• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

A 45

Known as:A 45; THT 678
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling; Fanny Meunier; Michaël Peyrot. "A 45". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 02 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Gerd Carling; Fanny Meunier; Michaël Peyrot
Date of online publication:2013-10-04


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 69.28
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script


Text contents

Title of the work:Avadāna
Passage:Pretas and drought
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna


Manuscript:A 1-54
Leaf number:///
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:6


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project Berlin, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1(–) – e¯ ¯l e ssi ā rtaṃ tra – ///
a2·w· rpr· tā śśi śä¯ ¯l ā ñcā [l]· ///
a3kā ru ṇi¯ ¯k : ptā ñka ○ ///
a4lpi mtra : kā tsa cwä ○ ///
a5mo di nyā mu«¯» «¯»«nt» pā ta ryo wra [ṣ]·ā ///
a6pu¯ ¯k pre tā śśi lkā lā ā ///
b1ñka tka ṣṣi kla noṃ tsāṃ ci ñcä ///
b2stā pa¯ ¯rk «ga»«¯» «¯»«ṅk» ā pa ṣwä rśla¯ ¯k ś[k]aṃ ///
b3¯ta myo a sa swä rmo ○ ///
b4sne kri mā śkaṃ tā pa¯ ¯rk ○ ///
b5·[ä] ṣnā kā¯ ¯ñä sā mu dra¯ ¯cä [y]· ///
b6– ·ta ta mnu ma¯ ¯nt wä knā || – ///


a1 – – el essi ārtaṃträ – ///
a2 · w(ä)r pr(e)tāśśi śäl āñcāl(yī) (tsaränyo) ///
a3 kāruṇik : ptāñkä(t) /// (kä)-
a4 -lpimträ : kātsac wä /// (anu)-
a5 -modinn1 yāmunt pātäryo wräṣ (p)ā(pśunt) ///
a6 puk pretāśśi lkālā ā /// (ptā)-
b1 -ñkätn2 käṣṣi klanoṃtsāṃ ciñcä(ryāṃ) ///
b2 n3 s tāpärk gaṅk āpäṣ wär ślak śkaṃ ///
b3 tämyo asäs wär mo ///
b4 sne kri śkaṃ tāpärk ///
b5 ·äṣ nākāñ sāmudrac y(eñc) ///
b6 n4 – ·t«†ä» täm nu mänt wäknā ॥ – ///


a1 ... they will approve of giving gift[s] ...
a2 ... he brought water to the Pretas, [and] with both hands in añjali ...
a3 ... compassionate one. The Buddha ...
a3+ ... may we obtain ...
a4 Towards the belly ... ... having approved ... with the alms-bowl they begged (?) from the water ...
a6 ... by the sight of all Pretas ...
a6+ ... the Buddha, the teacher, (with) a resounding, lovely (voice) ...
b2 ... Now at the same time also water from the Gaṅgā river ...
b3 ... Thus the water dried up ...
b4 ... Without choice neither now ...
b5 ... from the (rivers?) the Nāgas went (?) to the ocean.
b6 ... Just now in that way ...



Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).

Philological commentary

n1 nt\: akṣara added later; addition marked with a cross above the line.
n2 klanoṃtsāṃ ciñcä(ryāṃ): cf. A 313 a5 klanoṃntsāṃ ciñcäryāṃ brahmaswar waśenyo.
n3 gaṅk\: akṣaras added later; addition marked with a cross above the line.
n4 mänt wäknā: probably followed by an elaboration in verse.


Online access

IDP: THT 678; TITUS: THT 678


Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 26; Sieg and Siegling 1921a p. 26


Carling 2000: b5 (133); Thomas 1954a: a1 (721)


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Sieg and Siegling 1921a

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921a. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.

Thomas 1954a

Thomas, Werner. 1954a. “Die Infinitive im Tocharischen.” In Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, edited by Johannes Schubert and Ulrich Schneider, 701–64. Leipzig: Harrassowitz.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”