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YQ V.1

Known as:YQ V.1; YQ 1.39
Cite this page as:"YQ V.1". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 12 Apr. 2024).


Main find spot:Qigexing (Yanqi)
Collection:Xinjiang Museum (Ürümči)

Language and Script


Text contents

Title of the work:Maitreyasamiti-Nāṭaka
Passage:Act 5.1
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Drama
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:8



a1/// wa ṣtu ṣo nta¯ ¯s o rpa ṅka¯ ¯s lā ñci wa ṣtu ṣtā ma ntu ka rtkā la ///
a2/// ·[i] ·[ai] sa¯ ¯m ye twe wa mpe yā tlu ne ka rpa raṃ nyo ka knu¯ ¯nt ma ///
a3/// nāṃ tka nā ri rī ya¯ ¯cä śtwa rñe mi ntwā ṣi nā[¯] [¯ñä] ///
a4/// ·ā [ma] ntu ñe mi ṣi ka rtkā lyi ñe mi ṣi [na] ///
a5/// ri ñe mi ṣi nä syo kma spā [k]· ///
a6/// s̝a puki¯ ¯s wä rpā l(·)i ///
b3/// [ra] ṣpo[ṃ] tsā[ṃ] ke tu [m]· ///
b4/// mnu ke tu ma ti ri yaṃ śo dha n[e] ///
b5/// tu ma ti ri yaṃ lkā ṣku sne tmaṃ ku cyä [rm]· ///
b6/// mke tu ma ti ri yā ma ndā ra¯ ¯k ku śe śai yä ///
b7/// [dv]· (–) ·[n]· ke tu ma ti ri sā mma msu sso ki : wa ṣtu ṣo nta¯ ¯ñ ///
b8/// su¯ ¯k tsi nā tsi tspo¯ ¯k lkā tsi wa rpu¯ ¯k ska ṣi kka ts : ra tna dvi[¯] [¯p] ///


a1 n1n2 /// waṣtu ṣontas orpaṅkäs lāñci-waṣtu ṣtāmäntu kärtkālä(s) ///
a2 n2n3 /// ·i ·ai sam yetwe wampe yātlune kärparäṃnyo kaknunt mä ///
a3 n3 /// nāṃ tkanā ri rīyac śtwar ñemintwāṣināñ ///
a4 n3n4 /// (ṣt)āmäntu ñemiṣi kärtkālyi ñemiṣinä(s) ///
a5 n4n5 /// (vaiḍu)ri ñemiṣinäs yokmas pāk· ///
a6 n5n6n7 /// ṣ«†ä» pukis wärpāl(y)i ///
b3 n8 /// räṣ poṃtsāṃ ketum(ati) (riyā) ///
b4 n8n9 /// (tā)m nu ketumati riyaṃ śodhane ///
b5 n9 /// (ke)tumati riyaṃ lkāṣ kus ne tmaṃ kuc yärm(aṃ) ///
b6 n9n10 /// (tā)m ketumati riyā mandārak kuśeśaiyä ///
b7 n10n11 /// (jambu)dv(ip) (an)n(e) ketumati ri sām mamsuss oki : waṣtu ṣontañ ///
b8 n11n12 /// suk tsinātsi tspok lkātsi war puk skaṣikk ats : ratnadvip ///


a1 ... houses, streets, balconies(?), royal palaces, trees, ponds, ...
a2 ... furnished with ornament, decoration, majesty, glory, ...
a3 ... on the ground of ..., towards city after city, (there are rivers) made of the four jewels ...
a4 ... trees; jeweled ponds ... the ... with jewels ...
a5 ... gates made of jewels as lapis lazuli ...
a6 ... to be enjoyed by all ...
b3 ... (over) the whole (city of) Ketumatī ...
b4 ... And in this city of Ketumatī (there are two demon kings called) Śodhana (and Upaśodhana) ...
b5 ... (Śodhana) inspects the city of Ketumatī, whatever (there is) here and to what extent ...
b6 (Upagodhana causes flowers) of the coral tree, of water-lilies (to rain) over the very city of Ketumatī ...
b7 .
b7 ... within the (Jambu)dvīpa this city of Ketumatī, ... as it were; houses, streets, ...
b8 ... (is) good fortune; touching, taste, seeing, smell — all is of good fortune indeed. (Like) a jewel island ...


Linguistic commentary

The commentary is adapted from Ji et al. 1998: 202-3.
A detailed commentary of this text has been given in Ji 1987. Only additional remarks are included here.
n1 orpaṅkäs and kärtkāläs are clearly accusative plural forms; hence the remaining nouns are to be interpreted as accusative forms too. For lāñci- (in itself a singular form) as the first element of a compound, cf. A 318 and 319: b5: lāñci-waṣtäntu.
n3 The noun forms yetwe, wampe, yātlune, kärparäṃ are extended as a group by postposed yo ‘with’ (cf. Sieg et al. 1931: § 352). The past participle kaknunt may be a feminine nominative plural form; it would be in agreement with the subject of this sentence, which can be feminine plural, like waṣtu ‘houses’ or ṣtāmäntu ‘trees’. In a3, -nāṃ is probably the ending of the feminine accusative singular of an adjective (possibly in -ṣi) modifying tkan-ā ‘on the ground’. The syntagma in the allative singular ri rīyacä requires an interpretation as a distributive construction. The noun modified by the feminine plural nominative ñemintwāṣināñ cannot be identified.
n4 The restoration of (ṣtā)mäntu is obvious. Afterwards, ñemiṣi instead of expected ñemiṣiñi modifying kärtkālyi suggests an analysis of the adjective-noun sequence as a compound, similar to lāñci-waṣtu, line a1. The masculine plural accusative modified by ñemiṣinä(s) cannot be supplied with sufficient certainty.
n5 The use of yokäm ‘gate’ as a masculine noun contrasts with its feminine gender in A 253: a7: koṃ-pärkāñcāṃ yokmā ‘by the eastern gate’.
n6 pukis is the genitive singular form of puk ‘all’ (Sieg et al. 1931: § 265). The noun modified by the nominative singular feminine wärpālyi cannot be identified. — The two last lines of the original recto are lost.
n10 mandārak b6 is a borrowing from Skt. mandāraka- ‘Erythrina Indica’: it is one of the 15 trees in Paradise. In A 312: b6, we read mantārak-(pyā)ppyāñ ‘mandaraka-flowers’. The word kuśeśaiyä is also a borrowing from Skt. kuśeśaya- ‘water-lily’.
n11 The form mamsuss occurs next to two feminine nominative singular forms, ri ‘city’ and the demonstrative sām ‘this’; -ss is the variant of -s expected before oki ‘like, as’. A feminine nominative singular in -us is found only in past participles; hence, mamsus is to be identified as derived from an otherwise unattested verb stem mäs-. Its meaning remains uncertain, not the least because oki points to metaphorical use. The alternative solution of introducing a word boundary before amsuss and considering this form a feminine of hitherto unknown amsu is to be dispreferred as adjectives in -su have feminine nominatives in -ṃts (cf. Sieg et al. 1931: 31).
n12 The Old Uy. text (cf. Tekin 1980: 96, Taf. 139), lines 22-24 runs as follows: “All who have seen, heard, touched, smelt, and tasted that are always happy." The Uyghur equivalent makes reference to the five senses, the Tocharian text lists only four (two as infinitives, two as normal nouns). In the expression skaṣikk ats, the word skaṣi is a reduced form of sukaṣi, derivative of suk, vide Sieg et al. 1931: §44d. It may be surmised that the fifth of the senses was named in the lacuna at the beginning of b8; as the metrical structure of the pāda partly preserved seems to have been 7/7/4, a tentative reconstruction (ː puk \ wrasaśśi klyossi) suk \ tsinātsi tspok \ lkātsi war puk \ skaṣikk ats \ : may be proposed, which could be rendered: "(To all beings hearing is) good fortune, touching, taste, seeing, smell – all is of good fortune indeed." The difference in the use of infinitives and primary nouns can easily be explained by the need to fill a colon with the internal substructure 4/3, which would have prevented the insertion of tspokiñtsi and wärstsi (or, for that matter, of tsitālune and lkālune). The criticism by Thomas 1990: 10 seems unwarranted in view of Sieg et al. 1931: 7 (§ 10).

Parallel texts

MaitrHami 5, 13; MaitrSiŋgim


This fragment contains part of the fift act of the Maitreyasamitināṭaka. Uy. parallels are MaitrHami 5, ca. 13b1-b4, and MaitrSiŋgim, Taf. 139 (Tekin 1980: 95-6), which = MaitrHami 5, 13. See also Pinault 1999: 198-9.
The translation and the following commentary are adapted from Ji et al. 1998: 202-3.
A detailed commentary of this text has been given in Ji 1987. Only additional remarks are included here.

Philological commentary

n2 The 6 lines remaining on the recto side are badly damaged. But with the help of the Old Uy. text, one can get the general meaning. Here we have a description of the city of Ketumatī, the birthplace of Maitreya. The verso permits an identification of the passage as belonging to the 5th act of the drama, cf. the fragments of the Old Uy. text (edition and translation by Tekin 1980: 90-97). But the recto text cannot be matched with specific parts of the Turfan version of the Uyghur text. Therefore, the translation has to rely almost exclusively on our understanding of the Tocharian text.
n7 pukis\: reading corrected after Schmidt 1999b: 281.
n8 The first line of the verso side is actually the third line of the original leaf. Line b3 has its parallel in the Old Uy. text, 13th leaf of the fifth chapter, verso side (cf. Tekin 1980: 96, Taf. 139), lines 1-4.
n9 Śodhane as the name of a Yakṣa, meaning in Sanskrit "Cleaner", recurs in A 253: a8, a passage from the beginning of the 12th act; Upaśodhane (meaning “Assistant Cleaner”, so to speak), to be supplied for b6, is also attested in A 253: a8.


Ji 1987

Ji, Xianlin. 1987. “Translation from the Tocharian Maitreyasamitināṭaka. The 39th leaf (2 pages: 76 YQ 1.39 1/1 and 1.39 ½) of the Xinjiang Museum version.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 1: 70–76.

Ji et al. 1998

Ji, Xianlin, Werner Winter, and Georges-Jean Pinault. 1998. Fragments of the Tocharian A Maitreyasamiti-Nāṭaka of the Xinjiang Museum, China. Transliterated, translated and annotated by Ji Xianlin in collaboration with Werner Winter, Georges-Jean Pinault. TLSM 113. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Pinault 1999

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 1999. “Restitution du Maitreyasamiti-Nāṭaka en tokharien A: Bilan provisoire et recherches complémentaires sur l’acte XXVI.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 8: 189–240.

Schmidt 1999b

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1999b. “Review of: Fragments of the Tocharian A Maitreyasamiti-Nāṭaka of the Xinjiang Museum, China.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 8: 277–85.

Sieg et al. 1931

Sieg, Emil, Wilhelm Siegling, and Wilhelm Schulze. 1931. Tocharische Grammatik. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Tekin 1980

Tekin, Şinasi. 1980. Maitrisimit nom bitig. Die uigurische Übersetzung eines Werkes der buddhistischen Vaibhāṣika-Schule. 1. Teil: Transliteration, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen. 2. Teil: Analytischer und rückläufiger Index. Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Alten Orients, Berliner Turfantexte, IX. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Thomas 1990

Thomas, Werner. 1990. Tocharische Maitreya-Parallelen aus Hami. Vol. 1. SbWGF. Stuttgart: Steiner.