• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 1111

Known as:THT 1111; KVāc 19
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés. "THT 1111". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 04 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:THT 1102-1125
Preceding fragment:THT 1110
Following fragment:THT 1112
Material: ink on wood tablet
Size (h × w):5.6 × 29 cm
Number of lines:5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from THT 1110)

a1ye ṣāṃ mā yu ṣmaṃ tāṃ kṣa m· – vi ma l· – – – /// /// ya ḥ ya śa kā ma ma nu śā si ṣya ti te tu ṣṇīṃ ye ṣā[ṃ] na kṣa
a2ma te • te bha ṣaṃ tāṃ saṃ ma ta [ḥ] – – ghe na vi ma la ya – – – – – ḥ ya ḥ ya śa kā ma ma nu śā sa yi ṣya ti kṣa ma ta e va saṃ gha
a3sya ya smā ttu ṣṇīṃ me [v]· [m]· ta ddhā ra ya ta ḥ – – – – nu śā sa ke ne sa lye pi pa rna ya le wa saṃ npā tya ma lye ṣa
a4nmi reṃ pka nte ya mi ña na wä nta rwa pr[e] – [le] || [pa] /// /// ¯ e mpreṃ we lyñe tse pre ke sā [au] [s]pa we lyñe tse pre śi ya ta ne
a5ñi ści pre ku kuse ta¯ ¯ñ tu meṃ ta tā – – /// /// ·[ā] – tā ka¯ ¯r mā ta tā ka¯ ¯r śa rsa ṣṣä le e ṅkwe ne stä so
b1lm[e] i kaṃ pi kwa la ñe ne stä ma [p]i /// /// ·[k]· ku ne stä ma pi ka ryau ne stä ma pi we re te ma ṣe ne stä ma
b2pi lā nte wa nta re śce ne stä ma pi [l]· ·[t]· – k· /// [ś]c· ka stu na pa lska na tä ma pi ke tra ca pe ri ne stä to tka tsa
b3mo wa¯ ¯t ma ske ntä rno e [ṅ]· we tse toṃ te [y]·· – – – – – [n]m· ko ṣṭä kā swo pi śtra kṣai a pa smā rma pi ksa te yä kne tse te ki
b4ne saṃ cä śā ma ne ta¯ ¯ñ pā ·e· – ce[¯] [¯r] plā ksa tai me kre ·[e] – – – n· o sta meṃ laṃ tsi ma pi nau¯ ¯ṣ ṣa mā ne ṣai yta kwri weṃ ṣa mā ne ṣai¯ ¯m pre kṣa
b5le yma su śa kṣa pā tä· – – rkā sta – – – ·ai – – – [s]· ke tse a [n]ta rā yä nta pre kṣa lo na tu meṃ a nu śā sa ke tse wa saṃ npā –

(continues on THT 1112)


(continues from THT 1110)

yeṣāṃm āyuṣmaṃtāṃ kṣam(ate) vimal(ayaśam) /// /// yaḥ yaśakāmam anuśāsiṣyati te tuṣṇīṃ yeṣāṃ na kṣa-
a2 -maten3
• te bhaṣaṃtāṃ saṃmataḥ (saṃ)ghena vimalaya(śo) (nuśāsaka)ḥ yaḥ yaśakāmam anuśāsayiṣyati kṣamata eva saṃgha-
a3 -syan4
yasmāt tuṣṇīṃm ev(a)m (e)tad dhārayataḥ
– – – (a)nuśāsake nesalyepi parna yale wasaṃnpāt yamalye ṣa-
a4 -nmireṃn5n6n7n8n9 pkänte-yamiñana wäntarwa pre(kṣa)le ॥ pä(klyauṣ) /// /// (tañ) empreṃ welyñetse preke sā auspa welyñetse preśiya tane
a5 n10n11n12 ñiś ci preku kuse tañ tumeṃ tatā(kar) /// /// (m)ā (ta)tākar mā tatākar śarsaṣṣäle eṅkwe nestä so-
b1 -lmen13n14n15 ikäṃ-pikwalañe nestä mapi /// /// ·k·ku nestä mapi käryau nestä mapi weretemaṣe nestä ma-
b2 -pin16n17n18n19n20n21n22 lānte wantareśce nestä mapi l(ān)t(e) – k· /// (lāntä)śc(ä) kastuna palskanatä mapi ketra ca peri nestä totka tsa-
b3 -mon22n23n24 wat mäskentär no eṅ(k)wetse toṃ te y(äknetsana) (teka)nm(a) koṣṭä kāswo piśträ kṣai apasmār mapi ksa te yäknetse teki
b4 n25n26n27n28 nesaṃ-cä śāmane tañ pā(c)e(r) (mā)cer plāksatai-me kre·e – – – n(o) ostameṃ laṃtsi mapi nauṣ ṣamāne ṣaiytä kwri weṃ ṣamāne ṣaim prekṣa-
b5 -len29 ymasu śäkṣapātä(nta) (cä)rkāsta – – – ·ai – (anuśā)s(a)ketse antarāyänta prekṣalona tumeṃ anuśāsaketse wasaṃnpā(t)

(continues on THT 1112)


(continues from THT 1110)

a1 Whoever [of the] venerable ones agree (to appoint) Vimal(ayaśa [as] instructor), who shall instruct Yaśakāma, these [be] silent. Whoever do not
a2 agree, these shall speak. The (com)munity has appointed Vimalayaśa [as] (instructor), who shall instruct Yaśakāma. The community agrees
a3 for they [are] silent. Thus you shall assert this. (Thereupon) the one to be instructor shall go out [and] shall interrogate the novice to be ordained
a4 [with regard to] any obstacles [antarāyikā dharmāḥ]: (Listen, venerable one! This [now] for you [is]) the time to speak the truth. This [is] the time to speak according to the facts. Therefore
a5 I will ask you, how it is with you, [and] thereupon ([you] shall speak:) what is, (as it is); what is (not) [you] shall have be known just as it is not: [1.] Are you male?
b1 [2.] Are you full 20 years of age? [3.] (You are) not (a slave)? [4.] You are (not other people’s peon? [5.] You have not been bought? [6.] You are not a debtor by bankruptcy? [7.]
b2 You are not a mercenary [or: official?] of the king? [8.] (You have) not (sinned against) the king? [9.] You are (not secretly(?)) considering a conspiracy against the king? [10.] You are not indebted to anyone, neither a little
b3 nor much? [11.] Now among men there are the following diseases: black leprosy, white leprosy, scrofula, tuberculosis [and] epilepsy. You do not suffer from one of these diseases?
b4 [12.] Are your father [and] mother [still] alive? [13.] Have you asked their permission [and] (have you also received) the permission to go from the house? [14.] You have never been a monk before? If he says: I was a monk [before], he shall be asked:
b5 Did you give up (the) commandment(s) with [careful] consideration [and] (do you [now, after careful consideration,] wish to return [to them]? Thus) the (instruct)or shall inquire about obstacles. After the instructor has asked the one to be ordained

(continues on THT 1112)


a4+ Now I will ask you [about] what [it is with] you. (Peyrot 2013c: 659)
b1 You have not been bought, have you? (Peyrot 2013c: 366)
b4 «You haven't been monk before, have you?» If he says, «I have been monk», [he is] to be asked: … (Peyrot 2013c: 701)


Philological commentary

The supplementation and commentaries follow Schmidt 1986b: 18-9, 137.
n2 The gap contains about 9 syllables.
n8 The gap contains 8 akṣaras.
n9 pkänte yamiñana wäntarwa are the “obstacles” [Skt. antarāyikā dharmāḥ], i.e. circumstances preventing ordination.
n12 The gap contains 7 akṣaras.
n15 The gap contains about 12 akṣaras.
n21 The gap contains 8 akṣaras.


According to Schmidt 1986b: iv-v, this ms. comes either from Qizil or from Tumšuq.
From this leaf 2 large fragments are preserved: from the left side, consisting of 2 pieces and about 11 cm wide; and the right half of the leaf, consisting of 2 pieces (of the smaller of which, about 2 cm high, only the verso is preserved) and about 13.5 cm wide. In the centre a strip of 2.5-8 cm is missing.
The original ms. was 29 cm wide and 5.6 cm high, with the string hole 6.5 cm from the left margin. It was written by at least three hands: scribe 1, a beautiful, delicate script, from leaf 1 to 11 a1; scribe 2, distinguished by a number of orthographical idiosyncrasies/errors, from leaf 11 a1 to and including 19; scribe 3 from leaf 20 to end. The final leaves A and B THT 1123 and THT 1124 may have been written either by scribe 2 or a fourth hand. Cf. Schmidt 1986b: v, 2, 4
The leaf is in hand 2.

Linguistic commentary

n1 yeṣāṃm sic!
n3 bhaṣaṃtāṃ must be corrected to bhāṣaṃtāṃ.
n4 yale for yalle; wasaṃnpāt for wasaṃpāt.
n5 pkänte-yamiñana for pkänte-yamiññana; prekṣale for prekṣalle; welyñetse for welñentse; preśiya for preściya.
n6 tuṣṇīṃm sic! dhārayataḥ must be corrected to dhārayata. auspa is certainly to be read as such.
n7 Here auspa, otherwise known as an adverbial ‘truly, indeed’, here is an adjective ‘true, BHS bhūta’.
n10 nestä for nest.
n11 śarsaṣṣäle sic! for śarsäṣṣäle.
n13 ikäṃ-pikwalañe for ikäṃ-pikwalaññe; nestä for nest.
n14 temaṣe: separation into individual words is uncertain. weretemaṣe, on the basis of its equivalent in the Chinese version, must mean something like ‘debtor by bankruptcy (?)’ (cf. Schmidt 1986b: 137).
n16 nestä for nest; lāntäścä for lāntäśc; palskanatä for pälskanat; ketra for ketara; ca for kca.
n17 wantareśce probably corresponds to Skt. bhaṭa ‘mercenary’. The associated Nom.Pl. wäntreśśi THT 274 a4 is translated as ‘vermogenden’ (i.e. ‘men of property’) in Couvreur 1954a: 111.
n18 The last syllable before the gap must be read either as k[a] or k[ā].
n19 On the basis of the Chinese version kastuna, only attested here, must mean something like ‘secret assaults (?), conspiracy (?)’ (cf. Schmidt 1986b: 137).
n20 ca peri is probably to be regarded as a bahuvrīhi (ca-peri) meaning ‘having something as debt’.
n22 tsamo = Skt. prabhūta ‘much, plenty, numerous’, Adv. ‘exceedingly’, pace Thomas 1985b, who regards tsamo as a noun meaning ‘tumour, excrescence; increase, growth, welfare, prosperity, thriving’.
n23 eṅkwetse for eṅkwentse.
n24 koṣṭä = Skt. kuṣṭha ‘(black) leprosy’; piśträ =? Skt. gaṇḍa ‘scrofula’; kṣai = Skt. kṣaya ‘tubercolosis’; apasmār = Skt. apasmāra ‘epilepsy’.
n25 nesaṃ-cä for nesaṃ-c; laṃtsi for lantsi; ṣaiytä for ṣait; prekṣale for prekṣalle.
n26 plāksatai is a Pt. III of plāk-, Kaus. III ‘to ask for permission’.
n27 kre·e (no certain supplementation), perhaps ‘permission’ [cf. TA ke].
n28 The supplementation of the first syllable after the gap to no is relatively certain.
n29 ymasu for imassu; śäkṣapātänta for śikṣapātänta; anuśāsaketse for anuśāsakentse; wasaṃnpāt for wasaṃpāt.


Online access

IDP: THT 1111; TITUS: THT 1111


Tamai 2014a: 377-378; Tamai 2007a: №1111; Schmidt 1986b: 18-19, 51-51


Peyrot 2013c: a4 a5 (659), b1 (366), b4 (701); Schmidt 1986b: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (85-87); Tamai 2014a: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (377-378)


Couvreur 1954a

Couvreur, Walter. 1954a. “Koetsjische literaire fragmenten uit de Berlijnse verzameling (naar aanleiding van Sieg & Siegling’s Tocharische Sprachreste).” Handelingen VIII der Zuidnederlandse Maatschappij voor Taal- en Letterkunde en Geschiedenis, 97–117.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Peyrot 2013c

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013c. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1986b

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1986b. “Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes.” {Habilitation}.

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection.

Tamai 2014a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2014a. “The Tocharian Karmavācanā.” Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013 17: 365–94.

Thomas 1985b

Thomas, Werner. 1985b. “Toch. B tsamo < *tsämä́mo?” Indogermanische Forschungen 90: 88–93.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”