• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 1114

Known as:THT 1114; KVāc 22
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés. "THT 1114". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 02 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:THT 1102-1125
Preceding fragment:THT 1113
Material: ink on wood tablet
Size (h × w):5.6 × 29 cm
Number of lines:5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from THT 1113)

a1mā a ṣāṃ cai ta ne o sta meṃ la teṃ – /// /// l· na yā mo rnta sa – – n·¯ ¯s̝ tu ypa rwe mā ka o no lmeṃ
a2ntso a pra sā ttā ka • ti rthi nā ksa nte • śā sa /// /// ·[k]· • ce nā ki pā ssi ntse pe rne sa po yśi pa ñä kte yā tka a nta
a3rā yä nta pa rktsi • ma kte śpā [l]m·ṃ wa kī tse śū ke tā kaṃ : so lmeṃ bhā ja nne ku ṣa lle • e nte tu sai lle
a4tā kaṃ śpā lmeṃ wa¯ ¯t nau mi ye tā kaṃ : tu mā e nte r[a] – – [ṣa] l[l]e • pra kro na ya sna ne ta ṣa lle • pe ra¯ ¯k śau mo [nt]se
a5ka lpa s̝s̝a lle • ma kte wa¯ ¯t lā nte so¯ ¯y – – ·[e] – – – – – [m]· s̝(·)a l(·)e tā kaṃ k·e i ntri nta sa so lme tā kaṃ ṣa ña
b1nma sa ke ke nu ce¯ ¯u ya po¯ ¯yä a mā c[i]· – [a]· ·t· ·k· ntra [l]· – y· mts· – [m]p· [t]· – – – [k]us· su o no lme tā [k]· [i] ntri nta sa
b2so lme • yo lai na yā mo rnta sa mā ke ke nu • sū a ṣāṃ maske tra po· ś·· pa ñä kte ntse pe lai kne ṣṣe pi ca kra wa rtti lā nte so
b3yne ssi • ce¯ ¯u pa ñä kte yā tka wa sa t[p]ā¯ ¯t yā mtsi • tu ña ke ta ne pre ku¯ ¯cä ma kte wä nta
b4re tā kaṃ tu yä kne sa po¯ ¯ñä || klyau ṣi a [ṣ]· ·ī ·e [s]ā· – [se] ya śa kā me ya śe ntse wa sa npā tya ma s̝s̝a lle • se sa
b5ṅka meṃ wa sa npā¯ ¯t ya ska s – /// /// k·i sa ṅka ntse yai nmu pre ke ā rtto¯ ¯yä wa tka s̝s̝a lyñe s̝pa sa


(continues from THT 1113)

a1 n1n2n3aṣāṃ cai tane ostameṃ lateṃ – /// /// (yo)l(ai)na yāmorntasa (keke)n(o)ṣ tu yparwe māka onolmeṃ-
a2 -ntson4n5 aprasāt tāka • tirthi nāksanteśāsa(ntse) /// /// ·k· • ce nāki pāssintse pernesa poyśi pañäkte yātka anta-
a3 -rāyäntan6n7 parktsi • mäkte śpālm(e)ṃ wakītse śūke tākaṃ : solmeṃ bhājanne kuṣalleente tu saille
a4 n8n9n10 tākaṃ śpālmeṃ wat naumiye tākaṃ : tuente ra(ta)ṣalleprakrona yasnane taṣalleperak śaumontse
a5 n11 kalpäṣṣälle • mäkte wat lānte soy – – ·e – – – – (ya)m(a)ṣ(ṣ)äl(l)e tākaṃ k(us)e intrintasa solme tākaṃ ṣaña-
b1 -nmasan12n13 kekenu ceu yapoy amāci(nta) a(rt)t(as)k(e)nträ l(ānt) y(ā)mts(i) – mp(a) t(asemane) kus(e) su onolme tāk(aṃ) intrintasa
b2 n14 solmeyolaina yāmorntasakekenu aṣāṃ mäsketrä po(y)ś(iṃ) pañäktentse pelaikneṣṣepi cakrawartti lānte so-
b3 -yn15 nessiceu pañäkte yātka wasatpāt yāmtsitu ñake tane preku-c mäkte wänta-
b4 -ren16n17n18n19n20 tākaṃ tu yäknesa poñklyauṣi aṣ(an)ī(k)e sā(ṅk) se yaśakāme yaśentse wasanpāt yamaṣṣälle • se sa-
b5 -ṅkameṃn20n21n22n23 wasanpāt yaskas(trä) /// /// k(ru)i saṅkantse yainmu preke ārttoy watkäṣṣälyñe ṣpä sa-


(continues from THT 1113)

a1 [were] not worthy, went from the house here [and] (were ordained, [although they]) [were] endowed with (ev)il deeds. Thereupon [in] many beings
a2 disbelief arose. The Tīrthikas reproached: (They do damage to the) teaching. To keep away this reproach the Omniscient, the Buddha, commanded
a3 to enquire about obstacles. Just like juice that is excellent [and] exquisite shall be poured into an undamaged vessel, where it will thus retain its taste,
a4 or [like] a jewel that is most beautiful shall not be put (aside(?)) somewhere, [but shall] be put into [a] solid treasury [or shall] be let have by a trustworthy man,
a5 or like a prince who is impeccable with regard to [his] mental powers [and]
b1 [who] is well endowed with the arts, .... shall be made (king) [and] the ministers of the country gladly agree that he be made (king, just so) the being that is impeccable with regard to [its] mental powers
b2 and not endowed with evil deeds, is worthy to be a son of the Omniscient, the Buddha, the law-king ruling the world.
b3 Such a being the Buddha has commanded to be ordained. I will here [and] now ask you about them. Say as the matter
b4 is! Let the venerable community hear! This Yaśakāma, Yaśa’s [= abbrev. of Vimalayaśa] [candidate] to be ordained
b5 asks the community to ordain [him] (with Yaśa [as] upādhyāya). If the present moment pleases the community and it [be] the wish of the community


a3+ [Just] as when [the taste of a] juice is excellent and distinguished, it is to be poured into an intact bowl where it will keep; or when a jewel is splendid, it is not to be put away, [but] it is to be put in a firmly [closed] treasury, [or] it is to be taken charge of by a trustworthy person; or [just] as when the son of a king is to be made king, who has intact senses [lit. who is complete of senses] and masters [lit. is provided with] the arts, [then] the ministers of the land agree to make him king—comparable to that a being who has intact senses [and] does not bear [lit. is provided with] bad deeds is worthy to be a son of the omniscient Buddha, of the cakravartin king of the law. (Peyrot 2013c: 701)
b3+ Now I will ask you this here. How the matter is, say it in that way! (Peyrot 2013c: 659)


Philological commentary

The supplementation and commentaries follow Schmidt 1986b: 21, 139-140.
n3 The gap contains about 8 akṣaras.
n5 The gap contains about 6 akṣaras.
n18 The gap contains about 7 akṣaras.
n19 se has no correspondence in the Skt. text.
n20 The section of Tocharian text beginning with klyauṣi translates the Skt. text following below (THT 1115 b5 – THT 1116 a2). The Skt. version may be supplemented with the help of the text restored from Turfan finds by Härtel 1956 §37, p. 85: TB: klyauṣi aṣ(an)ī(k)e sā(ṅk) se yaśakāme yaśentse wasanpāt yamaṣṣälle • se saṅkameṃ wasanpāt yaskas(trä upādhyāyeṃ yaśentsa) k(ru)i saṅkantse yainmu preke ārttoy watkäṣṣälyñe ṣpä sa(ṅkantse) /// Skt.: śṛṇotu bhadanta saṃghaḥ ayaṃ (yaśakāma yaśasy=upasaṃpatpre)k(ṣ)ī -- saṃghād upadaṃ yācate yaśasyo(pādhyāye)na sacet sa(ṃ)ghasya prā(ptakālaḥ kṣamata ājñā ca saṃghasya) ....


According to Schmidt 1986b: iv-v this ms. comes either from Qizil or from Tumšuq.
This leaf is preserved in its full width and consists of 4 pieces. To the right of the string hole lines 1-2 are missing over a stretch of 7 and 5 cm respectively.
The original ms. was 29 cm wide and 5.6 cm high, with the string hole 6.5 cm from the left margin. It was written by at least three hands: scribe 1, a beautiful, delicate script, from leaf 1 to 11 a1; scribe 2, distinguished by a number of orthographical idiosyncrasies/errors, from leaf 11 a1 to and including 19; scribe 3 from leaf 20 to end. The final leaves A and B THT 1123 and THT 1124 may have been written either by scribe 2 or a fourth hand. Cf. Schmidt 1986b: v, 2, 4-5
The leaf is in hand 3.

Linguistic commentary

n1 onolmeṃntso for onolmeṃts.
n2 The supplementation (keke)n(o)ṣ is based on yolaina yāmorntasa mā kekenu in b2.
n4 śāsa is probably to be supplemented to śāsa(näntse) (sic!) A trace of the s of the genitive ending is still visible.
n6 wakītse for wakitse; bhājanne for bhājaṃne.
n7 saille is the Ger. II of sain- ‘lean on, rely on’.
n8 perak for perāk.
n9 yasna (Pl. Fem.), probably ‘treasury’, seems to correspond to TA Pl. pāśināñ. To this also would belong yäsnā- (THT 404 b1), which in Sieg and Siegling 1953: 269 and Thomas 1957: 119 has been corrected and supplemented to yästā(r)- ‘the double amount each’, but which rather should be supplemented to read yäsnā(meṃ) ‘from the treasuries’.
n10 perak sic! for perāk.
n11 intrintasa for indrintasa.
n12 amācinta for amācänta; ceu for cau; intrintintasa for indrintasa.
n13 y(ā)mts(i) – [m]p·: the value of the first element of the ligatura remains uncertain. Within the given context it may be possible to restore (tu)[m]p(a).
n14 cakrawartti for cakravārtti.
n15 nessi for nestsi; ceu for cau; wasatpāt for wasaṃtpāt.
n16 wasantpāt for wasaṃtpāt.
n17 The equation TB aṣ(an)ī(k)e = Skt. bhadanta is remarkable. It shows that Tocharian monks related Skt. bhadanta attributively – either as the first element of a compound (bhadanta- or as a Nom.Sg.Masc. (= bhadantaḥ) – to saṃghaḥ: “Let/May the venerable community hear!”. Among European scholars, however, it is usually regarded as a Voc.Pl.: “Let/May, oh venerable ones, the community hear!”. On a historical explanation of bhadanta cf. Rhys Davids and Stede 1921 q.v.
n21 wasantpāt for wasaṃtpāt; krui for kwri; watkäṣṣälyñe for watkäṣṣälñe.
n22 The equation TB ārttoy = Skt. kṣamate allows us to better define the meaning of ārtt-. It thus means ‘to favour, approve of, love, praise, Skt. kṣam-’, which makes sense in all attested occurrences.
n23 The supplementation to sa(ṅkantse) is prompted by the Skt. model saṃghasya, cf. also THT 1116 a1.


Online access

IDP: THT 1114; TITUS: THT 1114


Tamai 2014a: 381-382; Tamai 2007a: №1114; Schmidt 1986b: 21, 55-56


Peyrot 2013c: a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 (701), b3 b4 (659); Schmidt 1986b: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (89-91); Tamai 2014a: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (381-382)


Härtel 1956

Härtel, Herbert. 1956. Karmavācanā. Formulare für den Gebrauch im buddhistischen Gemeindeleben aus ostturkestanischen Sanskrit-Handschriften. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden, III. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Peyrot 2013c

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013c. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Rhys Davids and Stede 1921

Rhys Davids, Thomas William, and William Stede. 1921. Pāli-English Dictionary. London: Pāli Text Society.

Schmidt 1986b

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1986b. “Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes.” {Habilitation}.

Sieg and Siegling 1953

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1953. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 2. Fragmente Nr. 71-633. Edited by Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection.

Tamai 2014a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2014a. “The Tocharian Karmavācanā.” Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013 17: 365–94.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”