• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

PK NS 34

Known as:PK NS 34; Pelliot Koutchéen Nouvelle Série 34
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Hannes A. Fellner. "PK NS 34". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 08 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Hannes A. Fellner
Date of online publication:2014-07


Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Expedition code:M 500.8
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Mahāprabhāsa-Avadāna
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):7.8 × 24.7/22.7 cm
Number of lines:4
Interline spacing:1.7 cm


Images from by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.


a1/// klyau s̝ta¯ ¯r mā ke cai ṣe kaṃ ñe śai ṣṣe ne tse ṅke nta¯ ¯r u du m[p]a[¯] [¯r] pyā pyai mpa ta se
a2/// ś[ai] ṣṣe ne pā kri ma ske nta¯ ¯r e nt[e] [no] tsa ṅkaṃ po o no l[m]eṃ¯ ¯[t]s la [k]l[e] nta ne wa ste ma
a3/// ○ ta ṅwa ññu su kka ka ṣe ske śai ṣṣe ntse ka rtse [r]i ta (–) [ā] ·[e] m· [a] ly[ai]¯ ¯k na no tu kyä kne
a4/// ma ske nta¯ ¯r tū po kse¯ ¯ñä || o mno ha stā ṅku [śe] (– – –) [m]· ·[e] e [r]e sa lā nta śwe s̝s̝aṃ || va
b1/// [¯]k pu dñä kti ga ṅga vā lu¯ ¯k nau ṣaṃ ñi : la ktsau [ñai] (– –) [s]· ñṣai lyau ka¯ ¯r śai ṣṣeṃ ta rltse cceṃ :
b2/// ○ lkā tsi ñä kcye śā mñe ne rvāṃ ṣṣe : cai tu skai na· [ṣa] [ññ]· ññe śai ṣṣe snū meṃ sla ṅke ntra 1
b3/// kre ntyā mo rne yā mta¯ ¯r kwri : [au] [m]n[o] ppo lau cm[e] lna lye¯ ¯k tā ka ñcā klyi kreṃ [n]tyā
b4/// kaṃ ā klyi pa lsko ntse : a lyai¯ ¯k cme lne cme ta¯ ¯r kwri su¯ ¯k cwī ā klyi ma ske ta¯ ¯r [:] 2


a1 /// /// klyauṣtär m= āke cai ṣekaṃñe śaiṣṣene tseṅkentär udumpar pyāpyaimpa tase-
a2 -(mane) /// /// śaiṣṣene pākri mäskentär ente no tsaṅkaṃ po onolmeṃts läklentane waste mä-
a3 -(skentär) /// /// täṅwaññu sukkaka ṣeske śaiṣṣentse kärtse-rita (klaw)ā(t)e m(ā) alyaik nano tuk yäkne-
a4 -(sa)n1 /// /// mäskentär pokse-ñom no hastāṅkuśe (ārwer) m(aimaṃc)e eresa lāntäś weṣṣäṃva-
b1 -(napraveśne) /// ///
1a (alyai)k pudñäkti ; gaṅgavāluk nauṣaṃñi :
1b läktsauñai(sa) (kekt)s(e)ñṣai ; lyaukar śaiṣṣeṃ tarltsecceṃ :
1c b2/// /// lkātsi ; ñäkcye śāmñe nervāṃṣṣe :
1d cai tu skaina(ṃ) ṣaññ(ä)ññe ; śaiṣṣe snūmeṃ slaṅkenträ 1
2a b3n2 /// /// (āklyi) ; krent yāmorne yāmtar kwri :
2b aum no ppo lau cmeln= alyek ; tākañ-c āklyi kreṃnt b4(mor)n3n4
2c /// /// (yāmu) ; (tā)kaṃ āklyi pälskontse :
2d alyaik cmelne cmetär kwri ; suk cwī āklyi mäsketär : 2


a1 It is heard [as follows]: without end these ones constantly arise in the world, ... comparable to the Udumbara-flower,
a2 they become visible in the world. And when they arise, they are the refuge of all the beings in the sufferings.
a3 O lovely one, is this one indeed absolutely alone called the seeker of good for the world? And again, are the other ones not (seekers of good) precisely in this way?
a4 Tell me that! Then Hastāṅkuśa with clever figure readily says to the king: in [the tune] vanapraveśa
b1 (In many eras) the other Buddha-lords of the past numerous as the sand of the Ganges river, with the splendor of the body they have illuminated the three-thousand-fold worlds,
b2 in order to see (the salvation) of the Nirvāṇa concerning the gods [and] the humans. These ones make an effort about that which is proper to them, they pull the world out of danger.
b3 ... if you learn (something) in a good action, in that case then in every distant other birth the good action will be a lesson for you.
b4 ... if something (has been learned) by the mind, if one is reborn in a different birth, this indeed becomes a lesson for that (mind).


a2 … they become manifest in the world. But when they arise, they are a refuge for all beings in [their] sorrows. (Peyrot 2013c: 683)


Linguistic commentary

This text shows instances of hypercorrect spellings of diphthongs:
n2 aum for om.
n3 alyaik for alyek
n4 Note also the gemination of the initial stop of ppo for po.


Fragments PK NS 34, PK NS 37 (including 38), m-pkns144 and PK NS 398 belong to the same manuscript. In this fragment the right margin is preserved. On both sides traces of ruling are still visible.

Philological commentary

n1 The meter is 4 x 14 syllables with the rhythm 7/7; the name of the tune ought to be restored as vanapraveś, loan from Skt. vanapraveśa-.



Pinault 1988b: 188-193


Adams 2012b: b1 (27); Couvreur 1954d: b1 (90); Hackstein 1995: b1 (124); Peyrot 2013c: a2 (683); Pinault 1988b: a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 b3 b4 (188-193)


Adams 2012b

Adams, Douglas Q. 2012b. “Shedding light on *leuk- in Tocharian and Hittite and the wider implications of reconstructing its Indo-European morphology.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 13: 21–55.

Couvreur 1954d

Couvreur, Walter. 1954d. “Review of: Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum.” Göttingische Gelehrte Anzeigen 208: 79–92.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Peyrot 2013c

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013c. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Pinault 1988b

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 1988b. “Révision des fragments en tokharien B de la légende de Mahāprabhāsa.” In Studia Indogermanica et Slavica. Festgabe für Werner Thomas zum 65. Geburtstag, edited by Peter Kosta, Gabriele Lerch, and Peter Olivier, 175–210. München: Sagner.