• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 1116

Known as:THT 1116; KVāc 25
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés. "THT 1116". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 09 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:THT 1102-1125
Preceding fragment:THT 1115
Following fragment:THT 1117
Material: ink on wood tablet
Size (h × w):5.6 × 29 cm
Number of lines:5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from THT 1115)

a1/// – na • sa ce tsa· gha sya [prā] ///
a2– – – – a nta rā yi kāṃ dha rmāṃ pṛ c – – – – – – ·t· ·[ṛ] ///
a3– – – ·[vā] pṛ cchā ma ḥ ta tra [bhū] – – – – ta ḥ pr· t· ///
a4– so si pa ri pū rṇa viṃ śo si • mā – – – • mā kri to ·i
a5– [•] mā rā ja [k]i l·i [ṣ]o [s]i • mā te ki [ñ]·i· ///
b1– [:] pu ru ṣa sya i m· e vaṃ rū pā ā – – – – – – ·[ṭ]· [k]· ///
b2s·· vi dya nte : ji vi tā ste mā tā [p]i – – – – nu jñā to s· ///
b3– ··ṃ – [jā] saṃ pra jā naṃ śi k·ā – – – – – ri pū rṇaṃ ·e ///
b4– – – – – – m[ai] yā cc[e] nu wa lyñe [p]ry· ///
b5– – – – r· kno wä nta re e kī ta cce ka ///

(continues on THT 1117)


(continues from THT 1115)

a1 -(pādhyāye)nan1n2
sacet sa(ṃ)ghasya prā(ptakālaḥ)
antarāyikāṃ dharmāṃ pṛc(chema)
(jñap)t(iḥ) (ś)ṛ(ṇu)
(t)vā pṛcchāmaḥ tatra bhū(taṃ) (ca) (bhūta)taḥ pr(a)t(i)
so si paripūrṇaviṃśo si
• mā – – – • mā krito (s)i
a5 n7 – •
mā rājakil(v)iṣo si
• mā te kiñ(c)i(t) ///
b1 n8n9 – :
puruṣasya im(a) evaṃrūpā ā(bādhās)
(kuṣ)ṭ(aṃ) k(ilāso)
jivitās te mātāpi(tarau)
(a)nujñāto s(i)
b3 n11 – ··ṃ –
jā saṃprajānaṃ śik(ṣ)ā(padeṣu)
(pa)ripūrṇaṃ (t)e
b4 n12n13 – – – – – – maiyācce nuwalyñe pry· ///
b5 n14 – – – – r·k no wäntare ekītacce kä… ///

(continues on THT 1117)


(continues from THT 1115)

a1 ([as] upādhyāya). If (the present moment suits) the community (and [if it] is the wish of the community, this we will ask Yaśakāma with Yaśa [as] upādhyāya)
a2 (in the midst of the community) about any obstacles. (This is the proposition. Listen, venerable one! This [is] the time of truth for you. This [is] the time of speaking the truth.)
a3 (Whatever) we ask (you), thereupon (the truth you shall) speak, (the truth) according to the (truth, and say untruth as untruth.)
a4 [1.] Are you (male?) [2.] Are you full 20 years of age? [3.] (You are) not (a slave?) [4.] (You have) not been bought? ...............
a5 [8.] You have not sinned against the king? [9.] You are not (secretly(?) considering a conspiracy against the king? [10.] You are not indebted to anyone, neither a little nor much? [11.] Now among men)
b1 there are the following d(iseases: black leprosy, white leprosy, scrofula, tuberculosis [and] epilepsy. You) do (not) suf(fer from one of these diseases?)
b2 [12.] Are your father [and] mother [still] alive? [13.] Have you received the permission (of your father [and] mother)? ......
b3 ....[15.] (Did you(?)) with [careful] consideration .... [16.] (Have you [received] the three clothes and the bowl) completely? ....
b4 .... enormous roaring ....
b5 (Such a (?) ... believ)able thing, however, (to the?) helpful te(acher(?)) ....

(continues on THT 1117)


Philological commentary

The supplementation and commentaries follow Schmidt 1986b: 23.
n1 About 22 akṣaras are mising to the end of this line.
n2 cf. THT 1114 a4 - b1 and commentary.
n3 About 15 akṣaras are mising to the end of this line.
n4 About 14 akṣaras are mising to the end of this line.
n6 About 14 akṣaras are mising to the end of this line.
n7 About 21 akṣaras are mising to the end of this line.
n9 About 16 akṣaras are mising to the end of this line.
n10 About 15 akṣaras are mising to the end of this line.
n11 About 15 akṣaras are mising to the end of this line.
n13 About 23 akṣaras are mising to the end of this line.
n14 About 24 akṣaras are mising to the end of this line.


According to Schmidt 1986b: iv-v this ms. comes either from Qizil or from Tumšuq.
From this leaf 2 fragments are preserved: one larger fragment around the string hole, consisting of 5 pieces and about 6-9 cm wide; to the right of this at a distance of about 2 cm there is a smaller fragment, about 2.5 cm wide and containing remnants of 3 lines. At the left margin 1-3.5 cm are missing. The leaf number is not preserved.
The original ms. was 29 cm wide and 5.6 cm high, with the string hole 6.5 cm from the left margin. It was written by at least three hands: scribe 1, a beautiful, delicate script, from leaf 1 to 11 a1; scribe 2, distinguished by a number of orthographical idiosyncrasies/errors, from leaf 11 a1 to and including 19; scribe 3 from leaf 20 to end. The final leaves A and B THT 1123 and THT 1124 may have been written either by scribe 2 or a fourth hand. Cf. Schmidt 1986b: v, 2, 5
This leaf is in hand 3.

Linguistic commentary

n5 so sic! to be corrected and supplemented to (puru)ṣo. krito sic! for krīto.
n8 Instead of the double dot at the beginning of this line one could also read [t·].
n12 maiyācce for maiyyācce; nuwalyñe for nuwalñe.


Complete Translation

Tamai 2014a: 384; Schmidt 1986b: 94-96

Online access

IDP: THT 1116; TITUS: THT 1116


Tamai 2014a: 384; Tamai 2007a: №1116; Schmidt 1986b: 23, 57



“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Schmidt 1986b

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1986b. “Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes.” {Habilitation}.

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection.

Tamai 2014a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2014a. “The Tocharian Karmavācanā.” Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013 17: 365–94.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”