmāṃ okāk tricäṃ gaṇitasthānaṃ yeṣ tmäṣ penu

(continues on A 19)

Translation

(continues from A 17)

a1 Pāramitās [“perfect virtues”], however, the Buddha, the master, has practised over three Asaṃkhyeyas and a hundred kalpas [“world eras”].
a1+ The Asaṃkhyeya-period, however, is very long.
a2 For when the mahākalpas arrive at the sixtieth gaṇisthāna, at that moment it is [only] one asaṃkhyeya.
a2+ One should understand [the word] of Gaṇitasthāna [as] “a place of numbers”.
a3+ If eighty antarakalpas pass, it is one mahākalpa.
a4 If there is one mahākalpa, it is in the first gaṇitasthāna; if there are two, three, until nine mahākalpas, they are just in the first [gaṇitasthāna];
a5+ if there are ten mahākalpas, they are in the second gaṇitasthāna;
a6 if there are twenty, thirty, until ninety, they are just in the second;
b1 if there are a hundred mahākalpas, they are in the third gaṇitasthāna. || In the H.-tune: || If a being turns back from the Buddha rank from the third gaṇitasthāna, it is called “khaḍgaviṣāṇakalpa” and it goes into nirvāṇa as a pratyekabuddha.
b2+ If, however, with firm determination and compassionate, it does not turn back from the third sthāna, from then on the Buddhas manifestly and definitely make the prophecy of the Buddha rank.
b4+ The Arhat, the Buddha [and] master, however, when he was the king named Mahāprabhāsa, had with his determination as hard as diamond sown the seed of Buddhahood without turning back in his sequence of incarnations.
b6 From there on, collecting the sambhāras of merit, he went into the third Gaṇitasthāna. From there also, he did not (turn back).

(continues on A 19)

Other

a2 Because when the mahākalpas arrive at the sixtieth gaṇisthāna, at that moment it is [only] one asaṃkhyeya. (cf 22) (Peyrot 2013c: 642)
a3+ If eighty antarakalpas pass, it is one mahākalpa. (cf 22) (Peyrot 2013c: 251)
a4+ If there is one mahākalpa, it is in the first gaṇitasthāna; if there are two, three, until nine mahākalpas, they are just in the first [gaṇitasthāna]; if there are ten mahākalpas, they are in the second gaṇitasthāna; if there are twenty, thirty, until ninety, they are just in the second; if there are a hundred mahākalpas, they are in the third gaṇitasthāna. (cf 22) (Peyrot 2013c: 642)
a4+ Ist es e i n Mahākalpa, [so] befindet er sich im ersten Gaṇitasthāna [Zahlenstelle]; sind es zwei, drei bis neun Ma(hākalpas), [so] befinden sie sich ebenfalls noch im ersten [Gaṇitasthāna]. Sind es zehn Mahākalpas, [so] (befinden sie sich) im zweiten Gaṇitasthāna. Sind es (zwanzig, dreiß)ig bis neunzig, [so] befinden sie sich ebenfalls noch im zweiten. Sind es hundert Mahākalpas, [so] befinden sie sich im (dritten Gaṇitasthā)na. (Schmidt 1974: 271)
b1+ If a being turns back from the Buddha rank from the third gaṇitasthāna, it is called “khaḍgaviṣāṇakalpa” and it goes into nirvāṇa as a pratyekabuddha. If, however, with firm determination and compassionate, it does not turn back from the third sthāna, from then on the Buddhas manifestly and definitely make the prophecy of the Buddha rank. (cf 22) (Peyrot 2013c: 642)
b4+ Der Arhat, der Buddha und Meister, hatte aber, als er der König namens Mahāprabhāsa war, mit [seinem] wie Diamant festen Entschluss den Samen zur umkehrlosen Buddhaschaft in seine Geburtenfolge gesät. (Schmidt 1974: 438)

Commentary

Remarks

Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).
Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
The leaf number on the margin has been lost, but a number 73 (sic!) is written inside the string hole of the verso side by a different hand. Since this leaf stands in a continuous series, it actually ought to have the leaf number 82. The combination of lost margin and deviating string-hole numbering starts in A 15 and continues until A 24.

Philological commentary

The translation is largely based on Sieg 1944: 21-22, and Carling et al. 2009.
n1 The tune has 4x18 syllables, rhythm 7/7/4.

References

Online access

IDP: THT 651; TITUS: THT 651

Edition

Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 14-15; Sieg and Siegling 1921a p. 14, p. 15

Translations

Carling 2000: a1 (315), b2 (248), b6 (345); Meunier 2013: a1 (130, 174); Peyrot 2013c: a2 (642), a3 a4 (251), a4 a5 a6 b1 (642), b1 b2 b3 b4 (642); Schmidt 1974: a4 a5 a6 b1 (271), b4 b5 b6 (438), b4ff (438); Sieg 1944: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 (21); Thomas 1954a: b6 (749); Thomas 1957: b4 b5 b6 (78), b4 b5 b6 A 19 a1 A 19 a2 A 19 a3 A 19 a4 A 19 a5 A 19 a6 A 19 b1 (43); Thomas 1958a: a1 a2 (161); Thomas 1967c: b1 b2 (74), b4 b5 (61); Thomas 1983a: a2 (31), b1 b2 (37), b6 (42)

Bibliography

Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

IDP

“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013c

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013c. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg 1944

Sieg, Emil. 1944. Übersetzungen aus dem Tocharischen I. Abhandl. d. Preußischen Akad. d. Wissenschaften, Jg. 1943, Phil.-Hist. Kl. 16. Berlin: Akad. d. Wissenschaften.

Sieg and Siegling 1921a

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921a. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.

Thomas 1954a

Thomas, Werner. 1954a. “Die Infinitive im Tocharischen.” In Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, edited by Johannes Schubert and Ulrich Schneider, 701–64. Leipzig: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1958a

Thomas, Werner. 1958a. “Zum Ausdruck der Komparation beim tocharischen Adjektiv.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 75: 129–69.

Thomas 1967c

Thomas, Werner. 1967c. “Zu den Ausdrücken mit A ñom, B ñem im Tocharischen.” Indogermanische Forschungen 72: 58–78.

Thomas 1983a

Thomas, Werner. 1983a. Der tocharische Obliquus im Sinne eines Akkusativs der Richtung. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 6. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

TITUS

Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”