• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

A 38

Known as:A 38; THT 671
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling; Georges-Jean Pinault; Fanny Meunier; Michaël Peyrot. "A 38". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 03 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Gerd Carling; Georges-Jean Pinault; Fanny Meunier; Michaël Peyrot
Date of online publication:2013-10-02


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 92.07
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script


Text contents

Title of the work:Unknown Avadāna
Passage:Remorse of an animal killer
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Manuscript:A 1-54
Leaf number:30-9
Preceding fragment:A 37
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:6


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


(continues from A 37)

a1ya¯ ¯cä : 1 || tma¯ ¯s̝ sa¯ ¯m pā l· ///
a2yko nā sa¯ ¯m śo śko ṣā śwā¯ ¯l ///
a3la¯ ¯t po ñcäṃ pa ltsa kyo ///
a4taṃ śāṃ taṃ ne ti ryā sa¯ ¯m ///
a5nmiṃ ypā¯ ¯t ṣa kka tse knu wcaṃ ///
a6¯t || tma¯ ¯s̝ ña re pā li¯ ¯k ā ///
b1¯s mo trā lu rye s̝aṃ klaṃ klyo s̝a ///
b2ī me yo ptā ñka tka ṣṣiṃ o ///
b3nyo ca mi ptā ñä ktaṃ tso ///
b4ñi ca mi we wñu¯ ¯nt na ///
b5¯s̝ tsa lpa rtā pā tri śñä kci ///
b6śo ṣyaṃ kā tklu ne ko spreṃ [k]· ///


(continues from A 37)

a1 n1n2 yac : 1 ॥ tmäṣ säm pāl(at) ///
a2 ykonā säm śoś koṣā śwāl /// (pā)-
a3 -latn3 poñcäṃ pältsäkyo ///
a4 n4 …täṃśā-ṃ taṃne tiryā säm /// (o)-
a5 -nmiṃ ypāt ṣakkatsek nu wcaṃ ///
a6 …t ॥ tmäṣ ñare-pālik ā ///
b1 n5n6 …s motr-ālur yeṣ-äṃ klaṃ klyoṣä ///
b2 īmeyo ptāñkät käṣṣiṃ o ///
b3 n7 …nyo cami ptāñäktaṃ tso(pats) ///
b4 ñi cami wewñunt na /// (saṃsārä)-
b5 -ṣ tsalpar tāpātriś ñäkci /// (ārki)-
b6 -śoṣyaṃ kātklune kospreṃ k· ///


(continues from A 37)

a1 ... towards ... Then he praised ...
a2 ... by day he killed sheep as food ...
a2+ ... he praised ... with [his] whole mind ...
a4 ... arose (?) to him. In this way he ...
a4+ ... he felt remorse.
a5 But actually (for a) second (time?) ...
a6 ... || Then the guardian of hell ...
b1 ... his incapacity of greenness went [away]. Hearing (?) the sound ...
b2 ... with the idea ... the Buddha, the teacher ...
b3 ... with ... great (love?) towards the Buddha (arose?) to him.
b4 ... were spoken by him ...
b4+ ... were redeemed from (saṃsāra).
b5 ... of the trayastriṃśa gods ...
b5+ ... rising in the world.
b6 How much ...



Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).

Philological commentary

n1 yac: possibly the 2pl.prs. of yäp- 'do', or an allative. This is the end of the strophe in the meñameññaṃ tune that begins in A 37 b4.
n2 pāl(at): if correctly restored, the object apparently followed the verb.
n3 (pā)lat: theoretically, other possibilities are ālat 'kept away' and wālat 'covered'.
n4 täṃśā-ṃ: certainly a 1sg. or 3sg. ipf. of a nasal present of a verb with a root in tkā with a 3sg. pronoun suffix. Possible verbs are kātkā- 'arise', kätkā- 'cross', putkā- 'divide', lotkā- 'turn', rutkā- 'remove', lātkā- 'cut off', wrātkā- 'prepare (?)'.
n5 motr-ālur: literally probably 'keeping away greenness', seems to be a calque on Skt. abhavya haritatvāya 'incapable of greenness' (see BhīKvāc 23b5 Ridding and de La Vallée Poussin 1920: 136).
n6 klyoṣä: may be a gerund klyoṣä(l), less likely a 3sg.sbj. klyoṣä(ṣ).
n7 tso(pats): cf. A 277 b2 (tso)pats tuṅkyo.


Online access

IDP: THT 671; TITUS: THT 671


Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 24; Sieg and Siegling 1921a p. 24


Hackstein 1995: a2 (54); Thomas 1957: a2 (72)


Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Ridding and de La Vallée Poussin 1920

Ridding, Caroline Mary, and Louis de La Vallée Poussin. 1920. “A Fragment of the Sanskrit Vinaya. Bhiksunikarmavacana.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 1, Issue 3: 123–43.

Sieg and Siegling 1921a

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921a. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”