• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

A 32

Known as:A 32; THT 665
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling; Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot. "A 32". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 11 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Gerd Carling; Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot
Date of online publication:2013-11-02


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 94.09
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script


Text contents

Title of the work:Unknown Avadāna
Passage:Remorse (?) of an animal killer
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Manuscript:A 1-54
Leaf number:30-2, 30-2
Following fragment:A 33
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:6


Images from by courtesy of the Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS).


lf130 2
a1ñä pa raṃ (–) [l](·)(·) [nt]a || a lpa ///
a2lwā kā ko ṣ[e] [s̝]a (·)[t](·) ñka tka ///
a3lypa ntu ā su kka tk[o] ra ○ ///
a4śkaṃ ptā ñka tka ṣṣi pā la [ta]ṃ ○ ///
a5ra¯ ¯s̝ ksa lu ne yaṃ (–) ¯(·)k ku ///
a6tlu ne yo ptā ñka tka ṣṣ(·) o p[y]ā ///
b1rkya¯ ¯s̝ ca¯ ¯m śkaṃ pñi pu ksaṃ sā rṣi ///
b2ne ta ni ska lyme yaṃ (– –) rsnā ///
b3¯s̝ ku mā ra lā ṭeṃ ○ ///
b4ā klu ṣpi ṭa¯ ¯k su ta ○ ///
b5ṣṣo ki : vai bhā ṣi (–) n· sā ///
b6sma c(·)i (– –) || na ṣnu c[e] ///

(continues on A 33)


a1 n1 ñä paräṃ (kä)l(pā)nt«†ä» ॥ alpa ///
a2 lwā kāko ṣeṣ«†ä» (p)t(ā)ñkät kä(ṣṣi) /// (lya)-
a3 -lypäntu āsuk kätkorä(ṣ) ///
a4 śkaṃ ptāñkät käṣṣi pālat-äṃ ///
a5 n2 räṣ ksaluneyaṃ (käl)k ku /// (yā)-
a6 -tluneyon3 ptāñkät käṣṣ(i) opyā(c) /// (yä)-
b1 -rkn4 yaṣ cam śkaṃ pñi puk saṃsārṣi ///
b2 ne tanis kälymeyaṃ(kä)rsnā(ṣ) /// (ca)-
b3 -ṣn5 kumāralāṭeṃ ///
b4 n6 ākluṣ piṭak sutä(rṣi) ///
b5 n7 ṣṣ oki : vaibhāṣi – n· sā ///
b6 n8 smac ·i – – ॥ naṣ nu ce ///

(continues on A 33)


a1 ... they obtained the dignity. ...
a2 ... he had been killing animals. The Buddhalord ...
a2+ ... having stepped over the deeds ...
a4 ... and ... the Buddhalord, the teacher praised him ...
a5 ... after having done ... he went into extinction. ...
a5+ ... through his capacity the Buddhalord, the teacher remembered (his previous births)
a6+ ... he pays homage ...
b1 and (having accumulated) this merit (for the beings) of the Saṃsāra ...
b2 ... (if) he (kn)ows (everything?) in the direction of that ...
b2+ ... (this wor)k [composed by] Kumāralāta ...
b4 ... they have learnt the collection of sūtras ...
b5 ... like ... . Vaibhāṣika (?) ...
b6 ... to these ones ... . But there is ...

(continues on A 33)



Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).
Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
Left side of a leaf with part of the string hole space preserved covering lines 3 and 4. The leaf number 32 is repeated inside the string hole space on the verso side. Unlike in other cases in this mansucript, the number written inside the string hole does not deviate from the one written on the margin. This is true for the continuous series A 32 until A 36.

Philological commentary

n1 The form ending with ñ cannot modify the next word paräṃ 'dignity'. The most likely restoration is (wrasa)ñ 'beings' or (ñäkta)ñ. alpa belongs to a form borrowed from Sanskrit; it cannot be a tune name since the following text is not metrical.
n2 räṣ may be restored to (wāwleṣu)räṣ 'having accomplished'.
n3 opyā(c) certainly belongs to the phrase opyāc .
n4 One may restore the form of the adj. saṃsārṣi as an
n5 The derived adjective from the Sanskrit name Kumāralāta has been written here with a hypercorrect retroflex.
n6 The phrase piṭak sutä(rṣi) can be safely restored if one admits the reverse word order here for sutärṣi piṭak matching Skt. sūtra-piṭaka- (cf. A 336 b1 and b7).
n7 There is place for restoring vaibhāṣi(k \), which would be the of the loan word from Sanskrit vaibhāṣika- referring to a member of a Buddhist school. But the next sequence of two akṣaras does not lead to a known TA word form. The vowel of the ‹na› can be a, ā, e, ä.
n8 smac can only ba an allative pl. of the demonstrative säm, either the masc. cesmac or the fem. tosmac.


Online access

IDP: THT 665; TITUS: THT 665


Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 22; Sieg and Siegling 1921a p. 22


Carling 2000: a5 (247); Thomas 1957: a2 (305 and n.1)


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Sieg and Siegling 1921a

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921a. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”