• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 1109

Known as:THT 1109; KVāc 17
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés. "THT 1109". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 06 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:THT 1102-1125
Preceding fragment:THT 1108
Following fragment:THT 1110
Material: ink on wood tablet
Size (h × w):5.6 × 29 cm
Number of lines:5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from THT 1108)

a1ma lkau wa ṣe yeṃ cai pa stä tsä /// /// ·[yā] yeṃ o sta meṃ lna ṣyeṃ a nā sa – ski ye ntra we lyñe e nä ṣä lyñe mā [ka] ///
a2te ki ne spa ktaṃ mā ka lpā ṣyeṃ [t]· – na kṣ· y· ntra a n[ā]¯ ¯s – nt· śa ke ñi ṣa mā ni ce [n]· k· pā ssi tse pe lki¯ ¯ñ pä ñi kte u ///
a3tka ma kte ka tta ka ñe ne pā ce¯ ¯r – [ce]¯ ¯r ma ske t – ·[ai] – – – – ·o lo ·[eṃ] – l· – – r·e [n]e ri tta ṣä ·tu mpa ta se [m]· ///
a4kta ñe pe le kne ne u pa dhyā ye sai¯ ¯m – rma· ·[y]· l[o] meṃ – – – – – – – – ṣṣ· kuse ṅke ta¯ ¯ñ ta ne me ṅki tā – [ṃ] – – – –
a5le ki sā tke sa wa rñai te ki ne ṅke s[p]· – – – – ñ[c]tai [s]· – – – – – – – – kuse ṅke ku lype le tā kaṃ ñca [s]ū ·ra – – – – –
b1[r]m· a rā ñe ṣṣe pa lska lyñe sa wa· ñ· /// /// ·[t]· m· c· mp· m[o] tā kaṃ tu ṅke a le – – – –
b2cä ta¯ ¯ñ no ma kte mā ta¯ ¯r pā ta¯ ¯r ne tai – – – dhy[ā] ye nne – – – – – – – [l]· pe rne ka lpo ṣne tai sa u – – – – – –
b3ya ma ṣä le sta rca pe rne ka lpo ṣne te u pa – – ·e [y]· – – – – – – – – ·e – – dhyā ye we ñco e na sta – – – – –
b4spa rto le u pa dhyā ye tse p[e] – kne ṣṣ[e] wa tka ṣ· ly[ñ]· – ñc[ā] l· u p· dhy[ā] ye tse we lyñe e nä ṣä lyñe ta rne ne wä [r]pa na – – – – –
b5u pā dhyā ye tse spa ktaṃ nne a – – [t]e [ma] [s]·e le ce ñ· ·e – [kau] na we ñau cwe ntsi tu we· ts· p[o]¯ ¯ñ ai śai te pyā mtsa¯ ¯r śau la sū ñ·¯ ¯ś – – –

(continues on THT 1110)


(continues from THT 1108)

a1 n1n2 mälkauwa ṣeyeṃ cai pästä tsä(lpiyenträ) /// /// (upādh)yāyeṃ ostameṃ lnaṣyeṃ anāsä (mä)skiyenträ welyñe enäṣälyñekä(lpāṣyeṃ)
a2 n3 tekine spaktaṃkälpāṣyeṃ t(irthi) nakṣ(i)y(e)nträ anās (ske)nt(e) śakeñi ṣamāni ce n(ā)k(i) pāssitse pelkiñ päñikte u(pādhyāyeṃ) (yā)-
a3 -tkan4n5n6n7 mäkte kattakäñene pācer (mā)cer mäsket(rä) (s)ai(m) – – – (y)olo(m)eṃ (a)l(asträ) (ka)r(ts)ene rittaṣä(ṃ) tumpa tasem(ane) (pañi)-
a4 -ktäñen8n9 peleknene upadhyāye saim (pä)rma(ṅk) y(o)lomeṃ – – – – – – (ritta)ṣṣ(äṃ) kuse ṅke tañ tane meṅki tā(ka)ṃ – – – –
a5 n10n11 leki sātkesa warñai tekine ṅke sp(aktāṃ) (yamaṣäṃ)ñ-c tais(a) – – – – – – – – kuse ṅke kulypele tākaṃñ-ca sū(t)rä – – (abhidhā)-
b1 -rm(ä)n12n13n14 arāñeṣṣe palskalyñesa wa(r)ñ(ai) /// /// ·t· m(ā) c(ä)mp(a)mo tākaṃ tu ṅke ale(k)(yamaṣäṃ)-
b2 -cän14n15n16 tañ no mäkte mātar pātarne tai(sa) (upā)dhyāyenne – – – – – – – l· perne kälpoṣne taisa u(pādhyāyenne) – –
b3 n17n18 yamaṣäle star-ca perne kälpoṣne te upa(dhyāyenn)e y· – – – – – – – – ·e (upā)dhyāye weñ-co enasta(r-c) – – – –
b4 n19n20 spartole upadhyāyetse pe(lai)kneṣṣe watkäṣ(ä)lyñ(e) (a)ñcāl(i) up(ā)dhyāyetse welyñe enäṣälyñe tarnene wärpana(le) – – – –
b5 n21 upādhyāyetse spaktaṃnne a(lālä)te mäs(k)ele ce ñ(ak)e (re)kauna weñau-c wentsi tu we(k)ts(e) poñ aiśai te pyāmtsar śaulasū ñ(i)ś – – –

(continues on THT 1110)


(continues from THT 1108)

a1 ... were bound. They (were) releas(ed.) (The others, however, who) went from the house (without a teach)er, [they] were without refuge [anātha]. They rec(eived) neither proclamation [nor] instruction,
a2 nor service in sickness. The T(īrthikas) reproached: Without refuge (are) the śākya-monks!
a2+ To protect from this reproach the Buddha has appointed the u(pādhyāya).
a3+ Just like, in householdership, father [and] (mo)ther are protection [and] refuge, (keep [one] away) from evil [and] attach [one] to the (good), comparable to this the Upādhyāya [is] protection [and] re(fuge) in the law of the (Bud)dha, (keeps [one] away) from evil [and] (attaches one to the good).
a5 Whatever deprivation may be [in store] for you here, (he does) you (service) in sickness with (food, drink,) a bed, remedies, and so on.
a5+ Thus .... whatever your desire may be, (he removes(?) the doubts that have risen in you [such as]) compunction about the sūtra, (vinaya, abhdharma,) [the existence(?) as] an āraṇyaka [monk]. and so on.
b1+ (....) (If he himself) should not be able [to do so], (he will grant(?)) you that (through(?)) another.
b2 You, however, (shall love) the upādhyāya like father [and] mother.
b2+ (As) one who has gained honour, as such you shall (honour the upādhyāya).
b3 [As(?)] with one who has gained honour, so(?) (with a) upā(dhyāya) .....
b4 (When the upā)dhyāya speaks to you [or] isntructs (you), [you] shall behave (in this way): A commandment from the upādhyāya [you shall] receive [with] hands folded together, speech [and] instruction from the upādhyāya [you shall receive] with [an inclination of] the head.
b5 (Thus) [you] shall be (tire)less in the service of the upādhyāya. The words, that I now give you to say, these say loudly: Pay heed to this, venerable one! I, (N.N.,)

(continues on THT 1110)


a3 Wie Vater [und] Mutter ... vom Bösen (fernhalten) [und] an das (Gute) binden, ... (Schmidt 1974: 501, fn. 2)
a4+ Whatever need you may have here, in case of illness he serves you with (food, drink), bed, medicine, etc. (cf 49, 82) (Peyrot 2013c: 706)
a5+ Whatever you desire, he will (remove your doubts) like thoughts about the sūtra, (vinaya [and] abhidharma), or about the Āraṇya monk etc. (cf 49, 82) (Peyrot 2013c: 706)
b1+ If he is not able [to do it] (himself), then he will (let) somebody else (do it) for you. (cf 49, 82) (Peyrot 2013c: 706)
b3+ If the upādhyāya speaks to you or instructs you, you are to behave in this way. (cf 50, 82) (Peyrot 2013c: 700)
b5 The words which I now tell you to say, say that aloud! (cf 50, 83) (Peyrot 2013c: 659)
b5+ Pay attention, reverend! I (of this name) ask you [to be] my upādhyāya. [Please] be, reverend, my upādhyāya! With you, reverend, as upādhyāya I will be ordained. (Peyrot 2013c: 294)


Philological commentary

The supplementation and commentaries follow Schmidt 1986b: 15-16, 133-134.
TB: aiśai te pyāmtsar śaulasū ñ(i)ś (te-ñemtsa) ci śaulasontä upādhyāyeṃ yaskaske(mar t)w(e śaulasu ñi upādhyāye ptā)k(a) ci śaulasotsa upadhyāyetsa ñiś wasanpāt yāmu
Skt.: samanvāhara bhadanta aham evaṃnāmā bhadantaṃ upādhyāyaṃ yāce bhadanto me upādhyāyo bhavatu bhadantena upādhyāyena upasaṃpatsye |
The TB text aiśai te pyāmtsar to wasanpāt yāmu (lines THT 1109 a5 – THT 1110 a1) has a quite exact equivalent in Bhu p. 21, 20-22:
n2 The gap contains about 9 akṣaras.
n6 On (y)olo(m)eṃ (a)l(asträ ka)r(ts)ene rittaṣä(ṃ) cf. A 260 b6 (omä)skenäṣ ālsanträ • || kāswoneyaṃ ritwseñc.
n14 The gap contains about 15 akṣaras.


According to Schmidt 1986b iv-v the ms. comes either from Qizil or from Tumšuq.
From this leaf 4 fragments are preserved: one from the left side reaching up to the string hole, about 7-8 cm wide; to the right of the string hole and connecting to the first a smaller fragment from the centre of the leaf, 4 cm wide and containing remnants of 3 lines; a small fragment from the centre of the leaf, about 2 cm wide and containing remnants of 2 lines; and a large fragment from the right side, consisting of 4 pieces, about 13 cm wide and connecting to the second fragment at a distance of about 1 cm. The right corner is missing.
The original ms. was 29 cm wide and 5.6 cm high, with the string hole 6.5 cm from the left margin. It was written by at least three hands: scribe 1, a beautiful, delicate script, from leaf 1 to 11 a1; scribe 2, distinguished by a number of orthographical idiosyncrasies/errors, from leaf 11 a1 to and including 19; scribe 3 from leaf 20 to end. The final leaves A and B THT 1123 and THT 1124 may have been written either by scribe 2 or a fourth hand. Cf. Schmidt 1986b: v, 2, 4
This leaf is in hand 2.

Linguistic commentary

n1 pästä for päst; welyñe for welñe; lnaṣyeṃ for lännaṣyeṃ; anāsä for anās; mäskiyenträ for mäskīyentär; enäṣälyñe for enäṣṣälñe.
n3 spaktaṃ for spaktāṃ; nakṣiyenträ for nakṣīyentär; śakeñi for śakkeññi; pāssitse for pāssintse; päñikte for pañäkte.
n4 kattakäñene for kattākäññene; rittaṣäṃ for rittäṣṣäṃ; pañiktäñe for pañäktäññe.
n5 mäsket(rä) sic! Following rittaṣä(ṃ) at the end of this line a singular form must be supplemented here. The supplementation to (s)ai(m) is prompted by line a4. For (a)l(asträ) cf. TA āläṣträ.
n7 In this ms. the term ‘parents’ is rendered four times by pācer mācer (this leaf, line a3, as well as THT 1111 b4, THT 1115 a1 and THT 1123 a1) and once as mācer pācer (this leaf, line b2).
n8 peleknene for pelaiknene; upadhyāye for upādhyāye; rittaṣṣäṃ for rittäṣṣäṃ.
n9 peleknene sic! and should be corrected to pelaiknene. upadhyāye sic! for upādhyāye. For the supplementation to (ritta)ṣṣ(äṃ) cf. line a3.
n10 sātkesa for sāṃtkesa; kulypele for kwälypelle; tākaṃñca for tākañ-c; abhidhārmä for abhidhārm; yamaṣäṃ-cä for yamaṣṣäṃ-c.
n11 tākaṃñca sic! for tākaṃñcä (= tākaṃñc).
n12 arāñeṣṣe for arāññeṣṣe; alek for allek.
n13 The form c·mp(a)mo is more likely to be supplemented to cimpamo than to cämpamo, since ä in this ms. always appears as i in the vicinity of palatals, such as in repeatedly attested pañikte (for pañäkte) and ñiś (for ñäś). Cf. also Krause and Thomas 1960: §15,1.
n15 mātar for mātär.
n16 The first word in this line is probably (yamaṣäṃ)cä.
n17 yamaṣäle for yamaṣṣälle; star-c for star-ca; upadhyāyenne for upādhyāyenne; weñ-co for weñ-c.
n18 starca sic! for starcä (= starc); upadhyāyenne sic! for upādhyāyenne; upadhyāye sic! for upādhyāye.
n19 upādhyāyetse for upādhyāyentse; spartole for sporttolle; watkäṣälyñe for watkäṣṣälñe; añcāli for añcali; welyñe for welñe; enäṣälyñe for enäṣṣälñe; wärpanale for wärpanalle.
n20 spartole sic! scribal error for sportole.
n21 upadhyāyetse for upādhyāyentse; spaktaṃnne for spaktāṃne; mäskele for mäskelle; śaulasū for śaulassu.


Complete Translation

Tamai 2014a: 374-375; Schmidt 1986b: 81-83

Online access

IDP: THT 1109; TITUS: THT 1109


Tamai 2014a: 374-375; Tamai 2007a: №1109; Schmidt 1986b: 15-16, 49-50


Peyrot 2013c: a4 a5 (706), a5 b1 (706), b1 b2 (706), b3 b4 (700), b5 (659), b5 THT 1110 a1 (294); Schmidt 1974: a3 (501, fn. 2)



“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Krause and Thomas 1960

Krause, Wolfgang, and Werner Thomas. 1960. Tocharisches Elementarbuch. Band I. Grammatik. Heidelberg: Winter.

Peyrot 2013c

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013c. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Schmidt 1986b

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1986b. “Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes.” {Habilitation}.

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection.

Tamai 2014a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2014a. “The Tocharian Karmavācanā.” Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013 17: 365–94.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”