[Error: Requires JavaScript.]


Work in progress

IOL Toch 2

Known as:IOL Toch 2; H 149.15; H 149.X.15; A.15
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "IOL Toch 2". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-ioltoch2 (accessed 27 May 2024).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:British Library (London)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Kāvya


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):5.2 × 16.6 cm
Number of lines:4


Images from idp.bl.uk by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project and the British Library.


a1/// ·ñ· ne pe lai kne klyau ṣa lñe ne sā ṅka mpa s̝pa śa mtsi : toṃ po pka nte
a2/// po yśi ññai e kṣa lympa ka mtsa tai twe no¯ ¯s̝p : ka rtse śca a śe ñca¯ ¯ñ
a3/// pi lko sta rca ñyā spa ka rtse śco : tu kmā ka mā nai ttau wa¯ ¯k te yä ///
a4/// tsi 2 e nte krui śpā lme toṃ ta rya no mye nta mpa mā ke – ///
b1/// ne spā rta tsi tā kaṃ : su krui ra tri śaṃ o¯ ¯t mā cwi [n]· ///
b2/// ṣtra : yo lo ya ma s̝a nno a ñma tse śle lye ṅka¯ ¯ts ka ts· [p]·¯ ¯s[t] ///
b3/// mta kā re ne klā yä kwri au swa nno tsa 4 e mpa kwa ccai mā pkwa [l]y·
b4/// – ske : la ṅk[c]e sla ka reṃ ceṃ pa lsko ā yā tai cce ka rtse¯ ¯ś pa¯ –


1ba1n1 /// (-l)ñ(e)ne ; pelaikne klyau;ṣalñene ; sāṅkämpa ṣpä śamtsi :
1ctoṃ po pkäntea2(nma) ; 12σ
1d /// poyśiññai ; ekṣalympa ; kamtsatai twe no ṣp :
2akartseścä aśeñcañ ; a3n2n3 11σ
2b /// pilko star-ca ; ñyās ṣpä kartseśco :
2ctu-k māka nai ; ttauwak te-yä(kne,sa) ///
2da4n4n5 16σ /// …tsi 2
3aente krui śpālme ; toṃ tarya nom;yentampa ; ke(kamu) ///
3cb1n6 11σ /// …ne ; spārtatsi tākaṃ :
3dsu krui ra triśäṃ ; ot cwi ///
4ab216σ /// …ṣträ :
4byolo yamaṣän no ; añmatse śle =lyeṅkäts ; ka ts(a) p(ä)st ///
4db3n7 /// ; (ra)mtä kāre;ne klāyä ; kwri auswa nno tsa 4
5aempakwaccai ; pkwaly(e) b4n8n9 10σ
5b16σ /// – ske :
5claṅkce slakareṃ ; ceṃ palsko ā;yātaicce ; kartseś


a1... to come together with the community in listening to the law and in ... [1b] All these obstacles ... [1c]
a2... and you have come together with the right time of an omniscient one. [1d] Those who lead to virtue ... [2a]
a3... you have the insight and the desire for virtue. [2b] That much [you] do not ... precisely this ... in this way ... [2c]
a4... 2[d] If he has not come together with the three excellent jewels [3a]
b1... he will be to be turned in ... [3c] Even if he makes a mistake than his ... is not ... [3d]
b2... [4a] He commits evil for himself and for others ... only away. [4b]
b3... like a ... if he falls in a pit, ... wearing ... 4[d] One should not trust an untrustworthy [person] ... [5a]
b4... [5b] This light and unsteady mind, untamable, ... (is led?) to virtue ... [5c]


a2Mit der Wirkungszeit eines Allerkenners bist auch du zusammengekommen. (Schmidt 1974: 474)


Philological commentary

It seems that the leaf contains strophes in only one metre, which seems to be 4 x 5 ¦ 7 ¦ 5, or sometimes perhaps also 4 x 6 ¦ 6 ¦ 5. This metre, and the alternation between 5 ¦ 7 ¦ 5 and 6 ¦ 6 ¦ 5, is typical of niṣkramānt (Sieg and Siegling 1953: 19; Adams 1999: 339). The rarer subdivision 6 ¦ 6 ¦ 5 may be found in pādas 2a and 4b (if enclitic no rather belongs before the break). Apparently the strophe number 1 is missing after kamtsatai twe no ṣp : in a2. According to the number of akṣaras estimated to be missing on the left, the leaf started with this poem; pāda 1a may have been preceded by an indication of the tune, e.g. || niṣkramāntne ||. However, the 5th strophe must have continued on a second leaf and perhaps the poem was much longer. – pāda missing completely – [1a] (17 syllables missing) [a1] /// (l)ñ(e)ne ¦ pelaikne klyauṣalñene ¦ sāṅkämpa ṣpä śamtsi : [1b] (3 syllables missing) toṃ po pkänte [a2] (nma) ¦ [1c] (13 syllables missing) /// poyśiññai ekṣalympa ¦ kamtsatai twe no ṣp : [1d] (6 syllables missing) kartseścä aśeñcañ ¦ [2a] (11 syllables missing) [a3] /// pilko star-ca ¦ ñyās ṣpä kartseśco : [2b] (8 syllables missing) tuk māka mā nai ¦ ttauwak te-yä(knesa) [2c] (6 syllables missing) [a4] /// -tsi 2 (16 syllables missing) ente krui śpālme ¦ toṃ tarya nomyentampa ¦ mā ke(kamu) [3a] (2 syllables missing) – pāda missing completely – [3b] (17 syllables missing) [b1] /// -ne spārtatsi tākaṃ : [3c] (11 syllables missing) su krui ra triśäṃ ¦ ot mā cwi n· [3d] (8 syllables missing) [b2] /// -ṣträ : [4a] (16 syllables missing) yolo yamaṣän ¦ no añmatse śle =lyeṅkäts ¦ ka ts· p·st [4b] (2 syllables missing) [b3] – pāda missing completely – [4c] (17 syllables missing) /// (ra)mtä kārene klāyä ¦ kwri auswa nno tsa 4 (6 syllables missing) empakwaccai mā ¦ pkwaly(e) – [5a] (9 syllables missing) [b4] /// – ske : [5b] (15 syllables missing) laṅkce slakareṃ ¦ ceṃ palsko āyātaicce ¦ kartseś pä – [5c]
n1sāṅkämpa ṣpä śamtsi: Broomhead 1962: 183 restored sāṅkämpa (ṣe) ṣpä śamtsi. Indeed, there is a hole of the size of approximately one akṣara after sāṅkämpa (not with Broomhead 1962: 183 sāṅkämpā!), but on the evidence of āyātaicce b4 no text is missing and the hole must have been there already at the time the manuscript was written. Although 'come together' is often "com. + eṣe + kəm-", it is here clearly just "com. + kəm-"; cf. ekṣalympa kamtsatai a2.
n2star-ca: for star-cä
n3nomyentampa: for naumyentampa.
n4śpālme: for śpālmeṃ. Pace Broomhead 1962: 184, śpālme is not a variant, but simply a mistake.
n5mā ke(kamu): Broomhead 1962: 183 restored mā ke(kenusa), but the first akṣara cannot have e-vocalism according to the manuscript traces (also, his translation as 'attained' is not correct and does not fit his restoration). In addition, kekenu is always construed with a perl., i.e. 'provided with', whereas we have here a com. The construction com. + kekamu is also found in THT 304 b2. One further syllable is required by the metre, but there is no reason to restore a nom.sg.f. kekamusa; rather, one might think of a particle like ṣpä or no.
n6spārtatsi tākaṃ: this construction is unclear and the meaning is obscure.
n7/// (ra)mtä kārene klāyä kwri auswa nno tsa: this passage is obscure. With Broomhead 1962: 184, klāyä is probably to be corrected into klāyaṃ, but especially auswa nno tsa is difficult. In any case, Krause 1952: 71's reading kārene klāyaṃ kwri auswann ot sa "Wenn sie (?) in die Grube fällt, dann schreit (?) sie" is not convincing either.
n8āyātaicce: according to the context, the word seems complete, but there is a hole of the size of approximately one akṣara between ā and yātaicce that was presumably already there when the manuscript was written.
n9laṅkce slakareṃ ceṃ palsko āyātaicce: cf. Uv.31.8a-b spandanaṃ capalaṃ cittaṃ durakṣyaṃ durnivāraṇam (Bernhard 1965: 410) 'The mind that is trembling and unsteady, difficult to guard and difficult to restrain' (Hahn 2007: 125).


The upper and lower margins of the fragment are preserved, and most probably the right margin in lines a1-2 and b3-4 as well. Approximately 1 akṣara is missing on the right of lines a3 and b2, and approximately 5 akṣaras are missing on the right of lines a4 and b1. According to the metre (which is not absolutely certain, see the discussion below), 19-21 syllables are missing on the left in the lines with the string hole space (apparently a2, a3, and b2), and 24-25 are missing in the other lines (a4, b1, b3, b4, and most probably also a1). Since lines a1, a2, b3, and b4 contain 19-21 akṣaras, and the 24-25 missing syllables on the left will make about 28 akṣaras, the original width of the leaf may have been close to 50 akṣaras or approximately 40 cms.
According to Broomhead 1962: 183 "[w]ritten in medium ductus, and clearly preserved".


Online access

IDP: IOL Toch 2


Broomhead 1962: 183-184; Peyrot 2007: №2


Broomhead 1962: a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 b3 b4 (183-184), a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 b3 b4 (183-184); Hackstein 1995: a2 (164); Krause 1952: b3 (71); Meunier 2013: b2 (179); Schmidt 1974: a2 (474); Thomas 1952: b3 (24); Thomas 1979d: b2 (156)


Adams 1999

Adams, Douglas Q. 1999. A dictionary of Tocharian B. Leiden Studies in Indo-European 10. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Broomhead 1962

Broomhead, J. W. 1962. “A textual edition of the British Hoernle, Stein and Weber Kuchean manuscripts. With transliteration, translation, grammatical commentary and vocabulary. I = Edition.” {PhD}, Cambridge: Trinity College.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Hahn 2007

Hahn, Michael. 2007. Vom rechten Leben, Buddhistische Lehren aus Indien und Tibet, Aus dem Sanskrit und aus dem Tibetischen übersetzt und herausgegeben. Frankfurt am Main/Leipzig: Verlag der Weltreligionen (im Insel Verlag).


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2007

Peyrot, Michaël. 2007. “An edition of the Tocharian fragments IOL Toch 1 – IOL Toch 822 in the India Office Library.” International Dunhuang Project. http://idp.bl.uk/database/oo_cat.a4d?shortref=Peyrot_2007.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” {PhD}, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1953

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1953. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 2. Fragmente Nr. 71-633. Edited by Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Thomas 1952

Thomas, Werner. 1952. Die tocharischen Verbaladjektive auf -l. Deutsche Akad. Der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung 9. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Thomas 1979d

Thomas, Werner. 1979d. “Zur Verwendung von A śla, B śale, śle im Tocharischen.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 93: 150–73.