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THT 1111

Known as:THT 1111; KVāc 19
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés (collaborator). "THT 1111". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-tht1111 (accessed 26 May 2024).

Edition

Editor:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés (collaborator)

Provenience

Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Language:Skt.; TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya
Verse/Prose:prose

Object

Manuscript:THT 1102-1125
Preceding fragment:THT 1110
Following fragment:THT 1112
Material: ink on wood tablet
Form:Poṭhī
Size (h × w):5.6 × 29 cm
Number of lines:5

Images

Transliteration

(continues from THT 1110)

a1ye ṣāṃ mā yu ṣmaṃ tāṃ kṣa m· – vi ma l· – – – /// /// ya ḥ ya śa kā ma ma nu śā si ṣya ti te tu ṣṇīṃ ye ṣā[ṃ] na kṣa
a2ma te • te bha ṣaṃ tāṃ saṃ ma ta [ḥ] – – ghe na vi ma la ya – – – – – ḥ ya ḥ ya śa kā ma ma nu śā sa yi ṣya ti kṣa ma ta e va saṃ gha
a3sya ya smā ttu ṣṇīṃ me [v]· [m]· ta ddhā ra ya ta ḥ – – – – nu śā sa ke ne sa lye pi pa rna ya le wa saṃ npā tya ma lye ṣa
a4nmi reṃ pka nte ya mi ña na wä nta rwa pr[e] – [le] || [pa] /// /// ¯ e mpreṃ we lyñe tse pre ke sā [au] [s]pa we lyñe tse pre śi ya ta ne
a5ñi ści pre ku kuse ta¯ ¯ñ tu meṃ ta tā – – /// /// ·[ā] – tā ka¯ ¯r mā ta tā ka¯ ¯r śa rsa ṣṣä le e ṅkwe ne stä so
b1lm[e] i kaṃ pi kwa la ñe ne stä ma [p]i /// /// ·[k]· ku ne stä ma pi ka ryau ne stä ma pi we re te ma ṣe ne stä ma
b2pi lā nte wa nta re śce ne stä ma pi [l]· ·[t]· – k· /// [ś]c· ka stu na pa lska na tä ma pi ke tra ca pe ri ne stä to tka tsa
b3mo wa¯ ¯t ma ske ntä rno e [ṅ]· we tse toṃ te [y]·· – – – – – [n]m· ko ṣṭä kā swo pi śtra kṣai a pa smā rma pi ksa te yä kne tse te ki
b4ne saṃ cä śā ma ne ta¯ ¯ñ pā ·e· – ce[¯] [¯r] plā ksa tai me kre ·[e] – – – n· o sta meṃ laṃ tsi ma pi nau¯ ¯ṣ ṣa mā ne ṣai yta kwri weṃ ṣa mā ne ṣai¯ ¯m pre kṣa
b5le yma su śa kṣa pā tä· – – rkā sta – – – ·ai – – – [s]· ke tse a [n]ta rā yä nta pre kṣa lo na tu meṃ a nu śā sa ke tse wa saṃ npā –

(continues on THT 1112)

Transcription

(continues from THT 1110)

yeṣāṃm āyuṣmaṃtāṃ kṣam(ate) vimal(ayaśam) /// /// yaḥ yaśakāmam anuśāsiṣyati te tuṣṇīṃ yeṣāṃ na kṣa-
a2-maten3
te bhaṣaṃtāṃ saṃmataḥ (saṃ)ghena vimalaya(śo) (nuśāsaka)ḥ yaḥ yaśakāmam anuśāsayiṣyati kṣamata eva saṃgha-
a3-syan4
yasmāt tuṣṇīṃm ev(a)m (e)tad dhārayataḥ
– – – (a)nuśāsake nesalyepi parna yale wasaṃnpāt yamalye ṣa-
a4-nmireṃn5n6n7n8n9 pkänte-yamiñana wäntarwa pre(kṣa)lepä(klyauṣ) /// /// (tañ) empreṃ welyñetse preke auspa welyñetse preśiya tane
a5n10n11n12 ñiś ci preku kuse tañ tumeṃ tatā(kar) /// /// (m)ā (ta)tākar tatākar śarsaṣṣäle eṅkwe nestä so-
b1-lmen13n14n15 ikäṃ-pikwalañe nestä mapi /// /// ·k·ku nestä mapi käryau nestä mapi weretemaṣe nestä ma-
b2-pin16n17n18n19n20n21n22 lānte wantareśce nestä mapi l(ān)t(e) /// (lāntä)śc(ä) kastuna palskanatä mapi ketra ca peri nestä totka tsa-
b3-mon22n23n24 wat mäskentär no eṅ(k)wetse toṃ te y(äknetsana) (teka)nm(a) koṣṭä kāswo piśträ kṣai apasmār mapi ksa te yäknetse teki
b4n25n26n27n28 nesaṃ-cä śāmane tañ pā(c)e(r) (mā)cer plāksatai-me kre·e – – – n(o) ostameṃ laṃtsi mapi nauṣ ṣamāne ṣaiytä kwri weṃ ṣamāne ṣaim prekṣa-
b5-len29 ymasu śäkṣapātä(nta) (cä)rkāsta – – – ·ai(anuśā)s(a)ketse antarāyänta prekṣalona tumeṃ anuśāsaketse wasaṃnpā(t)

(continues on THT 1112)

Translation

(continues from THT 1110)

a1Whoever [of the] venerable ones agree (to appoint) Vimal(ayaśa [as] instructor), who shall instruct Yaśakāma, these [be] silent. Whoever do not
a2agree, these shall speak. The (com)munity has appointed Vimalayaśa [as] (instructor), who shall instruct Yaśakāma. The community agrees
a3for they [are] silent. Thus you shall assert this. (Thereupon) the one to be instructor shall go out [and] shall interrogate the novice to be ordained
a4[with regard to] any obstacles [antarāyikā dharmāḥ]: (Listen, venerable one! This [now] for you [is]) the time to speak the truth. This [is] the time to speak according to the facts. Therefore
a5I will ask you, how it is with you, [and] thereupon ([you] shall speak:) what is, (as it is); what is (not) [you] shall have be known just as it is not: [1.] Are you male?
b1[2.] Are you full 20 years of age? [3.] (You are) not (a slave)? [4.] You are (not other people’s peon? [5.] You have not been bought? [6.] You are not a debtor by bankruptcy? [7.]
b2You are not a mercenary [or: official?] of the king? [8.] (You have) not (sinned against) the king? [9.] You are (not secretly(?)) considering a conspiracy against the king? [10.] You are not indebted to anyone, neither a little
b3nor much? [11.] Now among men there are the following diseases: black leprosy, white leprosy, scrofula, tuberculosis [and] epilepsy. You do not suffer from one of these diseases?
b4[12.] Are your father [and] mother [still] alive? [13.] Have you asked their permission [and] (have you also received) the permission to go from the house? [14.] You have never been a monk before? If he says: I was a monk [before], he shall be asked:
b5Did you give up (the) commandment(s) with [careful] consideration [and] (do you [now, after careful consideration,] wish to return [to them]? Thus) the (instruct)or shall inquire about obstacles. After the instructor has asked the one to be ordained

(continues on THT 1112)

Other

a4+Now I will ask you [about] what [it is with] you. (Peyrot 2013b: 659)
b1You have not been bought, have you? (Peyrot 2013b: 366)
b4«You haven't been monk before, have you?» If he says, «I have been monk», [he is] to be asked: … (Peyrot 2013b: 701)

Commentary

Philological commentary

The supplementation and commentaries follow Schmidt 1986: 18-9, 137.
n2The gap contains about 9 syllables.
n8The gap contains 8 akṣaras.
n9pkänte yamiñana wäntarwa are the “obstacles” [Skt. antarāyikā dharmāḥ], i.e. circumstances preventing ordination.
n12The gap contains 7 akṣaras.
n15The gap contains about 12 akṣaras.
n21The gap contains 8 akṣaras.

Remarks

According to Schmidt 1986: iv-v, this ms. comes either from Qizil or from Tumšuq.
From this leaf 2 large fragments are preserved: from the left side, consisting of 2 pieces and about 11 cm wide; and the right half of the leaf, consisting of 2 pieces (of the smaller of which, about 2 cm high, only the verso is preserved) and about 13.5 cm wide. In the centre a strip of 2.5-8 cm is missing.
The original ms. was 29 cm wide and 5.6 cm high, with the string hole 6.5 cm from the left margin. It was written by at least three hands: scribe 1, a beautiful, delicate script, from leaf 1 to 11 a1; scribe 2, distinguished by a number of orthographical idiosyncrasies/errors, from leaf 11 a1 to and including 19; scribe 3 from leaf 20 to end. The final leaves A and B THT 1123 and THT 1124 may have been written either by scribe 2 or a fourth hand. Cf. Schmidt 1986: v, 2, 4
The leaf is in hand 2.

Linguistic commentary

n1 yeṣāṃm sic!
n3bhaṣaṃtāṃ must be corrected to bhāṣaṃtāṃ.
n4yale for yalle; wasaṃnpāt for wasaṃpāt.
n5pkänte-yamiñana for pkänte-yamiññana; prekṣale for prekṣalle; welyñetse for welñentse; preśiya for preściya.
n6tuṣṇīṃm sic! dhārayataḥ must be corrected to dhārayata. auspa is certainly to be read as such.
n7Here auspa, otherwise known as an adverbial ‘truly, indeed’, here is an adjective ‘true, BHS bhūta’.
n10nestä for nest.
n11śarsaṣṣäle sic! for śarsäṣṣäle.
n13ikäṃ-pikwalañe for ikäṃ-pikwalaññe; nestä for nest.
n14temaṣe: separation into individual words is uncertain. weretemaṣe, on the basis of its equivalent in the Chinese version, must mean something like ‘debtor by bankruptcy (?)’ (cf. Schmidt 1986: 137).
n16nestä for nest; lāntäścä for lāntäśc; palskanatä for pälskanat; ketra for ketara; ca for kca.
n17wantareśce probably corresponds to Skt. bhaṭa ‘mercenary’. The associated Nom.Pl. wäntreśśi THT 274 a4 is translated as ‘vermogenden’ (i.e. ‘men of property’) in Couvreur 1954c: 111.
n18The last syllable before the gap must be read either as k[a] or k[ā].
n19On the basis of the Chinese version kastuna, only attested here, must mean something like ‘secret assaults (?), conspiracy (?)’ (cf. Schmidt 1986: 137).
n20ca peri is probably to be regarded as a bahuvrīhi (ca-peri) meaning ‘having something as debt’.
n22tsamo = Skt. prabhūta ‘much, plenty, numerous’, Adv. ‘exceedingly’, pace Thomas 1985, who regards tsamo as a noun meaning ‘tumour, excrescence; increase, growth, welfare, prosperity, thriving’.
n23eṅkwetse for eṅkwentse.
n24koṣṭä = Skt. kuṣṭha ‘(black) leprosy’; piśträ =? Skt. gaṇḍa ‘scrofula’; kṣai = Skt. kṣaya ‘tubercolosis’; apasmār = Skt. apasmāra ‘epilepsy’.
n25nesaṃ-cä for nesaṃ-c; laṃtsi for lantsi; ṣaiytä for ṣait; prekṣale for prekṣalle.
n26plāksatai is a Pt. III of plāk-, Kaus. III ‘to ask for permission’.
n27kre·e (no certain supplementation), perhaps ‘permission’ [cf. TA ke].
n28The supplementation of the first syllable after the gap to no is relatively certain.
n29ymasu for imassu; śäkṣapātänta for śikṣapātänta; anuśāsaketse for anuśāsakentse; wasaṃnpāt for wasaṃpāt.

References

Online access

IDP: THT 1111; TITUS: THT 1111

Edition

Tamai 2014: 377-378; Tamai 2007a: №1111; Schmidt 1986: 18-19, 51-51

Translations

Peyrot 2013b: a4 a5 (659), b1 (366), b4 (701); Schmidt 1986: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (85-87); Tamai 2014: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (377-378)

Bibliography

Couvreur 1954c

Couvreur, Walter. 1954c. “Koetsjische literaire fragmenten uit de Berlijnse verzameling (naar aanleiding van Sieg & Siegling’s tocharische sprachreste).” Handelingen VIII der Zuidnederlandse Maatschappij voor Taal- en Letterkunde en Geschiedenis, 97–117.

IDP

“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1986

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1986. “Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes.” Habilitation.

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection. http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/tocharic/tht.htm.

Tamai 2014

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2014. “The Tocharian karmavācanā.” Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013 17: 365–94.

Thomas 1985

Thomas, Werner. 1985. “Toch. B tsamo < *tsämä́mo?” Indogermanische Forschungen 90: 88–93.

TITUS

Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/tocharic/thtframe.htm.