• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

A 403

Known as:A 403; THT 1037
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling. "A 403". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 11 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Gerd Carling


Main find spot:Siŋgim
Expedition code:T II S 19.09
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script


Text contents

Title of the work:Ṣaḍdanta-Jātaka
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse
Meter:M12; M25


Manuscript:A 399-404
Preceding fragment:A 88
Following fragment:A 66
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:7


(continues from A 88)

a1/// s· ne slā¯ ¯nt lā ñci wa ṣ[t]· (– –) lyi tmaṃ nu m· ///
a2/// ñä kte¯ ¯s kā swo ne yo (– –) tsi : ci ñcr[aṃ] ///
a3/// cri ā ri – ·r· ka¯ ¯r eṃ – – 1 || tma ṣsā m·· ///
a4/// ṣ· ñcäṃ || tma¯ ¯s̝ ja [mbu] dvi pṣi ñi wā rts[k]ā¯ ¯ñä lā¯ ¯ñ·ä te ///
a5/// pa rsa¯ ¯nt p· ka¯ ¯r || śi ni ku r· || kul· ///
a6/// śki tā (– – – –) : ṣa kka¯ ¯ts ā yi ta¯ ¯m kā swo ne ///
a7/// nwe nyo pa l[s]·ā (– – – – – –) lte • || wā ///
b1/// ṣi ṣru¯ ¯m : ku (– – – – – – –) yo plo nt· – – – ·ñu ///
b2/// [ka] lyme (– – – –) o sā¯ ¯t pyā ppyā syo twa ntaṃ yo ā ///
b3/// [n]ā si o sā¯ ¯t || a pra ti tu lye naṃ ///
b4/// ra¯ ¯s̝ ma he ndra [se] ne¯ ¯s lā¯ ¯nt ñu¯ ¯k ckā ca¯ ¯r cm· ///
b5/// pñe [s]a – r[p]e o pyā¯ ¯cä – – rñi : s̝a¯ ¯k ā ///
b6/// ma bhā drā o ṅka lmā (– –) la¯ ¯s̝ ā [y]· ///
b7/// śna ṣiṃ kā pñu ne yo pra (– – –) ¯nt ta(·) k· ///

(continues on A 66)


(continues from A 88)

a1 /// (sās) (nu) (tāpärk) (plāc) (mahendra)s(e)nes lānt lāñci waṣt(aṃ) (kärsnā)lyi tmaṃ nu m· ///
1a /// ñäktes ; kāswoneyo ; – – tsi :
1b ciñcraṃ /// 10σ
1c 12σ
1d a3 /// ; (pā)cri āri(ñc) ; (p)r(ā)kär eṃ(tsāt) 1 ॥
tmäṣ sām·· ··
a4 /// ṣ(e)ñcäṃ ॥ tmäṣ jambudvipṣiñi wārtskāñ lāñ(ś) te(mi)
a5 n1n2 /// pärsant p(e)karśinikur(aṃ)
1a kul(eñci) (ñemi) ///
1b 12σ
1c a6 /// (mä)śkitā(ñ) ; – – – :
1d ṣakk ats āyitäm ; kāswone(yo) ; ///
a7 /// (āleyaṃ) (śa)nwenyo päls(k)ā(t) – – – – (kuya)lte • ॥ wā ///
b1 /// ṣi ṣrum : ku – – – – – – – yo plont· – – – ·ñu ///
b2 /// kälyme – – – – osāt pyāppyāsyo twantaṃyo ā(pat) ///
b3 n3 /// (ākāl) (ri){n/t}āsi osātapratitulyenaṃ ///
1a 25σ
1b b4 /// (walu)räṣ ; mahendrasenes ; lānt ñuk ckācar ; cm(imār) ///
1c 16σ b5/// (kā)pñes«†ä» ; (wä)rpe opyāc ; (päklā)r-ñi :
1d ṣäk ā(ṅkaräs) /// 21σ
b6 /// (tmäṣ) (sā)m«†ä» bhādrā oṅkälmā(ṣi) (śpa)läṣ āy(äntwā) ///
b7 /// śnaṣiṃ kāpñuneyo pra(kte) (ypa)nt tä·k· ///

(continues on A 66)


(continues from A 88)

a1 ... (This conversation now following, however, [must be]) understood [as taking place] in the palace of king Mahendrasena. There, too, ...
a2 a3 ... she held fast the father’s heart. 1. Thereupon she ...
a4 ... were to/for her. Thereupon the neighbouring kings of Jampudvīpa her ...
a5 ... letters they wrote. || In the Ś.-tune: || You, pearl of women ...
a6 ... princes ... Certainly you may give us (by) [your] virtue ...
a7 ... with [his] chin in the palm of his hand he [= Mahendrasena] thought: ... since: || In the W.-tune(?): ...
b1 b2 ... she [= Bhadrā] began, with flowers and circumambulation, (to honour(?) the Pratyekabuddha) ...
b3 ... to feel (the wish), she began. || In the A.-tune: || ...
b4 ... (when I die), may I be [re-]born as king Mahendrasena’s daughter ...
b5 ... the loves I enjoyed. You shall remember me. The six tusks ...
b6 ... (Thereupon) Bhadrā, the she-elephant, threw herself (?) from the mountain ...
b7 ... doing penance for the love for the woman ...

(continues on A 66)



Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).

Philological commentary

The translation is largely based on Sieg 1952: 7-8, and Carling et al. 2009.
n2 The tune has 4x12 syllables, rhythm = 5/7.
n3 The tune has 4x25 syllables, rhythm = 5/5/8/7.

Linguistic commentary

n1 pärsant from *pärs 'letter', cf. TB parso, pärso 'id.' (Couvreur 1954c: 260).



Online access

IDP: THT 1037; TITUS: THT 1037


Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 224-225; Sieg and Siegling 1921a p. 224, p. 225


Sieg 1952: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 (7ff)


Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Couvreur 1954c

Couvreur, Walter. 1954c. “Review of: Übersetzungen aus dem Tocharischen II, aus dem Nachlass hg. V. Werner Thomas.” Orientalische Literaturzeitung 5/6: 259–61.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Sieg 1952

Sieg, Emil. 1952. Übersetzungen aus dem Tocharischen II, aus dem Nachlass hg. v. Werner Thomas. Abhandl. d. Deutschen Akad. d. Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Kl. f. Sprachen, Literatur und Kunst 1. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Sieg and Siegling 1921a

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921a. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”