Work in progress

THT 1121

Known as:THT 1121; KVāc 30
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés. "THT 1121". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 22 Apr. 2024).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:THT 1102-1125
Preceding fragment:THT 1120
Following fragment:THT 1122
Material: ink on wood tablet
Size (h × w):5.6 × 29 cm
Number of lines:5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from THT 1120)

a1nt· t· i [ka] /// /// s· o no lmeṃ tsa na wä nta rwa meṃ ka llā lle • ce
a2yä kne sa snai o n· lm· t[s]· – /// /// te ke na meṃ ke na ṣṣa na pa ra ma nu nta meṃ sa· vā rka
a3·[l]ā lle • po mo ta rcca – /// /// [l]y· nta m[e]ṃ • kuse śa ktā lye nta ske nte e tsu wai e lau ke
a4wa¯ ¯t po meṃ sa nva rka [ll]· – /// /// [l]m· tsa na wa nta rwa meṃ ka llā lle • ma kte te o
a5no lmeṃ tsa na snai o [no] lm· – – /// /// – [sa]ṃ tai sa c·i wa saṃ tpā ta pi ya rpo ntse ya
b1rmke śmā ne saṃ se wa saṃ /// /// lyñ· kuse ste krui ce ya rpo saṃ sā rṣṣa skwa
b2nma¯ ¯ś yu wä¯ ¯st t[e] /// /// ylai ñä kta ññe ca hhra vā rtti la ntu ñe sa
b3[wa] rñai toṃ po a kā· – – /// /// – m[rau] ska ṣpa lsko sa te saṃ sā rmeṃ tsa lpā tsi¯ ¯ś yū wa
b4¯st • [t]rai kle ṅke ntsa saṃ sā· – /// /// ññe • pra tti ka pa ñä kti ññe a ra ha nte ññe • ce
b5ścä ṅke [n]·[a¯] [¯]·[ä] /// /// [ta]¯ ¯rcä : se tri – wa saṃ tpā n[ts]e yā ta lyñe sta¯ ¯rc

(continues on THT 1122)


(continues from THT 1120)

a1 n1n2 nt· t· ikä(ṃ) /// /// (yäkne)s(a) onolmeṃtsana wäntarwameṃ källāllece
a2 n3n4n5 yäknesa snai on(o)lm(eṃ)ts(ana) /// /// te kenameṃ kenaṣṣana paramanuntameṃ sa(ṃ)vār kä-
a3 -(l)lāllen6n7n8po motarcca(na) /// /// (śäktā)ly(e)ntameṃkuse śäktālyenta skente etsuwai elauke
a4 n8n9n10n11 wat pomeṃ sanvar käll(ālle) /// /// (snai) (ono)lm(eṃ)tsana wantarwameṃ källāllemäkte te o-
a5 -nolmeṃtsanan12n13n14 snai onolm(eṃtsana) /// /// (ne)säṃ taisa c(w)i wasaṃtpātä«ṣṣe»pi yarpontse ya-
b1 -rmn15n16n17 keś nesäṃ se wasaṃ(tpātäṣṣe) /// /// (pke)lyñ(e) kuse ste krui ce yarpo saṃsārṣṣa skwa-
b2 -nmaśn18n19 yuwäst te /// /// ylai-ñäktäññe cahhravārtti lantuñesa
b3 n20 warñai toṃ po akā(lkänta) /// /// (ma)mrauskaṣ palskosa te saṃsārmeṃ tsälpātsiś yūwa-
b4 -stn21n22trai kleṅkentsa saṃsā(rmeṃ) (tsälpātär) /// /// (pañäkti)ññeprattika-pañäktiññe arahanteññece-
b5 n23n24n25n26 cäṅken·a· /// /// (kne)tär-c : se tri(te) wasaṃtpāntse yātalyñe star-c

(continues on THT 1122)


(continues from THT 1120)

a1 ... twenty(?) .... In (this way) it [=merit] can be obtained from the organic elements. In which
a2 way (can it be obtained from) the inorganic (elements)? In this way, from [the element] earth [and] from the atoms of the earth, self-discipline may be
a3 obtained: From all green, (white(?) [and] black(?)) seeds, whatever seeds there are near or far,
a4 from all [of them] self-discipline can be obtained. (Thus) it can be obtained from (all organic [and] inor)ganic elements. Just as
a5 the organic [and] inorganic (elements have neither measure nor number), just so the merit of ordination has
b1 neither measure nor number. This (for you is the second effect) of ordin(ation). [3.] (Fruition [= requital of deeds]), what is [this]? When you let come to fruition this merit for all goods of happiness in the saṃsāra,
b2 (you will obtain(?) all) this. All [your] desires [such as] the dignity of Indra, the dignity of a cakravartin king,
b3 and so on(will be fulfilled for you. But if) you let this [=merit] come to fruition with a mind filled with [life-]weariness for release from the saṃsāra,
b4 [then] (you will be released from the) saṃsāra by [one of] three paths: ([the path] of the) Buddha, of the Pratyekabuddha [and] of the Arhat.
b5 To whatever .... (you will turn to, release from the saṃsāra will be) yours. This for you is the thi(rd) effect of ordination.

(continues on THT 1122)


Philological commentary

The supplementation and commentaries follow Schmidt 1986: 30, 142.
n2 The gap contains about 14 akṣaras.
n5 The gap contains about 7 akṣaras.
n7 The gap contains about 8 akṣaras.
n11 The gap contains about 9 akṣaras.
n14 The gap contains about 7 akṣaras.
n17 The gap contains about 11 akṣaras.
n19 The gap contains about 8 akṣaras.
n20 The gap contains about 5 akṣaras.
n22 The gap contains about 7 akṣaras.
n26 The gap contains about 12 akṣaras.


According to Schmidt 1986: iv-v this ms. comes either from Qizil or from Tumšuq.
From this leaf 2 fragments are preserved: one from the left side of the leaf to the string hole, consisting of 2 pieces and about 7 cm wide, and the right half of of the leaf, about 14 cm wide.
The original ms. was 29 cm wide and 5.6 cm high, with the string hole 6.5 cm from the left margin. It was written by at least three hands: scribe 1, a beautiful, delicate script, from leaf 1 to 11 a1; scribe 2, distinguished by a number of orthographical idiosyncrasies/errors, from leaf 11 a1 to and including 19; scribe 3 from leaf 20 to end. The final leaves A and B THT 1123 and THT 1124 may have been written either by scribe 2 or a fourth hand. Cf. Schmidt 1986: v, 2, 6
This leaf is in hand 3.

Linguistic commentary

n1 Instead of ikä, which would have to be supplemented to ikäṃ, one could also read itä or isä.
n3 paramanuntameṃ for paramānuntameṃ; saṃvār for saṃvar.
n4 onolmeṃtsana: for a possible further supplementation cf. line a 1.
n6 With the help of (mo)tärcce (m-ioltoch106 b5), = Skt. harita, the meaning of motarcca(na), Pl. Fem. of an adjective, can be identified as ‘green’ (for more detail see Schmidt 1984: 152). In TA there is motarci (Nom.Sg.Fem.), which, according to TEB II: 127, denotes a colour that is probably dark, but otherwise unidentifiable. Etymologically, this colour adjective must be connected to Slavic *modrъ ‘blue’ (Czech modrý, etc.).
n8 etsuwai elauke wat ‘near or far’.
n9 sanvar for saṃvar; wantarwameṃ for wäntarwameṃ.
n10 wantarwameṃ sic! for wäntarwameṃ.
n12 Mistaken wasaṃtpātäpi for wasaṃtpātäṣṣepi; yarpontse for yärpontse.
n13 wasaṃtpātäpi sic! and to be corrected to wasaṃtpātäṣṣepi.
n15 pkelyñe for pkelñe; krui for kwri.
n16 saṃsārṣṣa sic! and to be corrected to saṃsārṣṣana.
n18 cahhravārtti for cakravārtti; lantuñesa for lantuññesa.
n21 pañäktiññe for pañäktäññe; prattika-pañäktiññe for pratika-pañäktäññe; arahanteññe for arhanteññe; ceś for kuceś.
n23 Mistaken wasaṃtpāntse for wasaṃtpātäntse.
n24 cäṅken·a· is unclear.
n25 saṃtpāntse sic! and to be corrected to saṃtpātäntse.


Online access

IDP: THT 1121; TITUS: THT 1121


Tamai 2014: 388-389; Tamai 2007a: №1121; Schmidt 1986: 30, 62-63


Schmidt 1986: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (100-102); Tamai 2014: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (388-389)



“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Schmidt 1984

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1984. “Bericht über das Projekt eines sanskrit-tocharischen Wörterbuchs.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 97: 148–53.

Schmidt 1986

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1986. “Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes.” {Habilitation}.

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection.

Tamai 2014

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2014. “The Tocharian Karmavācanā.” Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013 17: 365–94.


Thomas, Werner, and Wolfgang Krause. 1964. Tocharisches Elementarbuch, Band II. Texte und Glossar. Heidelberg: Winter.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”