Caravan

Announcements

  • The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.

print

Work in progress

A 318 and 319

Known as:A 318 and 319; A 318 = THT 952; A 319 = THT 953
Cite this page as:Melanie Malzahn; Gerd Carling; Hannes A. Fellner; Bernhard Koller. "A 318 and 319". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-a318 (accessed 04 Dec. 2023).

Edition

Editor:Melanie Malzahn; Gerd Carling; Hannes A. Fellner; Bernhard Koller
Date of online publication:2015-05-09

Provenience

Main find spot:Šorčuq
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 69.20, T III Š 69.23
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Language:TA
Script:late

Text contents

Passage:Praṇāda, Indra, Soma and Vidyādhara king Jimūtāketu with female Vidyādharas
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse
Meter:M18; M17

Object

Manuscript:A 312-331
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Number of lines:8

Transliteration

a1ṇḍi pā lyo ka rsa – – – – lsa ntra • ṣo me yu /// /// yp(·)¯ ¯ñcä • ce pṣo me ku mpa ku¯ ¯mpä klya ntra ne ṣi na¯ ¯s ///
a2ce ṣpe nu ṣo me kro pa kro¯ ¯p ñä kta ñño ki tsa¯ ¯rk ts· /// /// tu¯ ¯ṅk a rse¯ ¯ñcä || pra ṇā de traka¯ ¯s̝ e he na ṣnu vi dy(·) ///
a3nā śśi kra ntso nā spi kā rā¯ ¯s lkā māṃ ma rso o ki ñä /// /// kuya lte • || maṃ ndho tta ri naṃ || luka śnu¯ ¯nt wmā ri mrā caṃ na¯ ¯m ///
a4[p]a rko¯ ¯nt tā ke¯ ¯ñcä : klo śnaṃ ta rka¯ ¯ñä /// /// hā ra syo tla śto¯ ¯nt knā s̝a¯ ¯m : – r·äṃ wā mpu¯ ¯nt k· ///
a5keṃ na¯ ¯m ṣo kyo ci ñcraṃ : ye tu¯ ¯nt [t]i[¯] [¯m] me /// /// ·y· tu¯ ¯nt wi raṃ kule wā¯ ¯ñä wro kṣiṃ ///
a6¯ñcä pre ṣo nta¯ ¯cä : ṣo maṃ nu r[p]e¯ ¯ñcä ki spa rwi¯ ¯cä ṣo maṃ tsa¯ ¯rk /// /// l·e¯ ¯ñcä ṣu la¯ ¯s : tri wo¯ ¯nt ṣo m· ///
a7vi dyā dha rñā¯ ¯ñä : no¯ ¯t ti ma ṣiṃ ci ñcro ne [m]a rsne ñ[c]o ki wi re· [ś]· /// /// rñā¯ ¯ñä pru saṃ yā mu[¯] [¯nt] ///
a8s̝tsa ṅkrā – l[la] śśi kā tkmāṃ wa ṅkmāṃ ka re māṃ ṣme¯ ¯ñcä [pyā] ppyā saṃ : ///
b1wä ryā – ·y· hi ma va¯ ¯nt c[ä] ñcä rka lna¯ ¯s̝ : 3 – – – ryo ka ///
b2rtkā lsaṃ śo [mi] nā śśi : wa ṅkmāṃ wraṃ nā¯ ¯ñcä si ña ntra nka – mā ta¯ – /// /// kr(·) sm(·) trā ti mpa śśä ///
b3mā· a kma lyo i ndre traka¯ ¯s̝ wä ṣpā nu ñä kciṃ ṣu la¯ ¯s̝ /// /// [¯nt] ṣu¯ ¯l – – lte ki nna re svi dyā dha ///
b4wsa ryā s[p]yā ppyā syo ṣu l[i] ñi t[s]a ṅkru[¯] [¯nt] [wā] /// /// ·u ta ke tu yvi dyā dha re śśi lā ///
b5lte to ṣtri wä knā lā ñci wa ṣta ntu /// /// ñcä· no ki • to ṣpe nu tri lā ntsa¯ ¯ñä – [w]· knā ñä kte ñ(·)ā ///
b6wo rpu¯ ¯nt naṃ || ci tra śo kaṃ || ñä kci wä llo ki sa¯ ¯s vi dyā /// /// tu : ye tu ñe mi ntu yo wo rpu a nti ṣpu ryo tri ko k[i] ///
b7ryo lā ntsa¯ ¯s ā nti ṣpu rṣā[¯] [¯s] ske na [ṣ]kā tka ssi : [p]·[i] /// /// lā ntsa¯ ¯cä lyu tā rpo [ta] tra : 1 || so me traka¯ ¯s̝ sā¯ ¯s ·i ///
b8rklyo miṃ l[ā] laṃ ṣkā – – – [ṣe] lyu tā rśkaṃ lā /// /// cä lyu tā rpo ta tra kuya lte pa lska [p]ā ṣe wra so¯ ¯m ///

Transcription

(bhi)-
a1 -ṇḍipālyon1n2 kärsä(smāṃ) (mā) (ā)lsanträ • ṣome yu(kneñc) /// /// yp(e)ñcce{p/ṣ} ṣome kumpa-kump klyanträ neṣinäs ///
a2 n3 ceṣ penu ṣome kropa-krop ñäktaññ oki tsärk ts· /// /// tuṅk arseñcpraṇāde träṅkäṣ ehe näṣ nu vidy(ādharñās) (śomi)-
a3 -nāśśin4 kräntsonās pikārās lkāmāṃ märso oki ñä… /// /// kuyalte • ॥ maṃndhottarinaṃ
1a lukäśnunt wmāri ; mrācaṃ näm ; /// a4n5 ; pärkont tākeñc :
1b klośnaṃ tarkañ ; /// /// ; hāräsyo ; tläś tont knāṣ-äm :
1c – r·äṃ wāmpunt ; k· /// a5n6n7 …keṃ nam ; ṣokyo ciñcraṃ :
1d yetunt tim me(m) ; /// /// · ; y(e)tunt wiraṃ kulewāñ wrokṣiṃ ///
2a 12σ (yi)a6ñcn8 pre ṣontac :
2b ṣomaṃ nu rpeñc ; kispar wic ; ṣomaṃ tsärk /// /// ; (kä)l(ns)eñc ṣulas :
2c triwont ṣom(aṃ) /// 10σ a7n9 ; vidyādharñāñ :
2d not timaṣiṃ ; ciñcrone ; märsneñc oki ; wire(ś)ś(i) ; ///
3a /// (vidyādha)rñāñ prusaṃ yāmunt /// 10σ
3b a8n10 …ṣ tsäṅkrā ; (kuya)ll aśśi ; kātkmāṃ waṅkmāṃ ; karemāṃ ; ṣmeñc pyāppyāsaṃ :
3c /// 18σ
3d b1n11 ; wäry{ā/o} (ṣul)y(iṃ) ; himavant ; cäñcär käln{a/ä}ṣ : 3
4a – – – ryo ; kä… /// 13σ
4b 11σ ; (kä)b2rtkālsaṃn12 ; śomināśśi :
4c waṅkmāṃ wraṃn āñc ; siñanträ ; nkä(ñci) mātä(r) ; ///
4d /// kr·s ; m(ā)trā tim ; päśśä(ṃ) /// 11σ
(smi)-
b3 -mā(ṃ)n13 akmalyo indre träṅkäṣ wäṣpā nu ñäkciṃ ṣuläṣ (himava)nt ṣul (kuya)lte kinnares vidyādha(res) ///
b4 n14 wsäryās pyāppyāsyo ṣuliñi tsäṅkrunt wā(wluṣ) (jim)utaketuy vidyādhareśśi lā(nt) /// (kuya)-
b5 -lten15 toṣ tri-wäknā lāñci-waṣtantu /// /// …ñcä(ṃ)n okitoṣ penu tri lāntsañ (tri-)w(ä)knā ñäkteñ(ñ)ā(ñ) (oki) ///
b6 n16n17 worpunt näṃ ॥ citraśokaṃ
1a ñäkci wäll oki säs ; vidyā(dhareśśi) (wäl) ; (jimutake)tu :
1b yetu ñemintuyo ; worpu antiṣpuryo ; triko =ki ///
1c b7n18 …ryo ; lāntsas āntiṣpurṣās ; skenaṣ kātkässi :
1d p·i /// /// lāntsac ; lyutār potaträ : 1 ॥
some träṅkäṣ sās ·i ·– – – –
b8 n19 …r klyomiṃ lālaṃṣkā (pälska-pā)ṣe lyutār śkaṃ lā(laṃṣkā) /// /// (lāntsa)c«†ä» lyutār potaträ kuyalte pälska-pāṣe wrasom ///

Translation

... shoot(ing) with a (jave)lin they do (not) hold ... in check.
a1 Some overcome... [some] do ... These stand [together] in individual groups. The previous [ones] ...
a2 These [ones], single group by single group, also (make) [lute] music like gods, ... [and] they evoke love. || Praṇāda says: female Vidyādharas, as if forgetting ... "Oh! Now I, looking at the beautiful gestures of the
a3 because of ... || In [the tune] mandodharinaṃ || Shining jewels are on top of their head[s] [i.e. of the Vidyādharas] ...
a4 they [fem.] will arise. Earrings [lit. hanging on both ears] (are on them) ... with pearls, (the wind??) spreads up the [adornment] put on them. The decorated ...
a5 (make a) ... bow towards the very lovely [women]. 1c. Both [ears] are adorned according to measure (with) ..., the young women [are] adorned (with) ... [made of] pearls. 1d.
a5+ ... they (go) out onto the street. 2a.
a6 Now some [women] play the kispar wic, others [play] the lute, ... they (let resound ?) the mountains.
a6+ Some [women] mixed (with) ... the female Vidyādharas. 2c.
a7 As if they forget the loveliness of both not, ... of the young [masc.]. 2d. The female (Vidyādha)ras having done ... in the prus ... 3a. ...
a8 over the mountain peak, why then are they sitting in the flowers being joyful, chatting [and] laughing? 3b. ...
b1 (pools filled?? with) water from the Himalaya (mountain), it resounds sweetly. 3d. With ... 4a. ...
b1+ in the pools of the girls. 4b.
b2 Chatting they will be satiated down in the water, the sil(ver) watermoss, ... over the watermoss the two breasts (are floating ?) ... 4d. With a (laugh)ing face Indra says:
b3 "But indeed Mount Himalaya [is] the [most] divine mountain, because Kiṃnaras [and] Vidyādharas ..."
b4 With ..., grassland [and] flowers the peaks of the mountains of Jimūtāketu, ki(ng) of the Vidyādharas, [are] covered ...
b4+ (be)cause these royal palaces in three-fold [manner] ... like ... .
b5 Likewise three queens in a (three-)fold [manner] (like) goddess(es) ... are surrounded by ... .
b6 ||In [the tune] citraśok || This one, (Jimūtāke)tu, (king of the) Vidyā(dharas) [is] like a divine king. 1a. Adorned with jewels, surrounded by [his] harem, as if confused ... 1b. ... With ... he strives to please the queens of the harem. 1c.
b7 (With merits ?) ... he pays more homage to the queens. || Soma says:
b7+ "This [queen] ... [is] noble, tender [and] (regardful about the mi)nd and more te(nder) ...
b8 ... pays more homage to the (queen) because a being [which is] regardful about the mind ..."

Other

b7 ... schmeichelt er der Königin [noch] mehr. (Schmidt 1974: 172)

Commentary

Remarks

Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).
Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
Sieg/Siegling in Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 174 already assumed that A 318 and A 319 belong to the same leaf. The calculation below is based on the size of the original leaf (based on the almost complete leaf A 312) and on the metrical analysis.
Lines a8 and b1 are lost on the right fragment (= A 319).

Linguistic commentary

n1 According to the context, kärsä must be derived from a root kärs- 'to shoot an arrow' being the equivalent of TB , also attested in TA A_pärra-krase ‘(distance of an) arrow shot’; the precise grammatical form, however, is uncertain, but a Prs VIII m-participle would make some sense, morphologically and syntactically.
n16 The reduced form of the copula, which surfaces with pronominal suffixes in näṃ and näm, is indifferent to number, as was shown by Sieg et al. 1931: p. 167 and Burlak and Itkin 2009: p. 47. Therefore, the agreement between näṃ and the plural participle worpunt is unproblematic. We thank Ilya Itkin (p.c) for pointing this issue out to us.

Philological commentary

n2 About 18 akṣaras are missing in this line in total and approx. 8-9 syllables in the lacuna between the two fragments.
n3 About nine syllables are missing in the lacuna between the two fragments and about four akṣaras at the end; this conforms to the number of 15 missing akṣaras in total. The restoration (śomi)nāśśi is proposed by Siegling in his personal copy.
n4 Eight syllables are missing in the lacuna to judge from the lacuna in line b6; at the end, 7 syllables are missing for metrical reasons, both in a3 and on the verso side b6. Since this calculation matches both metres perfectly, one has to conclude that this line had no string hole space; even though most leaves of this series have string hole space in lines a3 and b6, a counter example is provided by A 312, where line a3 had no string hole space either (and, accordingly, about 48 akṣaras in the line). We are then left with 14 missing syllables and approx. 15-16 missing akṣaras in both lines a3 and b6.
n5 tläśtont has to be separated to tläś tont based on the co-occurrence of tläś with the verb knā- "disperse tläś" in m-tht3333 b2. The form tläś is the oblique of an abstract noun in (cf. A_lkäś ) is surely derived from the root 'to lift up, carry, bear'. In this passage it is used as an adverb.
n6 For metrical reasons, me(m) 'measure' seems the only possible restoration, maybe an obliquus of manner. Even though the reading of the preceding word nim or tim cannot be checked, the dual pronoun tim is the only syntactically possible solution.
n7 The colon division of pāda 1d after the lacuna is unclear; note that this would still be true without accepting the joint.
n8 In total 14 syllables are missing and approx. 16 akṣaras. Restoration to (kä)l(ns)eñc is proposed by Siegling in his personal copy with two question marks, restoration to ṣom(aṃ) at the end of the line is proposed without question mark.
n9 The colon division is unclear; in total, 19 syllables and approx. 21 akṣaras are missing. The hapax prusaṃ can be a locative sg. or pl. of a noun pru or prus.
n10 - should belong to a 3.sg. form. The complete pāda 3c is missing and the first colon of pāda 3d, i.e. 25 syllables; approx. 31 akṣaras are missing in total.
n11 25 syllables are missing and approx. 29 akṣaras in total. Since himavant is exclusively attested with ṣul 'mountain' or the adjective ṣulyiṃ, I propose to restore to (ṣul)y(iṃ) himavant; and since the remaining wär yā can hardly mean 'water traveled', I further suggest to read (or restore?) the instrumental wäryo. In any case, there is no possible alternative restoration for yā – ·y· (a form of the gerundive yātal 'capable' is excluded because it would mean that himavant had feminine gender). Note that the following 3.sg. kälnaṣ for kälnäṣ is certainly a misspelling (thus Hilmarsson 1996: 64) – it is quite certain that the original manuscript indeed had the reading kälnaṣ, because Siegling, who still ought to have access to the original, marked the form with a question mark in his personal copy.
n12 Ten syllables are missing in the lacuna, eleven at the end, and approx. 24 akṣaras in total. As for the restoration of the second colon of 4c, nkä(ñci) 'silver' is the only known possible form, while restoration to mātär is suggested by mātrā in the following line – most likely not a variant of mātār 'sea monster', but rather derived from the Sanskrit water plant mātar- "Asian Watermoss" [Salvinia cucullata Roxb.].
n13 The line contains prose text; about 15 akṣaras are missing in total. The restoration to (smi)mā(ṃ) is proposed by Siegling in his personal copy; restoration (himava)nt suggests itself by line b1 and is in accordance with the lacuna of about 3-4 missing akṣaras; we have here an ablativus comparationis.
n14 Only two syllables are missing in the lacuna between the fragments and approx. 15 at the end of the line, so that in total 18 syllables are missing and approx. 22 akṣaras. The restoration wā(wluṣ) is suggested by Siegling in his personal copy, with reference to A 70 a 5.
n15 Approx. eight syllables are missing in the lacuna, and seven at the end of the line; approx. 18 akṣaras are missing in total. lāñci-waṣtantu 'royal houses, palaces' has to be a compound; cf. YQ V.1 a 1. The following form may be restored to an obl.sg. krañcäṃ ‘good' or poñcäṃ ‘all'.
n17 Eight syllables are missing in the lacuna and seven at the end of the line; the latter lacuna fits perfectly with the respective recto line a3. Restoration to (jimutake)tu is already proposed by Siegling in his personal copy.
n18 Approx. four akṣaras are missing at the end of the line; together with the nine missing syllables in the lacuna, this conforms to the total number of approx. 15 missing akṣaras. One may restore the beginning of pāda 1d to p(ñ)i(ntuyo) 'with merits'.
n19 Restoration to (pälska-pā)ṣe is suggested by the following; what is more, only this kind of verbal governing compounds can end in °ṣe. Thomas 1967d: 179 proposed to join the two fragments completely and to restore to lā(ntsa)c, but according to the calculation, there is a lacuna of at least 8-9 syllables between them. Siegling in his personal copy proposes to restore to lā(laṃṣkā). In total, about 20 akṣaras are missing in this line.

References

Online access

IDP: THT 952, THT 953; TITUS: THT 952, THT 953

Complete Translation

Malzahn and Fellner 2015

Edition

Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 173-174; Malzahn and Fellner 2015; Sieg and Siegling 1921a p. 173, p. 174

Translations

Carling 2000: a3 (125), a4 (202), a6 (97), b2 (131); Knoll 1996: b1 (142), b7 (99), b8 (121); Kölver 1965: a4 (116), b7 (88); Schmidt 1974: b7 (172); Thomas 1954a: b7 (718); Thomas 1957: b6 (255); Thomas 1967d: b8 (179); Thomas 1970b: b6 (279); Thomas 1972b: a8 (458); Thomas 1973: b8 (165)

Bibliography

Burlak and Itkin 2009

Burlak, Svetlana, and Ilya B. Itkin. 2009. “The Tocharian A forms naṣ=äṃ, naṣ=äm and n=äṃ, n=äm revisited.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 11: 43–48.

Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Hilmarsson 1996

Hilmarsson, Jörundur. 1996. Materials for a Tocharian historical and etymological dictionary. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky and Guðrún Þórhallsdóttir. TIES Suppl. 5. Reykjavík: Málvísindastofnun Háskóla Íslands.

IDP

“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Knoll 1996

Knoll, Gabriele. 1996. “Die Verwendungsweisen der Adjektive im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Frankfurt am Main.

Kölver 1965

Kölver, Bernhard. 1965. “Der Gebrauch der sekundären Kasus im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Frankfurt am Main.

Malzahn and Fellner 2015

Malzahn, Melanie, and Hannes A. Fellner. 2015. “Lifting up the light: tläś and lkäś in Tocharian A.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 16: 61–79.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1921a

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921a. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.

Sieg et al. 1931

Sieg, Emil, Wilhelm Siegling, and Wilhelm Schulze. 1931. Tocharische Grammatik. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Thomas 1954a

Thomas, Werner. 1954a. “Die Infinitive im Tocharischen.” In Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, edited by Johannes Schubert and Ulrich Schneider, 701–64. Leipzig: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1967d

Thomas, Werner. 1967d. “Zu wortverbindendem toch. A śkaṃ/ B ṣpä.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 81: 161–80.

Thomas 1970b

Thomas, Werner. 1970b. “Zu einer stilistischen Besonderheit im Tocharischen.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 84: 254–80.

Thomas 1972b

Thomas, Werner. 1972b. “Zweigliedrige Wortverbindungen im Tocharischen.” Orbis 21: 429–70.

Thomas 1973

Thomas, Werner. 1973. “Zur tocharischen Übersetzung der Sanskrit-Nominalkomposita des Udānavarga.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 87: 161–89.

TITUS

Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”