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PK AS 18A

Known as:PK AS 18A; Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 18A; PK 18.1
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn. "PK AS 18A". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-pkas18a (accessed 18 Apr. 2024).

Edition

Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn
Date of online publication:2013-08

Provenience

Expedition code:FM 5a
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Vinayavibhaṅga
Passage:NP 17-21
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya
Verse/Prose:prose

Object

Manuscript:PK AS 18
Leaf number:10-2
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Size (h × w):7 × 42 cm
Number of lines:5

Transliteration

a1ñä kte sā¯ ¯ṅk krau pa ṣṣa śi kṣa [p]· – [ś]· nmya kuse ṣa mā ne a le tstsai a śī ya ntse yā kwa lāṃ ssi ai s̝s̝aṃ to yā kwa pa¯ ¯stä ta rka na llo na nai [sa] rgi 10 7 ||
a2pa ñä kte śrā va sti ne ma skī ta¯ ¯r ○ o mte ṣa ḍva rgi nta ya sa ñka nte wrā ka ññeṃ wme ra ma kci pri yeṃ ta nā pa ti nā ksa nte lā¯ ¯ñcä tai sa śa kke ññi ma kci
a3nau mye nta [p]· reṃ pa ñä kte klyau ṣa ○ nā ksa te sā ṅ¯ – [k]rau pa ṣṣa śi kṣa pā¯ ¯t śā nmya • kuse ṣa mā ne ya sa ñka nte sa wa rñai nau mi ye nta ṣa ñtsa e ṅka stra
a4to¯ ¯[y]ä nau mi ye[ṃ] nta pa¯ ¯stä ta rka ○ na llo na nai ssa rgī 10 8 || śrā va sti ne ṣa ḍva rgi nta ka ryo¯ ¯r pi to ya ma ṣye ntra ka ttā ke¯ ¯ts wai ppe cce ṣ[ṣ]e klau tke
a5mā yo tī ta¯ ¯r tu sa ma nta ñye ntra pa ñä kte klyau ṣa nā ksa te sā¯ ¯ṅk krau pa ṣṣa śi kṣa pā¯ ¯t śā nmya • kuse ṣa mā ne ma kā yä kne nau mye [n]·· [s]· ka ryo¯ ¯r pī to ya
b1ma stra to¯ ¯yä nau mi ye nta pa¯ ¯stä ta rka na llo na nai sa rgi 10 9 || śrā va sti ne u pa na nde¯ ¯śä ā jī vi ke śe[¯] [¯]m ra treṃ ka mpā¯ ¯l au su • u [pa] na nde ce¯ ¯u ka mpā¯ ¯l
b2ya [ṣ]ṣā te «ne» «meṃ» mā wsā ne • pa kwā re ntsa ○ myā ska ne : ce¯ ¯u pre ka[¯] [¯]r a te ka mpā¯ ¯l ya ma ṣṣa sta sū we ña u pa na ndi «·e» myā ska wa ne [tu] [m]·· cai o sta ññi nā ksa
b3nte ne s[ka] [r]ā re ne ka mpā¯ ¯l mā ○ pa¯ ¯stä ka la ta¯ ¯[r] ma tsi sa kau¯ ¯cä la ṅka mcä u pa na nde nmeṃ ka mpā¯ ¯l pa¯ ¯st ña ṣṣi sū mā wsā ne o¯ ¯t śrā ddheṃ a śrā
b4ddhe¯ ¯ś au [r]ts· sa we ña ka mpā¯ ¯l ○ sa mpāṃ te¯ ¯ñä u pa na ndeṃ mā ka nā ksa nte • pa ñä kte klyau ṣa nā ksa te sā¯ ¯ṅk krau pa [ṣ]ṣa śi kṣa pā¯ ¯t śā nmya • kuse ṣa mā
b5ne ma kā yä kne wai pe cce nta sa [ka] ·o¯ ¯[r] pi to ya ma stra to¯ ¯yä wai pe cce nta pa¯ ¯stä ta rka na llo na nai s[s]a· [g]ī 20 || rā ja grī ne ve ṇu va nne pa ñä k[t]e [ma] skī

Transcription

(pa)-
a1 -ñäkten1n2n3n4n5n6n7 sāṅk kraupäṣṣa śikṣap(āt) ś(ā)nmya kuse ṣamāne aletstsai aśīyantse yākwa lāṃssi aiṣṣäṃ to= yākwa päst tärkanallona naisargi 10-7 ॥
a2 n8n9n10 pañäkte śrāvastine mäskītär omte ṣaḍvarginta yasa ñkante wrākaññeṃ wmera makci priyeṃ tanāpati nāksante lāñc taisa śakkeññi makci
a3 n11 naumyenta p(a)reṃ pañäkte klyauṣa nāksate sāṅ(k) kraupäṣṣa śikṣapāt śānmyakuse ṣamāne yasa ñkantesa warñai naumiyenta ṣañtsa eṅkasträ
a4 n12n13n14 toy naumiyeṃnta päst tärkanallona naissargī 10-8 ॥ śrāvastine ṣaḍvarginta karyor pito yamaṣyenträ kattākets waippecceṣṣe klautke
a5 yotītär tusa mäntañyenträ pañäkte klyauṣa nāksate sāṅk kraupäṣṣa śikṣapāt śānmyakuse ṣamāne makā-yäkne naumyen(ta)s(a) karyor pīto ya-
b1 -masträ toy naumiyenta päst tärkanallona naisargi 10-9 ॥ śrāvastine upanandeś ājīvike śem rätreṃ kampāl ausuupanande ceu kampāl
b2 n15n16 yaṣṣāte-nemeṃwsā-nepakwārentsa myāska-ne : ceu prekar ate kampāl yamaṣṣasta weña upanandi «† ·e» myāskawa-ne tum(eṃ) cai ostaññi nāksa-
b3 -nte-nen17n18n19 skarāre-ne kampālpäst kalatar matsisa kauc laṅkäm-cä upanandenmeṃ kampāl päst ñaṣṣi wsā-ne ot śrāddheṃ aśrā-
b4 -ddheś aurts(e)sa weña kampāl sampāṃte-ñ upanandeṃ māka nāksantepañäkte klyauṣa nāksate sāṅk kraupäṣṣa śikṣapāt śānmyakuse ṣamā-
b5 -nen19 makā-yäkne waipeccentasa ka(ry)or pito yamasträ toy waipeccenta päst tärkanallona naissa(r)gī 20 ॥ rājagrīne veṇuvanne pañäkte mäskī-
-(tär)

Translation

a1 The (Bu)ddha lord had gathered the community [and] he established the [following] prescription: If a monk gives to an unrelated nun some wool to work, this wool ought to be abandoned [by him]. NP 17.
a2 The Buddha lord was staying in Śrāvastī. There precisely the members of the Group of Six [= a certain group of monk] carried off by themselves precious objects [lit. jewels] consisting of gold, silver, [and] pearls. The donors [Skt. dānapati-] blamed them:
a2+ "As if they were kings indeed, men belonging to the Śakya-clan [= the monks] by themselves carry off precious things [lit. jewels].
a3 The Buddha lord heard [it and] blamed [it]; he had gathered the community [and] he established the [following] prescription:
a4 If a monk seizes by himself precious things [lit. jewels] starting with gold [and] silver, these precious things ought to be abandoned [by him]. NP 18. In Śrāvastī the members of the Group of Six used to do business [lit. selling and buying].
a4+ For the patrons [therefore] practice pertaining to [increase] possession was no longer possible;
a5 because of that they were irritated. The Buddha heard [it and] blamed [it]; s he had gathered the community [and] he established the [following] prescription: If a monk does business with precious things [lit. jewels] of many sorts, these precious things ought to be abandoned [by him].
b1 NP 19. In Śrāvastī an Ājīvika dressed in a red cloak came to Upananda.
b1+ Upananda begged this cloak from him,
b2 [but] he did not give [it to] him; [however], he exchanged it with a worse one. They [= the Ājīvikas] asked him [afterwards]: "Did you set the cloak aside?" This one said: "I exchanged it with Upananda".
b2+ Thereupon these housemates blamed him
b3 [and] they threatened him: "[If] you don’t bring back the cloak, we will hang you up by your hair!" He begged the cloak [back] from Upananda, [but] that one did not give it back.
b3+ Then he [= Ājīvika] told the matter at length to the believers [and] unbelievers:
b4 "They deprived me of my cloak." They blamed Upananda much. The Buddha heard [it and] blamed [it]; he had gathered the community [and] he established the [following] prescription: If a monk makes business with possessions of many sorts, these possessions ought to be abandoned [by him].
b5 NP 20. The Buddha lord wa(s) staying in Rājagṛha in the Bamboo Grove.

Other

a3+ Der Mönch, der Wertgegenstände wie Gold, Silber usw. eigenhändig annimmt, muss diese Wertgegenstände zurückgeben. (Schmidt 1974: 396)
a5+ Welcher Mönch auf vielfache Weise (mit) Wertgegenständen Kauf [und] Verkauf betreibt, [von dem] sollen die Wertgegenstände zurückgegeben werden. (Schmidt 1974: 423)
b3 If you don't give away the mantle, we will hang you up by your hair. (Peyrot 2013b: 312)
b3 [Wenn] du den Mantel nicht zurückbringst, werden wir dich am Haupthaar aufhängen. (Schmidt 1974: 297, 392)

Commentary

Parallel texts

THT 337

Philological commentary

For a detailed commentary, see Pinault 2008: 65-77.
n16 The sign below the correction cross may either be [t]e or [ts]e. Neither form makes sense in the text, unless somebody wanted to correct upanandi into the alternative genitive upanandentse; note that in a proper name the genitive in -i is more correct.
n19 śrāddheṃ is oblique plural and the next word stands for all.pl. aśrāddheṃśc, which is confirmed by the parallel THT 337 b2.

Linguistic commentary

n1 kraupäṣṣa, 3rd sg. act. of the causative preterit (IV) of kraup- 'to gather, amass', in the context of to 'assemble, reunite', thus 'to convene, cause to unite'. Note the accent of the causative stem on the first syllable, from whence -ä- (unstressed) in the second syllable. It must be noted, by the way, that the action noun kraupe (A krop) 'mass, troop' is also used as a translation from Skt. saṃgha- in the sense of 'congregation'.
n2 śikṣapāt (A śikṣāpat), obl. (= nom.) sg. of a loan word from Skt. śikṣāpada- 'precept, rule', relating to morality.
n3 śānmya, 3rd sg. act. of the causative preterit (II) of śänm- 'to bind', next to the present tense (X), 3rd sg. middle śānmästar. Since it has a rule as direct object, this verb means 'to firmly establish, to decree'.
n4 aletstsai, obl. sg. of aletstsa, feminine of the adjective aletstse 'peculiar, unrelated'; this term is the equivalent of Skt. ajñāti- (or ajñātikā-) 'unrelated' in the Vinaya.
n5 yākwa, obl. (= nom.) pl. of yok (genus alternans) 'pelage, fleece', from whence 'wool' of certain animals; translation from Skt. eḍaka-loman-, pl. in the Vinaya, 'sheep fleece, goat fleece', the reference of the noun eḍaka- (Pāli eḷaka-) not being limited to the former references only, but encompassing all the small livestock that produce wool.
n6 to yākwa by sandhi for toy yākwa. Also to be restored to toy (a4, b1) before naumiyenta: nom. pl. fem. of the demonstrative seṃ, fem. sāṃ, with anaphoric value, differentiated from the indirect pl. fem. toyna. The reduction of the geminate in sandhi (in toy yākwa) is not unknown in this manuscript; cf. further down sānk kraupäṣṣa reduced to sānkraupäṣṣa (PK AS 18B, a2, b2).
n7 tärkanallona, nom. (= obl.) pl. fem. of tärkanalle, gerund (I) of necessity from the present stem (VI) as in tärk- (= A) 'to let go, to abandon'. The combination of this verb with the adverb päst translates Skt. niḥ-sṛj- 'to abandon': päst tärkanalle serves as a translation of the term niḥsargika- 'who needs to be abandoned'.
n8 ṣaḍvarginta, nom. pl. of ṣaḍvargi, from ṣaḍvargiya-, an intermediate form (partially from Prākrit, cf. Pāli chabbaggiya-) for ṣaḍvargika- or ṣaḍvārgika- ('belonging to the group of six'), denomination of a particular group of disciplines of the Buddha who attempt to liberate themselves from his teachings and moral rules.
n9 wmera, obl. (= nom.) pl. of wamer (A wmār), masc. 'jewel, jewelry' (Skt. maṇi-). This word, as is naumiye 'jewel' further down, is actually the equivalent of Skt. rūpya- 'silver/money', in the sense of its mercantile value, which includes silver money, but also noble metals (gold, silver) and gems. The term used in the Chinese version (cf. Rosen 1959: 103 n.2) is specifically băo 'precious object, treasure, jewel, jewellery' and secondarily 'money (in terms of hard cash)'.
n10 tanāpati, nom. pl. of tanāpat, masc., borrowed from Skt. dānapati- (> *tānapat) with a transfer to the most frequent declension of the masculine forms; literally 'master of donation', or 'giver, benefactor', term for 'generous layperson'.
n11 ṣañtsa, perlative of the reflexive possessive ṣañ. The parallel text THT 337: a1 has ṣañ ṣarsa 'with his own hand', which literally translates Skt. svahastam of the Vinaya. It is not very likely that the editor simply forgot the word ṣar 'hand'. The phonetic development (*ṣäñ-sā > *ṣántsa > ṣañtsa restituteded after ṣañ) is similar to that of other forms of the perlative sg.: kektseñtsa (of kektseñe “body”, obl. sg. kektseñ), meñtsa (of meñe 'month', obl. sg. meñ): it is definitely a form of ṣañ 'its/his/hers', nominalised to the sense of 'oneself', and broadly translating svahastam as 'of one’s own, through oneself'.
n12 pito, masc., obl. (= nom.) sg., 'price, cost', probably borrowed from Middle Iranian, cf. Khotanese pīha- 'price'. Even though the noun karyor (A kuryar) would be able to cover the entirety of business, its association in a conceptual pair with pito 'price' suggests that the two terms are complementary: since pito 'price', implies 'of sale', karyor is therefore restrained to the sense of buying, and it is the binomial relationship in its entirety that designates business, following the example of Skr. kraya-vikrayaḥ 'buying [and]selling' = 'business', as a key word of rule NP20 (cf. Rosen 1959: 106). yamaṣyenträ, 3rd pl. mid. of the imperfect, from the present stem (IX) yamáṣṣä- of yām- (= A) 'make'; from the same stem, see further down the present tense form, 3rd sg. mid. yamasträ (b1). The version of THT 337 has this verb in the same phrase but with two additional terms: karyor pito misko ailñe yamaṣyenträ (a2) 'they were buying, selling, exchanging and giving'. The preliminary narration to rule NP 19 is very short in the Sanskrit version (cf. Rosen 1959: 196): the examined cases, complete with commentary and casuistry, cover traffic of all sorts of items and objects of value, produced or not, no matter of what origin.
n13 kattākets, for kattākents or kattākeṃts, gen. pl. of kattāke (A kātäk), masc. 'householder', indirect loan from Skt. gṛhastha-: the first intermediary is, in Gāndhārī, ghahaṭha-, borrowed into ancient Khotanese, from whence the drop of the intervocalic aspirant (> *ghaaṭha-), contraction, and addition of the frequent suffix -ka, thus *ggāṭha-ka- (at this point borrowed into Common Tocharian >*kāttākoe), leading to Khotanese ggāṭhaa-.
n14 naissargī is a hypercorrect rendering of the borrowing from Buddhist Skt. naiḥsargiya- for correct naiḥsargika-
n15 ate, adv. of distance; in spite of the superficial resemblance, this Tocharian word is originally independent of Skt. atas 'from there, after this, then' (serving also as ablative of the pronoun idam) : Toch. A atas, which was considered as its equivalent (Thomas and Krause 1964: 77 and 162) is a phantom word, which reads anas and has a totally different meaning.
n17 b3 laṅkäm-c, 1st pl. act. of the subjunctive (I) of läṅk- (= A) 'hang, suspend', followed by the suffixed pronoun of the 2nd person singular. In the version of THT 337: b1, the punishment seems less severe: lyutem-cä, with the same suffixed pronoun, 1st pl. act. of the subjunctive (II) of lut- (= A) 'to distance oneself, to chase'. This part of the narration is lost in the Sanskrit text.
n18 śrāddheṃ, obl. pl. (= sg.) of śrāddhe, masc., loan word from Skt. śrāddha- 'believing, faithful' ; parallel loan of the privative aśrāddha-, from whence the allative pl. aśrāddheṃśc, correct in THT 337: b2, simplified here as aśrāddheś. These two terms need to be understood as collectives. The version of THT 337 adds poś, allative of po, masc., in the sense of 'whoever, a random person'.

References

Complete translation and commentary

Pinault 2008: 65-77

Edition

Couvreur 1955a: 40; Thomas 1979a; Pinault 2008: 65; Ogihara 2009: 90f

Translations

Couvreur 1955: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (114-115); Meunier 2013: a4 (181), a5 b1 (182), b2 (135); Peyrot 2013b: b3 (312); Schmidt 1974: a3 a4 (396), a5 b1 (423), b3 (297, 392)

Bibliography

Couvreur 1955

Couvreur, Walter. 1955. “Nieuwe Koetsjische fragmenten van de Bibliothèque Nationale te Parijs.” In Handelingen van het Eenentwintigste Vlaams Filologencongres, 110–16.

Couvreur 1955a

Couvreur, Walter. 1955a. “Review of: TochSprR(B) II: Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 2. Fragmente Nr. 71-633.” Bibliotheca Orientalis 12 (1): 40–41.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Ogihara 2009

Ogihara, Hirotoshi. 2009. “Researches about Vinaya-texts in Tocharian A and B [Recherches sur le Vinaya en tokharien A et B].” PhD thesis, Paris: École Pratique des Hautes Études.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Pinault 2008

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 2008. Chrestomathie tokharienne. Textes et Grammaire. Leuven/Paris: Peeters.

Rosen 1959

Rosen, Valentina. 1959. Der Vinayavibhaṅga zum Bikṣuprātimokṣa der Sarvāstivādins. Sanskritfragmente nebst einer Analyse der chinesischen Übersetzung. Vol. II. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Thomas 1979a

Thomas, Werner. 1979a. “Ein neues tocharisches Prātimokṣa-Fragment der Bibliothèque Nationale.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 92: 235–68.

Thomas and Krause 1964

Thomas, Werner, and Wolfgang Krause. 1964. Tocharisches Elementarbuch, Band II. Texte und Glossar. Heidelberg: Winter.