Work in progress

THT 1102

Known as:THT 1102; KVāc 9
Cite this page as:Melanie Malzahn; Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés. "THT 1102". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 22 Apr. 2024).


Editor:Melanie Malzahn; Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés
Date of online publication:2015-02


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Passage:Upasaṃpadā (pravrajyā; daśaśikṣāpadāni)
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:THT 1102-1125
Following fragment:THT 1103
Material: ink on wood tablet
Size (h × w):5.6 × 29 cm
Number of lines:4


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1staṃ o sta meṃ la t[au] • u pā dhy(·) y(·)ṃ sai my[ā] /// /// ¯ś pe ṅksa¯ ¯t śau la sso¯ ¯ñcä [c]w[ī] ñe¯ ¯m kla wi sso[ṃ] nte śa kke (– –) rṣā keṃ
a2(·)e (·)e [lai] (–) ña ke sa wa ○ rñai śau /// /// rpo¯ ¯s̝ pā ssi • sai mne y[ku] we¯ ¯s̝ ta ka rṣeṃ ta tā ka¯ ¯s̝ [pa] klau¯ ¯s̝ t[w]e śau la
a3– – – cau sa ñe[¯] [¯m] kla wi ○ (·)[s](·) /// /// tai kne sā¯ ¯k [k]· ka mo¯ ¯s̝ a ṣa nī keṃ ntsa yso mo (·)[o] [p]e lai
a4(– – – – – –) ntrā kka o s[t]a meṃ ltu we ṣ· /// /// [ta] nta ā kṣu [wa] • e nte ṣa nmī reṃ ntse ś[au] [l](·) ///
b1/// [k]ṣa pā¯ ¯t ta [n]e t(·)¯ ¯ñ ś(·) ltsa wa rñ[ai] (– – –) [o] no (–)
b2/// /// ·k(·) [ṣ](·)[¯] [¯]ts ma kte kca twe ce te yä kne ce ī ke mā k(·)(·) k(·)(·) (– – –)
b3(– – –) w(·) rpa na ma¯ ¯r ○ (–) || [a] /// /// [ka] s̝a lyñe ṣa nmī reṃ tse śi kṣa pā¯ ¯t ta ne t(·)¯ ¯ñ ś(·)¯ ¯l
b4lts(·) w(·)(·) ñ· pa [kn]ā mo a nā yä tte ke ta ra [ṣ]ä /// /// lle lyku ññe pa lsko sa po sta ññe (– –) ra no ñre ṣṣe pe ṅke – kte kca

(continues on THT 1103)


a1 -staṃn1n2n3 ostameṃ latauupādhy(ā)y(e)ṃ saim yā(mu) /// /// (ṣanmīreṃ) (ñi)ś peṅksat śaulassoñc cwī ñem-klawissoṃnte śakke(ññepi) rṣākeṃ-
a2 -(ts)en4n5 (p)elai(kne) ñakesa warñai śau(ltsa) (warñai) /// /// (śaultsa) (wä)rpoṣ pāssisaimne ykuweṣ takarṣ«k»eṃ tatākaṣ päkl«y»auṣ twe śaula-
a3 -(ssu)n6n7 – – causa ñem-klawi(s)s(ontsa) /// /// taiknesā-k k(e)kamoṣ aṣanīkeṃntsa ysomo (p)o pelai-
a4 -(knenta)n7n8 (kärsoṣsa) (mä)ntrākka ostameṃ ltuweṣ(epi) /// /// (śak) (śikṣapā)tänta ākṣuwaente ṣanmīreṃntse śaul(tsa) (warñai) ///
b1 n9n10n11 /// (ṣanmīreṃntse) (śi)kṣapāt tane t(a)ñ ś(au)ltsa warñai – – – ono(lmeṃ)
b2 n11n12 /// /// ·k·ṣ·ts mäkte kca twe ce te-yäknece īke k(āt)k(at) (kwri) (warpa)-
b3 -(tar)n13 (poñ) (ce) w(ä)rpanamar (1) ॥ a(nāyätte) (ailyñe) /// /// (nar)käṣälyñe ṣanmīreṃtse śikṣapāt tane t(a)ñ ś(au)l-
b4 -lts(a)n14n15n16 w(ar)ñ(ai) päknāmo anāyätte ketara ṣä(ñ) (waipecce) /// (mā) (pra)lle lykuññe palskosa postaññe – – rano ñreṣṣe peṅke (mä)kte kca

(continues on THT 1103)


a1 "... afterwards, I left the house. Having taken refuge with the Upādhyāya [teacher]...
a1+ Take me [as] (a lay follower), you venerable ones, [me] who has accepted the famous ones', the wise one of the Śākya's Law from now on (protecting it throughout [my whole]) life, [me] who has taken refuge, having become a believer!”
a2+ – “Listen, (oh) you venerable one, (to the 10 commandments [daśaśikṣāpadāni] which) by the famous one, the one who has thus come [= Tathāgata], by the worthy one [= Arhat], by the one (knowing) a(ll La)ws, for the one who has just left the house have been proclaimed, when for the novice (they are to be accepted) for the whole life.
b1 (Which ten [commandments]? 1. Refraining from killing living beings), [this is a] commandment (for a novice).
b1+ Therefore you (shall) your whole life, (refrain from deliberately taking the life of) a living be(ing) (not even a worm[?] or an ant[?]!)
b2 Whatever [the circumstances], do not go beyond such a point! [i.e. become guilty of such an offence]!
b2+ (If you accept [this], say:) "I accept (this)."
b3 1. Refr(aining from taking what has) not (been given,) [this is a] commandment for a novice.
b3+ Therefore your whole life you shall not take what has not been given [and is] someone else's property deliberately in thievish thought, not even a small piece of thread.
b4 Whatever [the circumstances] ...

(continues on THT 1103)


Linguistic commentary

The text shows some careless spellings: takarṣeṃ for takarṣkeṃ (a2); päklauṣ for päklyauṣ (a2).
n1 Note the virāma spelling inside the compound ñem-klawissu.
n4 (p)elai(kne) ... (wä)rpoṣ pāssi: for the construction of wärp- with infinitive cf. e.g. A 217: a 3: wärpāt p(tāñkät ārkiśoṣṣis krant märkampal āksis(s)i “The Buddha has consented to teach the good Law to the world” and A 370 4: kusne ñaktañ naivāsikāñ tri ñemintu pās(s)i wräpoṣ “Which gods [and] Naivāsikas, [who have] consented to guard the three jewels”. A 64 a 2 contains a TA parallel to m-ioltoch92 b4 ((śau)ltsa pāssi wärpoṣ = a2 here (śaultsa wä)rpoṣ pāssi): āṣtraṃ pāpṣuneṣiṃ wkäṃ śolā pāssi wärporäṣ päknāmo kotnaṣ “(the third who) purposefully breaks the pure manner of [moral] conduct that he had intended to keep [up his] entire life” (supplementation and translation Sieg 1952: 24 and fn. 10).
n14 ñreṣṣe peṅke 'piece of thread, fluff, lint'. peṅke seem to mean more or less 'part, small piece, section' (TA paṅk).

Parallel texts

PK NS 175; m-ioltoch92; for Sanskrit see Härtel 1956: 53-55, for Sanskrit and Chinese Chung 2004: 46-47 and for Tumšuqese Bailey 1950: 649-670; Emmerick 1985

Philological commentary

The identification, ordering and extensive supplementation of the fragments of leaves 9-11 (THT 1102THT 1104) is facilitated largely by parallel texts from Sanskrit Buddhist literature. Thus THT 1102 a1-2 is relatively closely matched by the Sanskrit text as restored from fragments of Turfan mss. by Härtel 1956: 51, and THT 1102 a2 – THT 1103 b3 may be compared with a Sanskrit text, also restored from Turfan fragments by Härtel 1956: 54-55. The former of the two is a section of text that can be found repeatedly in the Buddhist Sanskrit-tradition, such as CPS 16.16, 17.13, 22.15, 27f.22, NidSa 20.17, ŚPrSū 111, BimbSū 143. The Sanskrit text mentioned by Härtel 1956: 53 deviates slightly from these as does the Chinese parallel having five commandments [pañcaśikṣāpadāni]; see Chung 2004: 46-47. Beyond this, a further parallel can be found, which surprisingly enough, and except for a few minor deviations, is remarkably close to the Tocharian text, and which therefore contributes greatly to supplementing our text here. It is a Tumšuqese Karmavācanā text (cf. Bailey 1950: 649-670; Emmerick 1985 for further reading) which from line 12-62 conforms almost verbatim to THT 1102 a1 – THT 1103 a3. Further important supplementations are owed to the TB fragments m-ioltoch92 and PK NS 175. Certain deviations are caused by the fact that in the various versions occasionally different groups of persons are addressed. Thus the Sanskrit parts, the Tumšuqese text and m-ioltoch92 contain formulas directed at lay followers (male, not female, as wrongly identified by Emmerick 1985: 9ff), while our text here contains directives for novices. The small fragment PK NS 175 does not allow for any closer designation in this respect.
The text of the first five commandments of the Tocharian version could be largely completed with the help of the Skt. text supplied in Härtel 1956: 54f, as well as – at least for commandments 1-3 – that of the Tumšuqese KaVā text. As for commandments 6-10, the Indic parallel versions (such as the Bhikṣukarmavākya, which belongs to the Mūlasarvāstivādin school) offer no more than mere lists of offences. For the Chinese Sarvāstivādin version cf. Chung 2004 and Ogihara 2009: 14, 570ff. When one compares the Tocharian version with the Sanskrit text from the Bhikṣukarmavākya (p. 21) and the Pāli text from the Mahāvagga (I.56) the following picture emerges:
Toch. KaVāBhu.Mahāvagga
1. (onolmeṃ kāwälyñe)1. prāṇātipāta1. pāṇātipāta
2. a(nāyätte ailyñe)2. adattādāna2. adinnādāna
3. (maithuṃ)3. abrahmacarya3. abrahmacariya
4. (waike welyñe)4. mṛṣāvāda4. musāvāda
5. m(ā)l(a trikelye śak)s(e yo)k(a)lyñe5. surāmaireya-madyapramāda-sthāna5. surāmeraya-majja-pamāda-ṭṭhāna
6. (ta)pp(r)e orotstse (leki)8. uccaśayana-mahāśayana9. uccāsayana-mahāsayana
7. pässakä(n)t(a) py(a)pyainä – – – ṣañem (yatäṣälyñe)7. mālagandha-vilepana-varṇakadhāraṇa8. mālagandha-vilepana-dhāraṇamaṇḍana-vibhūsaṇaṭṭhāna
8. (tsaipeṃ śarka ploriyaṃ yamaly)ñ(e)6. nṛtya-gīta-vāditra7. nacca-gīta-vāditavisūkadassana
9. (yasa ñkante) /// /// t(·)a ṣaṃñ eṅkaly(ñ)e10. jātarūpa-rajata-pratigraha10. jātarūpa-rajata-paṭiggahaṇa
10. (snai preke śwātsi)9. akālabhojana6. vikālabhojana
While commandments 1-4 – the supplementations of the Toch. text may be considered certain – do agree quite well in the various versions, commandments 5, 7, 8 (the Toch. text may be supplemented with certainty) and 9 display a number of differences in content, which render a persistent equation of the Tocharian sections with their respective counterparts in the Skt. and Pāli versions impossible.
The supplementations and commentaries follow Schmidt 1986: 7, 108-109, 122-125.
(upāsakeṃ ñi)ś peṅksat: a shortened version of this request for acceptance as a lay follower is attested, in metrical form, in the Udānālaṅkāra fragment THT 48 b3 and in the parallel text m-ioltoch92 b2.
On the issuing of the ten commandments for a novice cf. Härtel 1956: § 29, p. 71-73. The offences covered in these commandments are the same in all versions, but in individual schools there are at times considerable differences in wording and in the order of commandments. These differences can be used to identify the affiliation of a particular text – and clearly show that this text here belongs to the Sarvāstivādin school. This school’s version, which used to be known in only one Chinese translation, presents the commandments in the following formal structure (cf. Härtel 1956: § 29, p. 73): “Refraining from ... as long as you live is a commandment for a novice. Therefore as long as you live you shall refrain from... . Are you able to?” The candidate answers: “ I am able.” It is exactly this form of commandment that is found in this text.
n2 There is a gap of 7-8 akṣaras at the end of the first fragment, and there is blank space amounting to two akṣaras between ñem and klawisso[ṃ]nte.
n3 (ompo)staṃ ostameṃ latau refers to the vow of following. On this cf. Bhu 21, 6-7: taṃ bhagavantaṃ śākyamuniṃ śākyasiṃhaṃ śākyādhirājaṃ tathāgatam arhantaṃ samyaksaṃbuddhaṃ pravrajitaṃ anupravrajāmi “The exalted one, the śākya-wise one, the śākya-lion, the overlord of the śākyas, the tathāgata, the holy one (and) entirely enlightened one, who has (also) gone forth, I follow.” (transl. cf. Härtel 1956: §28, p. 70).
n5 There is a gap of 7-8 akṣaras at the end of the first fragment.
n6 There is a gap of approximately 9 akṣaras at the end of the first fragment and due to a knothole blank space between taiknesāk and k(e)kamoṣ.
n7 ñem-klawi(s)s(ontsa) = Skt. bhagavat, taiknesāk k(e)kamoṣ = Skt. tathāgata, aṣanīkeṃntsa = Skt. , and ysomo (p)o pelai(knenta kärsoṣsa) “he who, perfectly and plainly, knows all the Dharmas” = samyaksaṃbuddha (cf. TA kälymeyā ysomo puk märkapaläntu kärso and Tumšuqese andastai biśe dāte haṅgaṅgu räsanda). For these epithets of the Buddha cf. Mvy. § 1 (Tathāgatasya paryāyanāmāni). For an explanation of bhagavat cf. e.g. Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra I, p. 115f., for tathāgata cf. ibid p. 126, and for samyaksaṃbuddha cf. ibid. p. 127. In the Visuddhimagga, p. 201, sammāsambuddho is explained with sammā sāmañ ca sabbadhammānaṃ pana buddhattā.
n8 There is a gap of approximately 9 akṣaras in the middle of this line to the end of the first fragment; 5 akṣaras are missing to the end of this line.
n9 About 25 akṣaras are missing from the beginning of this line.
n10 Skt. varttitavyam seems to be the equivalent of TB sportolle. Cf. THT 549: b3 maithunaṃ[sic!] saṃyog sutärsa warñai ṣamāññe parā(kä)ṣṣeñcaṃ sutarṣṣeṃ spārttalyñentane sporttolle.
n11 A gap of about 18 akṣaras.
n12 Since, unfortunately, it is impossible to restore ·k·[ṣ·]·ts, its relation to Tumšuqese ba[cha] tsäṇakai moṣjāki (probably to be read thus acc. to D. Hitch in Emmerick 1985: 23) “a tiny worm (or) an ant” (Emmerick 1985: 11) and Skt. kuntapipīlakaḥ “worm or ant” (cf. Härtel 1956: 54) remains unclear.
n13 A gap of about 7 akṣaras at the end of the first fragment. Due to a knothole there is blank space between (nar)käṣälyñe and ṣanmīreṃtse.
n15 A gap of 6-7 akṣaras at the end of the first fragment.
n16 anāyätte ketara ṣä(ñ waipecce) corresponds exactly to Tumšuqese handarā havya arorda tsātä “property of another that has not been given” (Emmerick 1985: 11). For the restoration ketara ṣä(ñ waipecce) cf. also THT 511: a2 k(e)t rā ṣañ waipecce ṣärmasont palskalñe “a thought the cause of which is another’s property”. There is blank space amounting to one or two akṣaras between postaññe and rano.


According to Schmidt 1986: iv-v the ms. either comes from Qizil or from Tumšuq.
This leaf consists of two larger fragments: the left side around the string hole, about 9-10 cm wide, in 8 pieces, partly preserved only in individual layers. The right side, about 15 cm wide, in 7 pieces. Between the two fragments about 5 cm are missing. The leaf number is not preserved.
The original ms. was 29 cm wide and 5.6 cm high, with the string hole 6.5 cm from the left margin. It was written by at least three hands: scribe 1, a beautiful, delicate script, from leaf 1 to 11 a1; scribe 2, distinguished by a number of orthographical idiosyncrasies/errors, from leaf 11 a1 to and including 19; scribe 3 from leaf 20 to end. The final leaves A and B THT 1123 and THT 1124 may have been written either by scribe 2 or a fourth hand. Cf. Schmidt 1986: v, 2-3.
This leaf is in hand 1.


Online access

IDP: THT 1102; TITUS: THT 1102


Tamai 2014: 365-366; Tamai 2007a: №1102; Schmidt 1986: 7, 42


Peyrot 2013b: b2 (308), b2 b3 (700), b4 THT 1103 a1 (308); Schmidt 1986: a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 b3 b4 (68-70); Tamai 2014: a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 b3 b4 (365-366)


Bailey 1950

Bailey, Harold W. 1950. “The Tumshuq Karmavācanā.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 13 (3): 649–70.

Chung 2004

Chung, Jin-il. 2004. Das Upasaṃpadāvastu, Vorschriften für die buddhistische Mönchsordination im Vinaya der Sarvāstivāda-Tradition, Sanskrit-Version und chinesische Version. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden, Beiheft 11. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Emmerick 1985

Emmerick, Ronald E. 1985. “The Tumshuqese Karmavācanā text.” Akademie d. Wissenschaften u.d. Literaturen, Abhandlungen d. Geistes- u. Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse Wiesbaden 2: 1–34.

Härtel 1956

Härtel, Herbert. 1956. Karmavācanā. Formulare für den Gebrauch im buddhistischen Gemeindeleben aus ostturkestanischen Sanskrit-Handschriften. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden, III. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Ogihara 2009

Ogihara, Hirotoshi. 2009. “Researches about Vinaya-texts in Tocharian A and B [Recherches sur le Vinaya en tokharien A et B].” PhD thesis, Paris: École Pratique des Hautes Études.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1986

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1986. “Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes.” {Habilitation}.

Sieg 1952

Sieg, Emil. 1952. Übersetzungen aus dem Tocharischen II, aus dem Nachlass hg. v. Werner Thomas. Abhandl. d. Deutschen Akad. d. Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Kl. f. Sprachen, Literatur und Kunst 1. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection.

Tamai 2014

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2014. “The Tocharian Karmavācanā.” Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013 17: 365–94.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”