Work in progress

THT 1112

Known as:THT 1112; KVāc 20
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés. "THT 1112". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 25 Apr. 2024).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:THT 1102-1125
Preceding fragment:THT 1111
Following fragment:THT 1113
Material: ink on wood tablet
Size (h × w):5.6 × 29 cm
Number of lines:5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from THT 1111)

a1ya ma lye a nta rā yä pe pa rk[o]· [m]· /// /// ·[l]· : we wi na ṣṣo rmeṃ kau¯ ¯cä klye lle : a ñcā lṣa rn· [y]·
a2ma s̝a lle : we s̝s̝a lle : a nu śi ṣṭaṃ || [tu] – – – – – – – – lle || ya di pa ri śu ddha ā ga ccha tu || krui [ā] rsta re tā
a3kaṃ tu meṃ a nu śā ke ntse • te we s̝s̝a – – – – [dh]· nta rā yi kai rddha rmai || tu meṃ a nu śā ke ntse wa saṃ npā
a4tya ma lye ṣa nmī reṃ e neṃ ṅka a śa· [l]e – – – – – – – ·s· wa tka ṣle • tu meṃ pu ta nti meṃ wai ptā¯ ¯r a śa ri ntaṃ¯ ¯ts
a5[pai] yne wi nā s̝s̝a lle ṣe me pi ṣe me – – – – – – – – [ll]· : kau¯ ¯cä ru pne lkā s̝s̝a lle wa saṃ npā tya ska ske ma rcme·
b1[eṃ] ṣke na wa nti ta ṅtsi • po meṃ te yä· n· – – – – – – – m· na no – – wā [ca] ke¯ ¯śä a śa lle • e ne pre la ma
b2s̝s̝a lle || ta ne ta rya wa ssi pā trai a /// /// yeṃ ya ṣṣā t· || ta ña ke wa sa npā¯ ¯t ya ska s̝s̝a lle
b3sta¯ ¯rc || ta ne wa sa· [p]· – – – – – – st· • ci ntā ma ni wa me rmpa ta se ma ne : ma kte śau mo
b4ci ntā ma ni wa me¯ ¯r ka llaṃ po yä kne [ṣ]e – – – – – – – [tsa] ñe nta lye cciṃ : po a kā lka nta kna [s]ke nta rne
b5tu mpa ta se ma ne wa sa npā· ·[ā] /// /// l[m]e· wa kī ce wä nta re[¯] [¯]śc kra ma rtse pra yo¯ ¯k ya ma

(continues on THT 1113)


(continues from THT 1111)

a1 n1n2n3 yamalye antarāyä peparko(r)m(eṃ) /// /// (wināṣṣäl)l(e) : wewinaṣṣormeṃ kauc klyelle : añcāl ṣarn(e) y(a)-
a2 -maṣällen4n5n6 : weṣṣälle :
tu(meṃ) – – – – – (weṣṣä)lle
yadi pariśuddha āgacchatu
krui ārstare tā-
a3 -kaṃn6n7n8 tumeṃ anuśākentsete weṣṣä(lle) (:)
(pariśud)dh(o) ntarāyikair ddharmai
tumeṃ anuśākentse wasaṃnpā-
a4 -tn9n10n11 yamalye ṣanmīreṃ eneṃṅka aśa(l)le – – – – – – – ·s· watkäṣletumeṃ putantimeṃ waiptār aśarintaṃts
a5 n12n13 paiyne wināṣṣälle ṣemepi ṣeme(pi) – – – – (yamaṣṣä)ll(e) : kauc rupne lkāṣṣälle wasaṃnpāt yaskaskemar-cme(ṃ)
b1 n14n15n16 eṃṣke nawanti täṅtsipomeṃ te yä(k)n(esa) – – – – – – m· nano (karma)wācakeś aśalleenepre lamä-
b2 -ṣṣällen16n17n18n19tane tarya wassi pātrai a(tiṣṭhit) /// /// (upādhyā)yeṃ yaṣṣāt(ai)ta«ne» ñake wasanpāt yaskaṣṣälle
b3 n20 star-ctane wasa(n)p(āt) – – – – – st(e)cintāmani wamermpa tasemane : mäkte śaumo
b4 n21n22n23 cintāmani wamer kallaṃ po-yäkne ṣe – – – – – – (snai)tsäñenta lyecciṃ : po akālkänta knaskentär-ne
b5 n24n25n26 tumpa tasemane wasanpā(t) ·ā /// /// (śpā)lme(ṃ) wakīce wäntareśc kramartse prayok yama-

(continues on THT 1113)


(continues from THT 1111)

a1 about any obstacle(s), (he shall enter [again and] pay homage to the community.) After having paid homage he shall rise, fold [his] hands
a2 together [and] say: [He has] been instructed. There(upon the whole community) shall (speak): If he [is] pure, he shall come. If he is pure,
a3 the instructor (shall) speak thus: [He is] (pure) with regard to obstacles. Thereupon the instructor shall lead in the novice to be
a4 ordained [and] tell [him] (to ask the community for [his] ordination.) Thereupon he [i.e. the novice] shall revere the feet of the Ācāryas each, from the eldest to the youngest,
a5 (fold [his] hands together(?) [before(?)]) each of them, look up into [each one’s] face [and say]: I ask you to ordain me!
b1 After (having asked,) (in) this way, everyone (to ordain [him]), he shall be led again to the karmavācaka [and] before [him]
b2 [he] shall be set. [This one speaks to him:] Here (you have seized) the three [monks’] clothes [and] the eating bowl [and] asked (for a teacher). Now here you shall ask to be ordained.
b3 Ordination here is (an excellent thing), comparable to a Cintāmaṇi-jewel: Like a human,
b4 [when] he obtains the Cintāmaṇi-jewel, will acquire every kind of (goods of happiness of the world [and]) remove (poverty) – [for] all wishes are granted him –
b5 just so (is the) ordained (one(?) Now here) the difficult process to [reaching] this excellent, magnificent thing shall be started.

(continues on THT 1113)


a2+ Then the saṃgha is to say together, «yadi pariśuddha āgacchatu! [If he is pure, let him come!]». If he is pure, then the anuśāsaka is to ask this: … (cf 53, 87) (Peyrot 2013b: 701)


Philological commentary

The supplementation and commentaries follow Schmidt 1986: 19, 138.
The TB phrase putantimeṃ waiptār aśarintaṃts paiyne wināṣṣälle ... eṃṣke nawanti täṅtsi has a nice parallel in the Bhikṣuṇī-Vinaya (Mā-L) (Roth ed. 1970: § 38), where it says: vṛddhāntāto prabhṛti sarvāsāṃ pādā śirasā vanditavyāḥ yāvan navakāntaṃ. ‘Starting from the end of the line (or place) of the newly ordained monks’ (Roth ed. 1970: § 38, n.1). Cf. also Cowell and Neil 1886: 14. 19, 404.
n3 The gap contains 12 akṣaras.
n6 On krui ārstare tākaṃ tumeṃ anuśā(sa)kentse te weṣṣä(lle) cf. Bhī 17 a3 sacet pariśuddhā bhavati rahonuśāsikayā vaktavyā.
n19 The gap contains 9 akṣaras.
n26 The gap contains 8 akṣaras.


According to Schmidt 1986: iv-v this ms. comes either from Qizil or from Tumšuq.
From this leaf 2 large fragments are preserved: one from the left side, about 9 cm wide, and the right half of the leaf, about 13 cm wide. Between the two fragments about 6-9 cm are missing. On the left margin a strip of about 0.5 x 3 cm, which contained the leaf number, is lost.
The original ms. was 29 cm wide and 5.6 cm high, with the string hole 6.5 cm from the left margin. It was written by at least three hands: scribe 1, a beautiful, delicate script, from leaf 1 to 11 a1; scribe 2, distinguished by a number of orthographical idiosyncrasies/errors, from leaf 11 a1 to and including 19; scribe 3 from leaf 20 to end. The final leaves A and B THT 1123 and THT 1124 may have been written either by scribe 2 or a fourth hand. Cf. Schmidt 1986: v, 2, 4
The leaf is in hand 3.

Linguistic commentary

n1 antarāyä for antarāy; yamaṣälle for yamaṣṣälle.
n2 antarāyä should be corrected to antarāyänta.
n4 krui for kwri; mistaken ārstare for astare.
n5 ārstare sic! to be corrected to āstare or astare.
n7 anuśākentse for anuśāsakentse; wasaṃnpāt for wasaṃpāt.
n8 anuśākentse sic! to be corrected to anuśāsakentse (twice). ddharmai sic! for dharmaiḥ
n9 ṣanmīreṃ for ṣanmireṃ; eneṃṅka for eneṅka.
n10 The first word after the gap is probably yāṣtsi There is a clearly recognizable trace of a .
n11 The words putanti ‘senior, eldest (in a monastic community)’’ and b1 nawanti ‘newcomer, youngest (in a monastic community)’ come from Middle Indic. putanti goes back to Prakrit *vuḍḍhantiya vel sim. (cf. BHS vṛddhānta ‘elder’s end or place’) and nawanti goes back to Prakrit *ṇavantiya vel sim. (cf. BHS navānta ‘the junior’s end or place’ - the meaning of both BHS vṛddhānta and navakānta were already identified correctly by Burnouf 1876: 402). Both words display typical Prakrit features: shortening of long vowels before double consonants according to the two-mora rule, and the replacement of by u after labials. The change from word initial v to p and of word internal ddh to t is due to the Tocharian adaptation of voiced consonants.
n12 paiyne for paine; wasaṃnpāt for wasaṃpāt.
n13 paiyne wināṣṣälle corresponds to the Skt. pādā śirasā vanditavyāḥ of the Bhikṣuṇī-Vinaya (Mā-L), § 38; cf. also THT 1104 b4 paiyne wīnāṣäle: paiyne wināsk- lit. “to revere the feet”, just like Skt. pādau śirasā vand- and Pāli pāde sirasā vand-, means “to bow down at someone’s feet”(cf. Schmidt 1986: 128).
n14 täṅtsi for täṅktsi; karmawācakeś for karmavācakeś.
n15 The first word after the gap could perhaps be supplemented to yayāṣormeṃ.
n16 lamäṣṣalle sic! for lamäṣṣälle.
n17 Mistaken ta for tane; wasanpāt for wasaṃpāt.
n18 ta ñake should probably be corrected to tane ñake.
n20 wasanpāt for wasaṃpāt.
n21 snaitsäñenta for snaitsäññenta.
n22 lyecciṃ sic! for lyaiccäṃ. It is the Subj. II of litk- Kaus. ‘remove’.
n23 knaskentär is the Prs. of kän- Kaus. ‘fulfil’.
n24 wasanpāt for wasaṃpāt; wakīce for wakice; yamaṣäle for yamaṣṣälle.
n25 The last word before the gap can perhaps be supplemented to yāmu.


Online access

IDP: THT 1112; TITUS: THT 1112


Tamai 2014: 378-379; Tamai 2007a: №1112; Schmidt 1986: 19, 52-54


Meunier 2013: b2 (155); Peyrot 2013b: a2 a3 (701); Schmidt 1986: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (87-88); Tamai 2014: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (378-379)


Burnouf 1876

Burnouf, Eugène. 1876. Introduction à l’Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien. 2nd ed. Bibliothèque Orientale 3. Paris: Maisonneuve.

Cowell and Neil 1886

Cowell, Edward B., and Robert A. Neil. 1886. The Divyāvadāna. A collection of early Buddhist legends. Now first edited from the Nepalese Sanskrit mss. In Cambridge and Paris. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Roth ed. 1970

Roth (ed.), Gustav. 1970. Bhikṣuṇī-vinaya. Vol. 12. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series. Patna: K.P. Jayaswal Research Institute.

Schmidt 1986

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1986. “Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes.” {Habilitation}.

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection.

Tamai 2014

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2014. “The Tocharian Karmavācanā.” Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013 17: 365–94.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”