• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 51

Known as:THT 51; B 51; Bleistiftnummer 3343
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner. "THT 51". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 11 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Expedition code:T III Š 65.1
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Book 6 (Śīlavarga), strophes 67d-78d, Book 7 (Sucaritavarga), beginning.
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra A
Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):11 × 13 cm
Number of lines:8


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// ka rtse sklo kseṃ tsa ṅkau ta¯ ¯ñä 60 [7] – – –
a2/// y[ai] e kau cyai kau ce tte¯ ¯śä 60 8 ye nto m[p]o – –
a3/// [k]o¯ ¯yä 60 9 u pā sa kña na pi[¯] [¯][ś] –
a4/// ·e mske tro [p]ā sa ke 70 lyku
a5/// po ka lym[i] [nt]· ro tka rne
a6/// ko 70 2 po ka lymi
a7/// [kt]e ya rmwe re ta
a8/// ā stre pa pā
b1/// skai śco ytā rye
b2/// ā stre ke ttā kaṃ
b3/// s̝s̝a nme 70 7 te sa
b4/// śa nmaṃ tu s̝[pa] [pa] klyau ṣso
b5/// mu dtä rntaṃ¯ ¯ts dvi pa nma[ṃ]¯ ¯ts su
b6/// ke nau rtsa tā wsa klye ñca sme rṣle
b7/// [b]o dha pa kṣi¯ ¯k pe lai kne nta toṃ : ṣa mā ññe ··ṃ
b8/// [c]e śu ke cce pra kreṃ nwa lñe [sa] : p· – – –


67d /// ; kartse sklok seṃ ; tsäṅkau tañ 60-7
68a – – – a212σ
68b 12σ
68c 12σ
68d /// ; yai e kauc yai ; kauc etteś 60-8
69a yent= ompo(stäṃ) a310σ
69b 12σ
69c 12σ
69d 11σ /// koy 60-9
70a upāsakñana ; piśa4
70b 12σ
70c 12σ
70d 10σ /// ·e msketr= o;pāsake 70
71a lyku a511σ
71b 12σ
71c 12σ
71d /// po kälymint(sa) rotkärne a6
72a 12σ
72b 12σ
72c 12σ
72d 11σ /// ko 70-2
73a po kälymi a7
73b 12σ
73c 12σ
Xx /// kte yarm were ta a8
Xx /// āstre ; papāb1(ṣṣorñe) ;
Xx 12σ
Xx /// skaiśco ytārye b2
77a /// āstre ket tākaṃ b3
77b 12σ
77c 12σ
77d 10σ /// ṣṣänme 70-7
78a tesa b410σ
78b 12σ
78c 12σ
78d /// ; śanmäṃ tu ṣpä ; päklyauṣso
Xx b5/// (sa)mudtärntaṃts dvipanmaṃts ; su b6
Xx /// ken aurtsa tāwsa klyeñca smer-ṣle b7
Xx /// bodhapakṣik ; pelaiknenta toṃ :
Xx ṣamāññe(ṣṣe)ṃ b813σ
Xx /// ce śukecce ; prakreṃ nwalñesa :
Xx p· – – – 17σ


a1 ... well has this doubt arisen [in] you. [67d] ...
a2 ... (The odour of the flowers) went below and above [and] went to above and below. [68d] After the wind ...
a3 ... he should be. [69d] According to the five (rules) for the lay brothers ...
a4 ... is (a being) a lay brother. [70d] Theft ...
a5 ... (in) all directions they moved it away. [71d] ...
a6 ... the fruit (?). (In) all directions ...
a7 ... Only little is the odour of tagara (or sandalwood) ...
a8 ... the pure [moral] conduct ...
b1 ... The way to fear ...
b2 ... who should have the pure [moral] (conduct) ...
b3 ... [77d] By this ...
b4 ... The (Sucaritavarga) will come. Hear ye this also! [78d] ...
b5 ... of the oceans and islands. He ...
b6 ... the wide earth [and] standing on it the Sumeru-mountain ...
b7 ... the (thirty-seven) Bodhipākṣika-Dharmas concerning monkhood ...
b8 ... this tasty one with a great roar ...


Parallel texts

Uv 6.16-6.18

Philological commentary

The 4x12-syllable-metre (rhythm = 5/7), as is used in this leaf down to b4, is also used in Book 6 (Śīlavarga; cf. THT 14); and the fact that the strophes 67ff. attested here are related to the group of strophes Uv 6.16-18 (= Dhp 64-56) is clearly shown in a7, which is an obvious translation of Uv 6.18. According to the commentary on Dhp 54-55, the Buddha answers Ānanda’s question “Are there odours that flow against the wind or odours that flow with the wind as well as against it?” with these strophes: “Yes, there are such odours. If one takes refuge with the Buddha, does the ten good deeds and avoids doing evil deeds, he emits odours that flow against the wind or both against the wind and with it” (see Burlingame 1921, II: 84f.). Thus the Buddha is likely to be the speaker and Ānanda the addressee in a1ff. – The new chapter beginning with b5 is in a 4x17-syllable-metre (rhythm = 6/6/5) and can with certainty be allocated to the 7th Book (i.e. the Sucaritavarga). Strophe 78 thus must close with päklyauṣso, and the following gap must originally have contained the colophon to the finished varga as well as the name of the metre used in the section to follow (presumably Niṣkramāntne). Additionally, (sucaritavargä \) śanma would nicely fill verse 78d.


Remnants of the right edge of a leaf.

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Tamai 2011a C3


Online access



Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 72-73; Sieg and Siegling 1983: 87-88 notes 222-224


Carling 2000: a5 (106), b6 (51); Hackstein 1995: b6 (235); Sieg and Siegling 1949: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 (II, 73-75); Sieg and Siegling 1983: b2 (223)


Burlingame 1921

Burlingame, Eugene W. 1921. Buddhist legends. Translated from the original Pali text of the Dhammapada commentary. Vol. I: Introduction; Synopses; Translation of Books 1 and 2; Vol. II: Translation of Books 3 to 12; Vol. III: Translation of Books 13 to 26. The Harvard Oriental Studies 28-30. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Sieg and Siegling 1949

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1949. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 1. Die Udānālaṅkāra-Fragmente. Text, Übersetzung und Glossar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Sieg and Siegling 1983

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1983. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. Edited by Werner Thomas. Neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Tamai 2011a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011a. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”