Caravan

Announcements

  • The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.

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A 4

Known as:A 4; THT 637
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling. "A 4". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-a4 (accessed 04 Dec. 2023).

Edition

Editor:Gerd Carling

Provenience

Main find spot:Šorčuq
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 72.04
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Language:TA
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Puṇyavantajātaka
Passage:d
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse
Meter:M14; M12a

Object

Manuscript:A 1-54
Leaf number:60-8
Preceding fragment:A 3
Following fragment:A 5
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Number of lines:6

Images

Images from titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de by courtesy of the Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS).

Transliteration

(continues from A 3)

a1yā tlu ne yo sne nā ka¯ ¯m : ta myo a mo kñi pa lskaṃ pukaṃ pru cca mo wra sa śśi : 5 || pra jña vāṃ traka¯ ¯s̝ mā ta (–)
a2saṃ ā la kwra¯ ¯m ā rki śo ṣṣi¯ ¯s kā su ypa¯ ¯nt na¯ ¯s̝ ko sne knā nmu ne kya lte ā ktsu ne pu¯ ¯k o ma s[k]e (–)
a3swra mnā śśi pu¯ ¯k kā rya paṃ twā śśi sa tkā lu ne yaṃ tsmā rnāṃ tsu knā nmu ne nu ā kntsu ne yi¯ ¯s – (–)
a4rṣnā¯ ¯nt maṃ tne kro śa va ti ño mā o ka rna¯ ¯s̝ ä ntāṃ tka nā ne sa¯ ¯m tsmā rka rkñä¯ ¯s̝ tma ṣṣa ci kr[o] (–)
a5– naṃ lo¯ ¯k o¯ ¯r o ktsi s̝s̝apa ñka¯ ¯nt ka ṣa skro śma ska ta rkro¯ ¯śä o kṣiṃ ñu ra¯ ¯s̝ ko tlu ne yaṃ yä¯ ¯s̝
a6– – – ¯s̝ nu na¯ ¯k ko mya ta¯ ¯r tma ṣṣa ci nu na¯ ¯k kro¯ ¯śä o ksi¯ ¯s̝ nu na¯ ¯k nmā kā ko ra¯ ¯s̝ – –
b1– – (–) kro¯ ¯śä o ksi¯ ¯s̝ taṃ ne ti ryā o ksi smāṃ o kā¯ ¯k ka¯ ¯nt ku rtsru tka naṃ lo ksa tka tra || ku – –
b2– – spe nu kā ko spe nu kro śa va ti : tsru ku cyä rmaṃ li po snu na¯ ¯k npre na¯ ¯k o ksi¯ ¯s̝ : ta mne¯ ¯k
b3kntsā – kā ko ṣtu ṣpe pā pla ṅku ṣpe : tsru ke ka lpo¯ ¯s̝ nuna¯ ¯k sa tkaṃ ta¯ ¯r o ma ske naṃ : 1 || hi
b4ma va¯ ¯nt ṣu laṃ nu va cra mu khe wä lna¯ ¯s̝ ä ntā ne sa¯ ¯m trā ska s̝aṃ sā¯ ¯m kro śa va ti o –
b5¯r puka ṣpu¯ ¯k nka lu ne yaṃ yä¯ ¯s̝ ta mne¯ ¯k nṣaṃ ā kntsu ne yi¯ ¯s cä mplu ne yā wra sa ñpu¯ ¯k o ma sk[u] –
b6yntwaṃ pu kkā rya paṃ twaṃ śkaṃ sa tkā lu ne yaṃ yä¯ ¯s̝ ä ntā ne nu knā nmu ne ṣiṃ va jra mu khe nyo ā kntsu ne –

(continues on A 5)

Transcription

(continues from A 3)

5c a1 ; yātluneyo ; sne nākäm :
5d tämyo amok ; ñi pälskaṃ ; pukaṃ pruccamo ; wrasaśśi : 5
prajñavāṃ träṅkäṣ tä(preṃ)
a2 saṃ ālak wram ārkiśoṣṣis kāsu ypant naṣ kos ne knānmune kyalte āktsune puk omäske(nā)-
a3 -s wramnāśśi puk kāryapäṃtwāśśi sätkāluneyaṃ tsmār nāṃtsu knānmune nu ākntsuneyis (tsmār) (kä)-
a4 -rṣnānt mäṃt ne krośavati ñomā okar naṣ äntāṃ tkanā ne säm tsmār kärkñäṣ tmäṣṣ aci kro(ś)
a5 (tka)naṃ lok or oktsiṣṣ-äṃ päñ känt kaṣas kroś mäskatär kroś okṣiṃñuräṣ kotluneyaṃ yäṣ
a6 (tmā) (kākorä)ṣ nunak kom yatär tmäṣṣ aci nunak kroś oksiṣ nunak {n/t}mā kākoräṣ (tmäṣṣ) (aci)
b1 n1 (nunak) kroś oksiṣ taṃne tiryā oksismāṃ okāk känt kurtsru tkanaṃ lok sätkaträ ॥ ku(swaṃ) (॥)
b2 n1
1a (kärṣto)s penu ; kākos penu ; krośavati :
1b tsru kuc yärmaṃ ; lipos nunak ; {n/t}prenäk oksiṣ :
1c tämnek (ā)b3kntsā(ñ) ; kākoṣtuṣ pe ; pāpläṅkuṣ pe :
1d tsru ke kälpoṣ ; nunak sätkaṃtär ; omäskenaṃ : 1
hi-
b4 -mavant ṣulaṃ nu vacramukhe wäl naṣ äntā ne säm trāskaṣäṃ sām krośavati o(ka)-
b5 -r pukäṣ puk nkaluneyaṃ yäṣ tämnek {n/t}ṣaṃ ākntsuneyis cämpluneyā wrasañ puk omäsku(ne)-
b6 -yntwaṃ puk kāryapäṃtwaṃ śkaṃ sätkāluneyaṃ yäṣ äntā ne nu knānmuneṣiṃ vajramukhenyo ākntsune(ṣiṃ)

(continues on A 5)

Translation

(continues from A 3)

a1 (it attains the dwelling of the gods) through its flawless perfection. Therefore in my opinion, human skill is superior to all. Prajñāvān [“the Wise”] speaks:
a1+ There is no other thing that does so much good to the world as wisdom,
a2 because ignorance is the root of the spread of all bad things and all damages.
a3+ Wisdom, however, cuts off the root of foolishness.
a4 Like that there is a plant named Krośavatī, in whatever earth it takes root, from there one krośa its stem will grow away far over the earth.
a5 The krośa-plant is five hundred fathoms in size. Having grown one krośa, it is cut down.
a6 (Undestroyed) it produces a new sprout. From there it grows again one krośa,
a6+ and undestroyed from there one krośa it grows.
b1 Growing in this way it spreads up to 100 miles in the earth.
b1+ || In the K.-tune: ||
b2 Even cut, even destroyed, the Krośavatī, with only a small piece left over, grows as much [as before].
b2+ Just so are the ignorant ones: even beaten, even nipped, as soon as they have the possibility, they spread in badness.
b3+ On the mountain Himavant, however, there is a king [named] Vajramukha [“Diamond-mouth”].
b4+ Where this one bites it, the plant Krośavatī dies completely.
b5 Just so are the beings because of their ignorance.
b5+ In all bad things and in all damages they spread.
b6 Well, when the foolishness (Krośavatī is bitten through) by the wisdom Vajramukha

(continues on A 5)

Other

a4+ Wherever on earth it strikes root, from there on its wood grows on earth for krośas. (cf 7) (Peyrot 2013c: 258)
b1 Auf solche Art und Weise wachsend, verbreitet es sich bis zu 100 Meilen weit auf der Erde fort. (Schmidt 1974: 278)
b4+ Wherever he bites it through, the Krośavatī plant is ruined completely. (cf 7) (Peyrot 2013c: 650)
b6+ Well, when the foolishness Krośavatī is bitten through by the wisdom Vajramukha, at that moment the ruin of all harms is there, and the spread of all advantages. (cf 8) (Peyrot 2013c: 278)

Commentary

Remarks

Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).

Philological commentary

The translation is largely based on Sieg 1944: 7-8, and Carling et al. 2009.
n1 The metre of the tune is 4x12, rhythm 4/4/4.

References

Complete transliteration

Sieg 1944: 7; Lane 1947: 33ff

Online access

IDP: THT 637; TITUS: THT 637

Edition

Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 5; Sieg and Siegling 1921a p. 5

Translations

Carling 2000: a4 a5 (80), b1 (80), b3 b4 (127), b5 (239); Hackstein 1995: a5 (337), a6 (54, 337), b1 (337), b2 (54, 337), b4 b5 (179), b6 A 5 a1 (179); Meunier 2013: a1 (166); Ogihara 2009b: a1 (134-136); Peyrot 2013c: a1 (641), a4 a5 (258), b4 b5 (650), b6 A 5 a1 A 5 a2 (278); Schmidt 1974: b1 (278); Thomas 1957: a1 a2 a3 (271); Thomas 1958a: a1 (154), b4 b5 (159); Thomas 1967c: a4 (63); Thomas 1967d: b5 b6 (172); Thomas 1969a: b1 (257); Thomas 1983a: a5 (34), b4 b5 (34), b5 b6 (34); Thomas 1986: a6 (120), a6 b1 (120), b2 (137), b2 b3 (137); Thomas 1989: a4 a5 (23); Thomas 1997: a2 a3 (141), b4 b5 (108), b5 b6 (141)

Bibliography

Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

IDP

“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Lane 1947

Lane, George S. 1947. “The Tocharian Puṇyavantajātaka: Text and translation.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 67: 33–53.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Ogihara 2009b

Ogihara, Hirotoshi. 2009b. “Sur la citation de l’Āgama-Sūtra dans le «Puṇyavanta-Jātaka»” 28: 133–71.

Peyrot 2013c

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013c. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg 1944

Sieg, Emil. 1944. Übersetzungen aus dem Tocharischen I. Abhandl. d. Preußischen Akad. d. Wissenschaften, Jg. 1943, Phil.-Hist. Kl. 16. Berlin: Akad. d. Wissenschaften.

Sieg and Siegling 1921a

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921a. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1958a

Thomas, Werner. 1958a. “Zum Ausdruck der Komparation beim tocharischen Adjektiv.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 75: 129–69.

Thomas 1967c

Thomas, Werner. 1967c. “Zu den Ausdrücken mit A ñom, B ñem im Tocharischen.” Indogermanische Forschungen 72: 58–78.

Thomas 1967d

Thomas, Werner. 1967d. “Zu wortverbindendem toch. A śkaṃ/ B ṣpä.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 81: 161–80.

Thomas 1969a

Thomas, Werner. 1969a. “Bemerkungen zum Gebrauch von toch. A ptāñkät [B pañäkte, pudñäkte], A koṃ [B kauṃ]: A koṃñkät [B kauṃñäkte] usw.” Orbis 18: 235–68.

Thomas 1983a

Thomas, Werner. 1983a. Der tocharische Obliquus im Sinne eines Akkusativs der Richtung. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 6. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

Thomas 1986

Thomas, Werner. 1986. “Zur Stellung von toch. A nuṃ, B nano ‘wieder’ innerhalb des Satzes.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 99: 117–46.

Thomas 1989

Thomas, Werner. 1989. Probleme der Übertragung buddhistischer Texte ins Tocharische. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 10. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

Thomas 1997

Thomas, Werner. 1997. Interpretationsprobleme im Tocharischen. Unflektiertes A puk, B po “ganz, all, jeder”. Vol. 3. SbWGF. Stuttgart: Steiner.

TITUS

Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”