• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

A 437

Known as:A 437; THT 1071
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling; Angelo Mascheroni. "A 437". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 22 Feb. 2024).


Editor:Gerd Carling; Angelo Mascheroni


Main find spot:Khočo (Dakianus)
Expedition code:T I D28
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script


Text contents

Text genre:Literary


Manuscript:A 436-445
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:6


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// ¯l du rma ti ā mā¯ ¯ś śkaṃ ṣñi ṣṣe – śś·¯ ¯l ype ///
a2/// se na ke ā mā¯ ¯śä sā nta kyā m·· ¯ ¯t • [tma]¯ ¯s̝ ā ///
a3/// ṣū e ntsa nta rtma¯ ¯s̝ ā ///
a4/// nā [ta¯] [¯k] ma rya¯ ¯t ysā¯ ¯r ysā ///
a5/// wä¯ ¯l [ta] rko ///
b3/// [nā] [pa] rnu ka lpo sn· lyu ///
b4/// lpā • taṃ – wka[ṃ] nyo kr· – – wr· ///
b5/// ñka tka ṣṣi sa kṛ dā gā raṃ kā ra ·ṣ· tā rm[e] pi ///
b6/// cca pa¯ ¯s tsu ri po ra ntā sa ṣṣa [c]i lwā pa r[ne] ///


a1 n1 /// l durmati āmāś śkaṃ ṣñiṣṣe(sa)śś(ä)l ype ///
a2 n2 /// senake āmāś sāntäk yām(tsā)ttmäṣ ā ///
a3 /// ṣū entsantär tmäṣ ā ///
a4 /// nātäk mar yat ysār ysā ///
a5 /// wäl tärko ///
b3 n3 /// nā pär nu kälpo sn(e) lyu(tār) ///
b4 /// lpā • taṃ(ne) wkäṃnyo kr· – – wr· ///
b5 n4 /// (ptā)ñkät käṣṣi sakṛdāgāraṃ kārä(m)ṣ(i) tārme pi ///
b6 n5 /// (kā)ccapäs tsuri poräntāsäṣṣ aci lwā pärne ///


a1 ... the minister Durmati, together with his followers (?), (fled to the) country ... (?)
a2 ... the minister Senaka made a remedy. Then ...
a3 ... they will seize ... Then, ...
a4 ... oh lord (?), do not do it! The blood ... (?)
a5 ... the king ... letting go ...
b3 ... arrow ... Now, having obtained the excellent (Buddhahood?) ...
b4 ... In that way ...
b5 ... the Buddha-god, the teacher ... Carling and Pinault 2023 ... the rule pertaining to action in a once manner ... (Carling and Pinault 2023)


b6 ... animals starting from turtle and a claybeetle ... (Carling and Pinault 2023: 297)


Parallel texts

The opening lines of the fragment seem to tell the story (avadāna) of the ministers Sena and Durmati, which we know from Tibetan, Chinese and Sanskrit sources. For a brief summary of the story and a list of existing parallels, see Karashima and Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya 2015: 163-164.

Philological commentary

n1 Based on Sieg and Siegling 1921: 239 and Carling and Pinault 2023: 498 s.v. ṣñaṣṣe, we can restore here ṣñiṣṣe(sa)śś(ä)l. Cf. also the Sanskrit parallel sa dvitīyo amātyo pūrvvaṃ rājānaṃ saṃśṛtaḥ.
n2 The restoration yām(tsā)t is supported both by the Sanskrit parallel, i.e. Senena mocitā varttīkṛtvā, and Sieg and Siegling 1921: 239.
n3 Following Carling and Pinault 2023: 540 s.v. sne-lyutār, we can restore sn(e) lyu(tār).
n4 Considering the (few) traces of the aksharas on the fragment and on the context, according to Carling and Pinault 2023: 108, s.v. kārämṣi, we can restore kārä[m]ṣ[i].
n5 Considering both the context and Carling and Pinault 2023: 297 s.v. kāccap, we can safely restore (kā)ccapäs.


Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).
Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
Lines a6 and b1-2 are lost.


Online access

IDP: THT 1071; TITUS: THT 1071


Sieg and Siegling 1921: 239-240; Sieg and Siegling 1921 p. 239, p. 240


Carling and Pinault 2023: b5, b6 (297)


Carling and Pinault 2023

Carling, Gerd, and Georges-Jean Pinault. 2023. Dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Karashima and Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya 2015

Karashima, Seishi, and Margarita Iosifovna Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya. 2015. “The Avadāna Anthology from Merv, Turkmenistan.” In Buddhist manuscripts from Central Asia: The St. Petersburg Fragments (StPSF), edited by Seishi Karashima and Margarita Iosifovna Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya, Vol. 1:145–505. Tokyo: International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology.

Sieg and Siegling 1921

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”