• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 1123

Known as:THT 1123; KVāc A
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés. "THT 1123". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 22 Feb. 2024).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:THT 1102-1125
Preceding fragment:THT 1122
Following fragment:THT 1124
Material: ink on wood tablet
Size (h × w):5.6 × 29 cm
Number of lines:5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from THT 1122)

a1/// – t·¯ ¯r mā tä rne (–) sa la rau ·ñ· ///
a2/// – lyñe e nä ṣṣä [ly]ñ· • ta rne sa wä rpa na l· ///
a3/// ·ā tsi ce ke tpa pā ṣo ñe sū ṣa mā ne pa pā ///
a4/// ·ä pa pā ṣo rñe [ṣ]o tri ste po kre ntau nä¯ ¯t· pa ///
a5/// – [ṣṣ]i tse we we ño rste : [c]· ///
b1/// ·v· [d]gu ṇā sa rve ṣāṃ tu ra mta [k]e ///
b2/// [le] ste po ā ñmtsa [t]e pa pā ṣo rñ· sa k·· l· ///
b3/// [ā] [kl]yi lyñe spa ktāṃ ne pa pā rñe no te ke te mai y[y]· ///
b4/// lau mā ne saṃ e [ṣ]·e ña kti ske nte vi ṣnu ma hi ///
b5/// ¯ts mai yya [n]e [ka] lpā sta tu sā k·a ///

(continues on THT 1124)


(continues from THT 1122)

a1 n1n2 /// (pā)t(ä)r mātärne (tai)sa larau(w)ñ(e) ///
a2 n3n4 /// (we)lyñe enäṣṣälyñ(e)tarnesa wärpanal(e) ///
a3 n5n6 /// (k)ātsi ce ket papāṣo«r»ñe ṣamāne papā(ṣorñe) ///
a4 n7n8 /// ·ä papāṣorñe ṣotri ste po krentaunät(s) pa(pāṣorñe) ///
a5 n9n10 /// (kä)ṣṣitse weweñor ste : c· ///
b1 n10n11 ///
·v·dguṇā ··sarveṣāṃ
tu ramtä ke ///
b2 n12n13 /// …le ste po āñmtsa te papāṣorñ(e)sa k(al)l(aṃ) ///
b3 n14n15 /// āklyilyñe spaktāṃne papā«ṣo»rñe no te kete maiyy(ane) ///
b4 n16n17 /// lau mā nesäṃ eṣ(k)e ñakti skente viṣnu mahi(śvare) ///
b5 n18n19 /// …ts maiyyane kälpāstä tusāk(s)a ///

(continues on THT 1124)


(continues from THT 1122)

a1 (With) awe [and] shyness .... (thus you shall) love ([your] teacher like) father [and] mother ....
a2 .... speech [and] instruction (by [your] teacher) [you] shall receive with [an inclination of your] head....
a3 ... Why so? Because [only] the one, who [possesses] moral conduct, [is] a monk. Moral con(duct) ....
a4 .... Moral conduct is the sign of all virtues. Mor(al conduct)....
a5 .... is a saying by (the Buddha), the teacher ....
b1 .... your merits ... for(?) all. Thus ....
b2 ... (If(?)) .... is, [then] you can obtain this with your whole self through moral conduct. ...
b3 ... study (of the ...) [and] moral conduct [in] service, however, [are] this, through the power of which (one) ....
b4 .... is not (obtainment(?)). So far(?) as the gods [such as] Viṣṇu, Mahe(śvara and so on) are, ....
b5 .... (all that(?)) you obtain through the power of the (three diamonds). Exactly therefore....

(continues on THT 1124)


Philological commentary

The supplementation and commentaries follow Schmidt 1986: 32, 142.
n9 The final syllable in this line ([c·]) could also be [v·], but hardly .
n10 The remains of a verse in Sanskrit are too scanty to allow for identification.


According to Schmidt 1986: iv-v the ms. comes either from Qizil of from Tumšuq.
THT 1125.e could belong to this leaf, cf. Schmidt 1986: 34-45.
A larger fragment from the centre of a leaf, to the right of the string hole, consisting of 4 pieces, about 9 cm wide. The exact place of this leaf within the whole ms. is uncertain since the leaf number is not preserved, but it seems to belong towards the end.
The original ms. was 29 cm wide and 5.6 cm high, with the string hole 6.5 cm from the left margin. It was written by at least three hands: scribe 1, a beautiful, delicate script, from leaf 1 to 11 a1; scribe 2, distinguished by a number of orthographical idiosyncrasies/errors, from leaf 11 a1 to and including 19; scribe 3 from leaf 20 to end. The final leaves A and B THT 1123 and THT 1124 may have been written either by scribe 2 or a fourth hand. Cf. Schmidt 1986: v, 2, 6

Linguistic commentary

n1 larauwñe for larauñe.
n2 pātär mātärne sic! For this line cf. THT 1109 b 2.
n3 welyñe for welñe; enäṣṣälyñe for enäṣṣälñe; wärpanale for wärpanalle.
n4 enäṣṣälyñe sic! The text in this line is repeated word by word in THT 1109 b4.
n5 kātsifor kāttsi; mistaken papāṣoñe for papāṣṣorñe; papāṣorñe for papāṣṣorñe.
n6 papāṣoñe sic! and to be corrected to papāṣorñe. The last word in this line is probably also papāṣorñe or a derivation of it.
n7 papāṣorñe for papāṣṣorñe; krentaunäts for krentaunaṃts.
n8 krentaunäts sic! and to be corrected to krentaunaṃts. The last word in this line could once again be papāṣorñe (cf. line a 3).
n11 ramtä for ramt.
n12 papāṣorñesa for papāṣṣorñesa; mistaken papāṣorñe for papāṣṣorñe.
n13 The only way to supplement the final word in this line would be the sub. kallaṃ.
n14 āklyilyñe for aklyilñe.
n15 papārñe sic! and to be corrected to papāṣorñe.
n16 eṣke for eṃṣke.
n17 viṣnu sic! for viṣṇu.
n18 kälpāstä for kälpāst.
n19 The beginning of this line may perhaps be supplemented to tarya naumiyentaṃts.


Online access

IDP: THT 1123; TITUS: THT 1123


Tamai 2014: 390-391; Tamai 2007a: №1123; Schmidt 1986: 32, 65


Schmidt 1986: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (105-106); Tamai 2014: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (390-391)



“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Schmidt 1986

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1986. “Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes.” {Habilitation}.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection.

Tamai 2014

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2014. “The Tocharian Karmavācanā.” Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013 17: 365–94.