CEToM | THT 338

Work in progress

THT 338

Known as:THT 338; B 338
Cite this page as:Melanie Malzahn. "THT 338". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-tht338&outputformat=print (accessed 12 Jul. 2024).


Editor:Melanie Malzahn
Date of online publication:2017-09-11


Main find spot:Kizil Ming-öy
Expedition code:T III MQ 44.2
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:archaic
Add. linguistic characteristics:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Vyāghrī-Jātaka
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna


Manuscript:THT 338-344
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:7


Images from idp.bl.uk by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// sa ly[u] lya [r]k[ā] yo psā ttsā na wa ś· (– – – –) [n](·) st· nau mye ṣṣā ne pa – ///
a2/// [w]i na stsi po ta ṅwsa • ṣle ṣṣi wä rtto ṣṣi a ka śä ṣṣi ke na ṣṣi w· ·i ///
a3/// ○ sā mā ka wi sa su wi śkaṃ ta la ntaṃ me wya sā¯ ¯u • krui ///
a4/// ○ wä rka ltsa ra ṅka i ke po staṃ s̝a le yä¯ ¯st śe [m](·) ///
a5/// ○ su me t[ta] rpa lsko e rsā [te] wro cce yä¯ ¯st 50 6 ra mā (·)e ///
a6/// [t]a cci tā ko yce¯ ¯r [ṣl]e ṣṣi ke na ṣṣi a ka śa ṣṣi [w]ä ///
a7/// – a tā [t]e • ce [u]ka ka [cc]o s̝a ta [ka] r· ·eṃ k[r]e nt[pa] l(·)[o] ///
b1/// (·)[u] sa [o¯] [¯t] wä [rs]a ple w[e] ra ke na [mai] (– –) • – – ///
b2/// sa ṣṣi ñä kti ke n[m]a mai wa rsa sklo ka cc[i] yä¯ ¯st kr[au] [p](·) ///
b3/// tswai kka ka tko wwa pi kwä la toṃ e pi ṅte ma kte ka śya ///
b4/// ○ wä¯ ¯n sa nke naka syä kne 60-1 ka nai we sa¯ ¯ñ toṃ ni ///
b5/// ○ tā ko¯ ¯ī ka ṣṣi o ro ttse ke ta rmtsa mi wä¯ ¯n keṃ ñke s[k]lo ///
b6/// (·)[y](·) k(·)¯ ¯s ṣle meṃ ce¯ ¯u klo yo mā ne la [n]te so¯ ¯ī ma hā sa tve no¯ ¯t ka ka ///
b7/// sa yśa mna mcu ṣkeṃ ṣcwä rka ltsā • cä ṅke ·e ·e (·)e s[t]ā mai syä stai yñä kte ne [p]·ā ///


53ba1n1 ///
53c(sa)salyu lyarkā ; yops= āttsāna wa(r)ś(aiṃne)
53d– – (e)n(e)st(ai) ; naumyeṣṣān= epa – –
55b/// a2 /// ; – winastsi po täṅwsa
54cṣleṣṣi wärttoṣṣi ; akaśäṣṣi kenäṣṣi
55aw(räṣṣ)i /// a3 /// māka
55bwi säsuwiśkaṃ ; talantäṃ mewya u
55dkrui /// a4 ///
56awärkṣältsa räṅka ; ike-postäṃ ṣäle-yäst
56cśem /// a5n2n3 ///
56dsu mettär-pälsko ; ersāte wrocce yäst«ä» 50-6
57crämā(t)e /// a6n4 /// ; (eki)tacci tākoycer
57dṣleṣṣi kenäṣṣi ; akaśäṣṣi wä(rttoṣṣi)
58b/// a7n4 /// at= āte
58cceu kakaccoṣä ; takär(ṣk)eṃ krent päl(sk)o(sa)
59a/// b1n4 ///
59b(t)usa ot wärsa ; plewe ra ken«†ä» mai(wāte)
59d– – /// b2n4 ///
60a(śuddhavā)säṣṣi ; ñäkti ken mamaiwarsa
60dsklokäcci yäst«ä» ; kraup(ānte) /// b3n4 ///
61atswai kka kätkowwa ; pikwäla toṃ epiṅte
61dmäkte kaśya(pe) ; /// b4n5 /// ; (mi)wän san ken«†ä» ṣkäs-yäkne 60-1
62cka nai wesäñ toṃ ; ni… /// b5n6 /// ; tākoī käṣṣi orottse
62dket ṣärmtsa miwän ; keṃ ñke sklo(k) – – –
63b/// b6n7 /// ·y·k·s ṣlemeṃ
63cceu kloyomāne ; lante soī mahāsatven
64bot kaka… /// b7 /// …sä ; yśamna mcuṣkeṃṣc wärkṣältsā
64ccäṅke(n)e (ṣl)e(nts)e ; stāmais yäs= taiy ñäktene
p()ā… ///


a1... having shaken off ..., he [= the Boddhisattva] entered into the thick thicket, ... in isolation the jewel-like ...
a1+... in order to honor ... out of love for everything.
a2The (beings?) of the mountain, of the forest, of the sky, of the earth, of the water ...
a3... this very ... Whenever the tigress (nom.) ... the two miserable cubs (obl.) ... (55.)
a4With energy [the Boddhisattva] climbed step by step onto the mountain top.
a4+He we(nt) ...
a5... This [~ the Boddhisattva's plan to sacrifice himself for the cubs] caused a benevolent disposition [regarding the] great [mountain] top. 56. He bent ...
a6... you will be able to help/to be aided, [you, the beings] of the mountain, of the earth, of the sky, [and] of the forest. 57. ...
a6+... away.
a7With joyful, serene, [and] good mind ...
b1... Then the earth quaked like a boat on water. ...
b1+... 59.
b2The Śuddhavāsa gods, [being] concerned due to the quaking of the earth, gathered [around] the [mountain] top ... 60.
b3Up until these passed years indeed as Kāśyapa ...
b4... this earth quakes six times. 61. These (fem.pl.) [omens??] concerning me indeed ...
b5... shall become a great teacher. For what reason the earth quakes now (there is no) doubt ...
b5+... (look at/you saw) (??) this prince, [the] Mahāsattva ('great being') falling from the mountain;
b6+then ... among men to the prince with energy;
b7the two gods stood on the top in the lap of the mountain. ...


Linguistic commentary

The manuscript is certainly a copy from an older one in (more) archaic script and archaic TB due to many inaccurate virāma and fremdzeichen spellings: metrically guaranteed yästä in a 5 and b 2 for yäst\. spelling wän\ with non-fremdzeichen ‹na› in b 4 (and b 5) but neither virāma spelling nor subscription of ‹na› in metrically guaranteed ken in the same line b 4.
As already noted by Sieg/Siegling, the manuscript spells ‹ṣc› for ‹śc›.

Parallel texts

Sanskrit: Hanisch 2005: 1.6ff.; Chinese


This mansucript is basically written in the common archaic script type, but it already shows standard-shaped signs beside the old ones (e.g., open-shaped 〈ma〉 beside closed-shaped); cf. Malzahn 2007a: 264.
Note that the ai-vowel of ‹nai› in b 4 seems to have been secondarily turned into the more archaic elongated shape.
The second smallest fragment under the glass frame with the press mark m-tht1682 does not belong here.
The smallest piece has to be turned, it makes an immediate joint with the left fragment in line a 1 and a 7, respectively. The two large fragments immediately join together in lines a 3, a 4, a 5, and a 6, and b 4, b 5, b 6, and b 7, respectively. One piece of the manuscript still known to Sieg/Siegling located between the two fragments in lines a 6-7 and b b 1-3 seems to be lost now.
The small piece joint to line a 6= b 3 of the right fragment on the photograph is wrongly placed. I suggest that it belongs to line a 1 (= b 7) and contains part of the ‹ne› and upper part of ‹stai› of the form enestai. In the current glass frame of the original manuscript, this piece has been moved further to the right side.

Philological commentary

n1The reading saly[u] is quite certain: although the lower part is damaged, the remains cannot be anything else than a vowel ‹u›, as ha been suggested by Sieg/Siegling in Sieg and Siegling 1953. We most likely have to do with a PPt of or 'to throw off (a burden)' being parallel to Sanskrit ava dhū- 'to shake off', see Hanisch 2005: 1.6: gārhasthyam asvāsthyam ivāvadhūya, kaṃ cid vanaprastham alaṃcakāra "Den Stand eines Haushalters abgeschüttelt habend wie ein Unbehagen, schmückte er einen hochgelegenen Wald (i.e. mit seiner Präsenz)". The next form has been read lyak[eṃ] by Krause 1952: 179 and Sieg and Siegling 1953 and interpreted as lyake "obstacle", but this reading is very unlikely in my opinion. A close inspection of the original manuscript on 2017-09-08 strongly suggests a reading lyarkā. The gloss "(Hoch)fläche" in TEB II: 238 for seems to be based on the same Sanskrit passage, but other attestations of suggest that the form rather means 'thicket' and refers to non-penetrable vegetation. At the end of the line, Adams 2013a: 93f. tentatively suggests to restore to (wṣiya) enestai naumyeṣṣān= epa(nmane) or epa(ntane) "he dwelt secretly [~ in isolation?] in +/- dwellings of [spiritual] jewels". The remains of the last akṣara indeed speak in favour of ‹nta› but ‹nma› is, in my opinion, excluded. For enestai see again the Sanskrit parallel in Hanisch 2005: 1.7 sa tatra niḥsaṅgatayā tayā ca, prajñāvadātena śamena caiva „Dort durch diese Isolation und durch Einsicht helle (oder reine) Ruhe (Gleichmut)“.
n2Schmidt's translation "Er rief freundschaftliche Gesinnung hervor [und] beugte sich zum großen Abgrund" in Schmidt 1974: 302 is syntactically excluded since there is a strophe boundary indicated by the spelled strophe number between yäst and rämāte which Schmidt simply ignored in his transcription of the passage. The fact that yäst\ has to be scanned yästä makes the metrical analysis even more likely since the end of a colon is precisely prone to preserve former word-final -ä. The final -ä of yäst has likewise to be restored against the spelling in line b, as correctly pointed out by Sieg/Siegling in their commentary.
n3mettär for maittär is rather a misspelling than sign of monophthongization.
n4Sieg/Siegling in Sieg and Siegling 1953 read ṣleṣṣi kenaṣṣi in a 6, ce[u] kaka[cc]oṣa ta[ka]r in a 7, wä[rs]a plew[e] ra ken)(\) [mai] in b 1, ken [m]amaiwarsa sklokacci and toṃ in b 3 without commentary. Since there is no trace of these akṣaras (put in brackets in the translation), it seems a little piece has been lost when the fragments were put into the current glass frame.
n5Maybe ni- has to be restored to a form borrowed from Skt. nimitta- 'omen' such as (alternans) pl. nimittanta or nimittanma.
n6At the end of the line one has to restore a form or derivative of sklok 'doubt'.
n7The name Mahāsattva conforms to the Sanskrit parallel (see Hanisch 2005: 1.37) and Chinese parallel 摩訶薩埵 Mohesaduo, see Bunyio Nanjio: A Catalogue of Chinese Tranlation of the Buddhist Tripitaka. There is no obvious restoration for ·y·k·s; since a 2.pl. preterite or imperative is not likely, it may contain the name of the mountain.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Peyrot 2008A1
Malzahn 2007aA5
Tamai 2011A2
Tamai 2011C14


Online access

IDP: THT 338; TITUS: THT 338


Sieg and Siegling 1953: 220


Carling 2000: b1 (129, 132, 134); Hackstein 1995: a5 (47); Krause 1952: a1 (179); Schmidt 1974: a5 (302), b1 (121), b4 (120); Thomas 1957: a4 (96), a5 (96), b3 (262); Thomas 1969: b1 (263), b2 (242), b2 (263), b4 (263); Thomas 1972: a7 (469); Thomas 1979b: b5 (56)


Adams 2013a

Adams, Douglas Q. 2013a. A dictionary of Tocharian B. Revised and greatly enlarged. 2<span class="sup">nd</span>. 2 vols. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Hanisch 2005

Hanisch, Albrecht. 2005. Âryasuras Jatakamala. Philologische Untersuchungen zu den Legenden 1 bis 15. 2 vols. Marburg: Indica-et-Tibetica.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Malzahn 2007a

Malzahn, Melanie. 2007a. “The most archaic manuscripts of Tocharian B and the varieties of the Tocharian B language.” In Instrumenta Tocharica, edited by Melanie Malzahn, 255–97. Heidelberg: Winter.

Peyrot 2008

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008. Variation and change in Tocharian B. Vol. 15. Leiden Studies in Indo-European. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1953

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1953. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 2. Fragmente Nr. 71-633. Edited by Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Tamai 2011

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.


Thomas, Werner, and Wolfgang Krause. 1964. Tocharisches Elementarbuch, Band II. Texte und Glossar. Heidelberg: Winter.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1969

Thomas, Werner. 1969. “Bemerkungen zum Gebrauch von toch. A ptāñkät [B pañäkte, pudñäkte], A koṃ [B kauṃ]: A koṃñkät [B kauṃñäkte] usw.” Orbis 18: 235–68.

Thomas 1972

Thomas, Werner. 1972. “Zweigliedrige Wortverbindungen im Tocharischen.” Orbis 21: 429–70.

Thomas 1979b

Thomas, Werner. 1979b. Formale Besonderheiten in metrischen Texten des Tocharischen: Zur Verteilung von B tane/tne “hier” und B ñake/ñke “jetzt”. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 15. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/tocharic/thtframe.htm.

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