• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 1107

Known as:THT 1107; KVāc 15
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés. "THT 1107". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 10 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Hannes A. Fellner; Theresa Illés


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Karmavācanā
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Manuscript:THT 1102-1125
Preceding fragment:THT 1106
Following fragment:THT 1108
Material: ink on wood tablet
Size (h × w):5.6 × 29 cm
Number of lines:5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from THT 1106)

a1/// sa – – – – ṣ· le – – – daṃ ci va raṃ [p]·¯ ¯ñ ma ma sa ma nva ha rā yu ṣmāṃ a ha
a2/// m· nt· rv· sa ma dhi t[i] – mi śla· ·[ṇ]· ·nta rvā so vā e vaṃ dvi ra – tṛ ra pi || te ra no pā tro e ṅka
a3/// tya ma ṣä lye pi [o] – lme tse po yśi pa ñi kte yā tka pā trai e ṅtsi ce snai ya rmä pa pā
a4/// pa pā ṣo rñe tse a yā to śc· (·)[au]¯ ¯[l] śai lyñe – ·sta rñe¯ ¯ś pā tro e ṅka ṣa lya sta rca ma kte ña ke ka
a5/// [kte] śau¯ ¯l śai lyñe [n]·[a] [s]·e [n]·e [w]e [ta] wa [t]a [l](·)· [p]· to ya – lyñe ka ryo rpi to ya ma lyñe a mo [ka] –
b1/// lyñe sa wa rñai kuse [ś]·¯ ¯l ś· ly[ñ]·· – ske nte tai [s]· – no snai y[p]a rwe saṃ sā rne spo rto ma ne su ksa bhā jaṃ
b2/// [ś]· wā sta e nte yña kteṃ te te mu – – ñi kci ya [n]· ·s· [ṣ]· na vai ru ḍi ṣa na ñka ñca na ma sta rka la ṣa na bha
b3/// śpā lmeṃ śwa tsa nma śa – sta na no nrai yn· e ñcu wa ñeṃ pa lko ṣä· kre pa staṃ śa wā sta mlo ṣä pi lke
b4/// – k·e sa pa rna ñe¯ ¯ts o sta me· [l]· lyñ[e] – ·e ·[e] ne saṃ ṣe mi ā lī ne pi ntwā twa rpa na ntra a lye¯ ¯k śā mñai
b5/// ·o ·o ·e [y]ä· – ·sa na ·[au]· – [l]yñ[e] nta po tsa· – [ṃ] a ṅ[k]ai· ske nte cme la e ṅka ṣe ñca na saṃ

(continues on THT 1108)


(continues from THT 1106)

a1 n1n2n3n4 /// (antarvā)s«†ä» – – – (we)ṣ(ä)le (॥)
(tave)daṃ civaraṃ
mama samanvaharāyuṣmāṃ aha-
a2 -(m)n5n6n7
(cīvara)m (a)nt(a)rv(ā)sam adhiti(ṣṭhā)mi śla(kṣ)ṇ(o) (a)ntarvāso vā evaṃ dvir a(pi) tṛr api
॥ te rano pātro eṅka-
a3 -(ṣalya)n8n9 /// (wasatpā)t yamaṣälyepi o(no)lmetse poyśi pañikte yātka pātrai eṅtsi ce snai yarmä papā-
a4 -(ṣorñe)n10n11n12n13 /// papāṣorñetse ayātośc(a) (ś)aul śailyñe(tse) (a)starñeś pātro eṅkaṣalya star-ca mäkte ñake ka
a5 n14n15n16n17n18 /// (ya)kte śaul śailyñen(t)a s(k)en(t)e weta watal(yñe) p·to ya(ma)lyñe karyor pito yamalyñe amokä(nta)
b1 n19n20 /// …lyñesa warñai kuse ś(au)l ś(ai)lyñ(enta) skente tais(a) (ra)no snai yparwe saṃsārne sportomane su ksa bhājaṃ
b2 n21n22n23n24 /// ś(a)wāsta ente yñakteṃ tetemu (ṣaiyt) ñikciyan(a) (y)s(ā)ṣ(a)na vairuḍiṣana ñkäñcana mastarkaläṣana bha-
b3 -(janta)n25n26n27n28n29n30 /// śpālmeṃ śwatsanma śa(wā)sta nano nraiyn(e) eñcuwañeṃ palkoṣä(ṃ) krepastaṃ śawāsta mloṣä pilke
b4 n31n32n33 /// (yä)k(n)esa pärnañets ostame(ṃ) l(a)lyñe – ·e ·e nesäṃ ṣemi ālīne pintwāt warpananträ alyek śāmñai
b5 n34n35 /// (p)o (t)o(ṃ) (t)e yä(knet)sana (ś)au(l) (śai)lyñenta po tsa(tku)ṃ aṅkai(ṃ) skente cmela eṅkaṣeñcana saṃ-

(continues on THT 1108)


(continues from THT 1106)

a1 (seize this antarvāsa garb, a soft antarvā)sa. (This [must be] spoken) three (times). [These words must be repeated in Skt.]: [Is] this (your) garb? Say: [Yes, it is] mine. Pay heed to this, venerable one! I,
a2 (N.N.), seize (this) antarvāsa (garb), (a) so(ft) antarvāsa. Thus a second [and] a third time. Thus, too, (you shall) seize the eating bowl.
a3 The Omniscient, the Buddha, has commanded the being to be ordained to seize the eating bowl since (it(?) leads (?) to(?)) immeasurably moral conduct [śīla].
a4 (Because(?),) for the purity of living [your] life [ājīvapāriśuddhu], [which is] conductive to moral conduct, you shall seize the eating bowl. Just as now [for you]
a5 ([there is] no way of living [your] life [ājīva] [left] among the householders(?)) – ignoble(?) ways of living life are fighting wars(?), ploughing(?), trade [krayavikraya], the crafts,
b1 for/with/to x-ing [and] so on, whatever [other] ways of living life [there are] – just so [there is] (n)o [eating bowl] existing in the beginning-less saṃsāra
b2 (left), from which you have (not) eaten. When you (were) born among the gods, (from) divine golden, beryl, silver [and] crystal vessels
b3 (heavenly(?)) food you were eating. In hell, then, you were eating red-hot iron balls, [and] molten copper
b4 (you were drinking). Of the heretics, (of which) there are ... (96) [different] ways of going from the house, some consume the alms food from the palm[s] of their hand[s], others (from) human
b5 (brainpan[s]) .... (All these) suchlike ways of living life are completely wrong [and] erroneous, since they lead to [new re]births [and]

(continues on THT 1108)


Philological commentary

The supplementation and commentaries follow Schmidt 1986b: 13-16, 77-78, 132-133.
n3 About 14 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line.
n4 The beginning of the line can probably be supplemented with (wlaṃśkeṃ antarvā)s; cf. Schmidt 1986b: 132, and commentary to THT 1106: a1.
n7 About 9 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line.
n9 About 7 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line.
n13 About 8 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line.
n17 About 8 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line.
n18 The first word in this line may perhaps be read as and supplemented to [y](a)kte - hardly [s·]kte and certainly not (mä)kte! The ending of the last word in this line is uncertain.
n20 About 9 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line.
n23 About 9 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line.
n24 The last word in this line should probably be supplemented to bha(jānäntane) or bha(jāntane) - or perhaps even be corrected to bhā(jantane)?
n30 About 9 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line.
n33 About 8 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line.
n35 About 12 akṣaras are missing at the beginning of this line.


According to Schmidt 1986b: iv-v the ms. comes either from Qizil or from Tumšuq.
From this leaf 2 large fragments are preserved: one to the right of the string hole, about 6 cm wide; and another fragment from the right side at a distance of about 1 cm from the other, consisting of 5 pieces and about 16 cm wide. The recto is discoloured to a blackish hue rendering the script almost illegible. The leaf number is not preserved.
The original ms. was 29 cm wide and 5.6 cm high, with the string hole 6.5 cm from the left margin. It was written by at least three hands: scribe 1, a beautiful, delicate script, from leaf 1 to 11 a1; scribe 2, distinguished by a number of orthographical idiosyncrasies/errors, from leaf 11 a1 to and including 19; scribe 3 from leaf 20 to end. The final leaves A and B THT 1123 and THT 1124 may have been written either by scribe 2 or a fourth hand. Cf. Schmidt 1986b: v, 2-3.
This leaf is in hand 2.

Linguistic commentary

n1 weṣäle for weṣṣälle.
n2 samanvaharāyuṣmāṃ: sic! and should be corrected to samanvāharāyuṣmāṃ.
n5 eṅkaṣalya for eṅkaṣälya.
n6 ślakṣṇa: it is unclear what is meant by this - perhaps a piece of clothing not made from smaller pieces, but cut from a single cloth? ślakṣṇam antarvāsaṃ is also to be found in Mainz 629, a Skt.-Uy. Karmavācanā text (cf. Maue and Röhrborn 1976: 208ff.), which, however, does not contribute to an explanation of ślakṣṇa.
n8 wasatpāt for wasaṃtpāt; yamaṣälyepi for yamaṣṣälyepi; onolmetse for onolmentse; pañikte for pañäkte; eṅtsi for eṅktsi; yarmä for yarm; papāṣorñe for papāṣṣorñe.
n10 papāṣorñetse for papāṣṣorñentse; ayātośca for ayātośco for ayātośc; śailñentse for śailyñentse; astarñeśc for astaräññeś; eṅkaṣalya for eṅkaṣälya; star-ca for star-c.
n11 ayātośc(a) (for ayātośc(ä)) is a postposition taking the genitive and meaning 'for (the benefit of)' (cf. THT 31 a4).
n12 starca sic! for starcä (= starc).
n14 śailyñenta for śailñenta; yamalyñe for yamalñe.
n15 weta watal(yñe) is a figura etymologica; watal(yñe) is an Abstr. II of wät- ‘fight’. Cf. THT 1105 a5 wata /// and commentary.
n16 The form p·to cannot be supplemented with any certainty. The word would appear to be the TB equivalent of TA pate 'agriculture, ploughing'.
n19 śailyñenta for śailñenta; sportomane for sporttomane.
n21 ñikciyana for ñäkciyana; ysāṣana for ysāṣṣana; ñkäñcana for ñkañcana; mastarkaläṣana for mastarkaläṣṣana; bhajanta for bhājanta.
n22 mastarkaläṣe is an adjectival derivation of so far unattested *mastarkal ‘rock crystal’.
n25 nraiyne for nraine; krepastaṃ for krepasteṃ; mloṣä for mloṣ.
n26 krepastaṃ sic! To be corrected to krepasteṃ, cf. THT 529 b 5 iñcuwaññeṃ krepaste(ntsa). krepaste = ‘ball, globe, Skt. guḍā’. Further attestations: krepaste /// in THT 529 b5 (= Skt. guḍābhiḥ) and krepäste /// in THT 3598 b6.
n27 śawāsta the finite Pt. of the root śu is always formed from the stem śāwā in this ms.
n28 mloṣä from *mlau ‘molten’, PPt. of the root mäl-, ca. ‘be squashed, melt (?)’, which is also etymologically related to German schmelzen ‘melt’ (IE *(s)mel-d-).
n29 pilke ‘copper, Skt. tāmra’.
n31 pärnañets for pärnāññeṃts;lalyñe for lalñe; ālīne for ālyine; warpananträ for wärpanantär.
n32 pärnañets sic! for pärnāñets.
n34 śailyñenta for śailñenta.


Online access

IDP: THT 1107; TITUS: THT 1107


Tamai 2014a: 371-373; Tamai 2007a: №1107; Schmidt 1986b: 13-14, 47-48


Schmidt 1986b: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (77-79); Tamai 2014a: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 (371-373)



“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Maue and Röhrborn 1976

Maue, Dieter, and Klaus Röhrborn. 1976. “Ein zweisprachiges Fragment aus Turfan.” Central Asiatic Journal 20: 208–21.

Schmidt 1986b

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1986b. “Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes.” {Habilitation}.

Tamai 2007a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2007a. “A preliminary edition of unpublished texts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” Thesaurus indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan collection.

Tamai 2014a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2014a. “The Tocharian Karmavācanā.” Annual Report of the International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology (ARIRIAB) at Soka University for the Academic Year 2013 17: 365–94.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”