• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

PK DA M 507.39 and .43

Known as:PK DA M 507.39 and .43; PK Cp 39
Cite this page as:Adrian Musitz. "PK DA M 507.39 and .43". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 09 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Adrian Musitz


Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script


Text contents

Text genre:Non-literary
Text subgenre:Account


Material: on paper
Number of lines:55


a1pi¯ ¯ś kṣu ntsa me ṣka ste «†ka» ṣka¯ ¯s me ña ntse meṃ ma /// /// lye kśyi ye ma sa śa¯ ¯k
a2wi ca ka nma to wä pi¯ ¯ś ya¯ ¯p ma sa cā¯ ¯k ma ṅkā [ra] /// /// [ñu] – ·[e] ke śne ṣka ce po me
a3ñi śā we lyī ka śke ka pyā re¯ ¯s śwa si ṣe śā· [r]· /// /// ka nma to wä pi¯ ¯ś
a4ce śā tre śa wo śaṃ śā mna ta kā re ce ṣa ce [śa] kro[ṃ] /// /// ·e pi śā ka ṣu
a5mo ko su kl[i] /// /// ·[e] – pci
a6nau ṣa la¯ ¯s ci /// /// pci
a7krā¯ ¯k tsa ca [l]·[ī] ·[i] /// /// ·e – ·i
a8śa¯ ¯k ṣe lye kśyai ple ṅku wa cā¯ ¯k to wä wi /// /// lyā ka se ka pci
a9śa¯ ¯k wi ne mo ko ntse lye kśyai wä sā [w]· ///
a10mo ·[o] ///
a11·r· /// /// – ka se ka pci
a12wä rwe śa keṃ śi ṅke ntse lye kśyai wä sā [w]· ///
b1me ñe ra pa ñe /// /// ysā re lai¯ ¯ś ca ka nma o¯ ¯k to wä ta rya
b2ya¯ ¯p lai¯ ¯ś ca [k]a /// /// [ā] ka la teṃ ca ka nma śwā rka to wä śwā ra cā¯ ¯k lye kśye
b3ka pyā re¯ ¯s śe śu sa lye kś·e [l]ai /// /// [ta] rya to wä pi¯ ¯ś


a1 piś kṣuntsa me«ñe» ṣkaste ṣkas meñantsemeṃ ma(nte) – – – – – – lyekśyiye masa śak
a2 wi cakanma towä piś yap masa cāk maṅkāra /// /// ñu(ṣ)e keśne ṣkace po me-
a3 -ñin1 śāwe lyīkaśke kapyāres śwasiṣe śā(t)r(e) /// /// (ca)kanma towä piś
a4 ce śātre śawośaṃ śāmna takāre ce ṣace śakroṃ /// /// (ṣe) (keśn)e piśāka ṣu«k»
a5 moko sukli(ke) /// /// (s)e (ka)pci
a6 nauṣalasn2 ci… /// /// (ka)pci
a7 krāk-tsa cal(y)ī(ñ)i – – (s)e (kapc)i
a8 śak ṣe«ne» lyekśyai pleṅkuwa cāk towä wi /// /// lyāka se kapci
a9 śak wine mokontse lyekśyai wäsāw(a) ///
a10 mo(k)o ///
a11 (k)r(ā) /// /// (lyā)ka se kapci
a12 wärweśakeṃ śiṅkentse lyekśyai wäsāw(a) ///
b1 meñe rapañe /// /// ysāre laiś cakanma ok towä tarya
b2 yap laiś caka(nma) /// /// āka lateṃ cakanma śwārkan3n4 towä śwāra cāk lyekśye
b3 kapyāres śeśusa lyekś(y)e lai(ś) /// /// tärya towä piś


a1 In regnal year five, sixth month, from day of the month six onwards... lyekśiye-millet was spent: twelve
a2 piculs, five pecks. Barley went out: a peck. The old grain... in sum, the entire sixth month
a3 the rough and fine grain for the consumption of the kapyāri ... piculs, five pecks.
a4 This grain men aten5 ... in sum: fifty seven.
a5 The Moko Suklike ... this (is his/her) finger-measure.
a6 ... finger-measure.
a7 Calyīñi the krāktsan6
a8 On day eleven, I sold lyekśiye-millet: a picul, two pecks... saw it. This (is his/her) finger-measure.
a9 On day twelve, I gave lyekśiye-millet to the Moko...
a10 The Moko...
a11 ... saw it. This (is his/her) finger-measure.
a12 I gave lyekśiye-millet to the Wärweśake-Śaṅke...
b1 The last month... wheat was spent: eight piculs, three pecks.
b2 Barley went out: ... piculs ... āka-millet went out: fourty piculs, four pecks. A picul: lyekśiye-millet.
b3 The lyekśiye millet eaten by the kapyāri was spent: three (piculs), five pecks.


Philological commentary

Interestingly, the verso side is written in a different ductus than the recto side. The 'r's look completely different and more resemble the 'r's of the accounts in the Berlin collection.
n1 meñi is rather strange here. One would expect meñ.
n2 If not tauṣalas, this word could be related to nauṣ, but its derivation is obscure.
n3 These two akṣaras are a complete mess. 'śwā rka' is just the closest thing resembling them.
n4 Nearly illegible due to multiple corrections; Pinault 1994d: 81, 83 reads śwārka, Ching 2010: 180-181 reads śāk-ṣe.
n5 ce could also be a relative pronoun, but since the context is obscure, it is difficult to decide. śawośaṃ is a late form of śawośañ, which Winter 1979: 992-993 explains as being derived from a verbal noun *śāwo + the verb śawā-, saying that it has 'negative' connotations. However, there does not seem to be any such connotation in this case. Interestingly, śawośaṃ takes ce śātre as its direct object. This is similar to Vedic RV 1.12.1C tā somaṃ somapātamā 'These two are the best Soma-drinkers (of) Soma.' (Lowe 2017: 86).
n6 The krāktsa appears to be some kind of functionary within the monastery, who among other things is in charge of milling (Ching 2017: 370), cf. PK DA M 507.41 a8. This doesn't necessarily mean that krāktsa must be an exact equivalent of the waltsaucca of the Berlin collection.



Ching 2010: 180-181; Ching 2017: 370; Pinault 1994d: 80-84; Winter 1979: 992-993


Ching 2010

Ching, Chao-jung. 2010. “Secular documents in Tocharian: Buddhist economy and society in the Kucha region.” PhD thesis, Paris: École Pratique des Hautes Études.

Ching 2017

Ching, Chao-jung. 2017. 吐火罗语世俗文献与古代龟兹历史 – Tocharian secular texts and the history of Ancient Kucha. Beijing: Peking University Press.

Lowe 2017

Lowe, John J. 2017. Transitive nouns and adjectives: Evidence from Early Indo-Aryan. 1st ed. Vol. 25. Oxford Studies in Diachronic and Historical Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pinault 1994d

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 1994d. “Textes économiques koutchéens.”

Winter 1979

Winter, Werner. 1979. “On the importance of links not missing.” In Studies in diachronic, synchronic, and typological linguistics: Festschrift for Oswald Szemérenyi on the occasion of his 65th birthday, edited by Brogyanyi Bela, 989–94. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.