• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

SI B 119(2)

Known as:SI B 119(2); U 16
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn. "SI B 119(2)". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 02 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:IOM (St. Petersburg)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:archaic

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānavarga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Manuscript:Udānavarga SI B 119
Leaf number:100-20
Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):7.8 × 14.8 cm
Number of lines:6


a1n· rsa¯ ¯[ṅ]k [yā] ·o ṣne ra no meṃ ṣtra • [bh]· – – – – – – – ga ta ḥ ///
a2hi na nda te • yä rpo ne n[o] yā mo ṣne [n]· – ·[c]ä [na] – ci ra kṛ [t] ///
a3ṣne ra no kā ccä¯ ¯n • ra ha si ca ○ – – [na] [nda] [te] • e ne ///
a4ga ta ḥ • s̝pa kkā ccä¯ ¯n ñä kci ○ yai yä mai yne 30 ///
a5ci ra k[ṛ] te dū «ra» kṛ te pi mo da te • lau ka ///
a6e ·ai – – ·o ·e ///
b1/// ///
b2rpo ne snai pe le e ṅko rmeṃ re ri no rme· pe lai ///
b3pra skaṃ sru ka lñe neṃ ta ne ○ yo l[ai] yā mo· [s]ts ///
b4kṛ ta ñca pā pa ka¯ ¯m • yā mo ryä ○ r·o – – – – ·[yo] ///
b5kne yā mu nau s̝a ññe • bi bhe ti [mṛ] tyo rna [ka] da· ci de ///
b6yā ta ra nta ḥ • ma kte o l[y]i sa pra ka ryai [pa] [ska] [tka] na mā ne 40 ///


a1 -n(e)rsaṅkn1 yā(m)oṣne rano meṃṣträ •
bh(ūyaḥ) (śocati) (durgatiṃ) gataḥ
hi nandate
• yärpone no yāmoṣne n(ai) (kāc)cän«†ä» (•)
/// (yāmo)-
a3 -ṣnen2 rano kāccän •
rahasi ca (kṛte) (pi) nandate
• ene… ///
a4 n3
• ṣpäk kāccän ñäkciyai yämaiyne 30(-7) ///
cirakṛte dūrakṛte pi modate
• laukä(ññe) /// (en)-
a6 -e(st)ain4 (ṣpä) (yām)o(ṣn)e ///
b1 n5 /// (yä)-
b2 -rponen6 snai pele eṅkormeṃ rerinorme(ṃ) pelai(kne) ///
b3 n7 praskaṃ srukalñeneṃ tane yolai yāmo(rt)sts(e) /// (a)-
b4 -kṛtañn8
ca pāpakam
• yāmor yär(p)o(tstse) (mā) (yāmor) yo(lotstse) ///
b5 n9 kne yāmu nauṣäññe •
bibheti mṛtyor na kada(ṃ) cid e(va)
yā tarantaḥ
• mäkte olyisa prakäryai päs kätkanamāne 40 ///


a1 Even if it has been done secretly, one is sorrowful. [36c] Sanskrit
a2 Sanskrit But when a good deed has been done, one rejoices indeed. [37a] Sanskrit
a3 Even if it has been done ... one rejoices, [37b] Sanskrit (and even if it has been done) in secret. [37c]
a4 Sanskrit Even more one rejoices on the divine path. [37d]
a5 Sanskrit (even when it has been done) in the past, [38b]
a6 (even if it has been) done in secret ... [38c]
b2 When a good deed (has not been done), having seized the opposite of the Law, having abandoned the Law, [39ab]
b3 one is afraid of death here being characterized by a bad deed. [39c]
b4 Sanskrit Having a good deed done, having a bad deed not done, [40a]
b5 having accomplished the ancient Law, [40b] Sanskrit
b6 Sanskrit like the ones crossing over (the sea) with a solid boat. [40d]


Linguistic commentary

Here again we do note some archaic forms: yärpone (a2), yämaiyne (a4), ṣpäk (a4), laukäññe (a5), nauṣäññe (b5), kätkanamāne (b6).
n1 The first word of the line ought to be restored as TB enersaṅk matching Skt. rahasi although in all other instances this Sanskrit word is translated by TB enestai ‘in secret, privately’. It is not completely clear what enersaṅk means in the other occurrences (though ‘carelessly, helplessly’ is probably wrong, as per Adams 1999: 84), but a meaning ‘in secret, without being seen’ would fit.
n3 The first word of the pāda 37d in Tocharian is ṣpäk for classical ṣpak ‘more’ translating Skt. bhūyaḥ. The phrase ñäkciyai yämaiyne means literally ‘on the divine path’. Although yamai corresponds to Skt. gati-, it differs from the authoritative text which has sadgatiṃ gataḥ ‘going the happy way’. Probably this translation has been triggered by the misinterpretation of the Middle Indic original as svar-gatiṃ ‘the way to heaven’, which has left a trace in one Sanskrit manuscript (cf. Bernhard 1965: 364, n 2).
n7 The compound yolai-yāmortstse is the expected rendering of Skt. pāpakarman- ‘being characterized by a bad deed’ (39c).

Parallel texts

Sanskrit (Bernhard 1965: 364-365)

Philological commentary

n2 The first word of the line ought to be restored as yāmoṣne, translating Skt. kṛte (37b). At the end of the line one can restore enestai (as is usual) or enersaṅk (as in a1) as translation of Skt. rahasi (37c).
n4 One may restore the usual match of Skt. rahasi ca kṛte ‘a deed done in secret’ (here for 38d).
n5 This line is almost entirely lost.
n6 The first word ought to be restored as yärpone which translates Skt. puṇye (39a). Since the text continues with the translation of pāda 39b, one is led to assume that the (otherwise inattentive) scribe forgot to copy the Sanskrit text.
n8 The beginning of the line should be restored as akṛtañ ca pāpakam, which is the end of the pada 40a; again we have a different variant than in the authoritative text: akṛtaṃ ca pāpaṃ “and not having done a bad deed”.
n9 The first word ought to be restored as pelaikne corresponding to Skt. dharmaḥ (40b).
n10 The first akṣara of the line belongs to the Sanskrit word dṛḍhayā ‘solid’ (40d).

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Peyrot 2008b A1
Tamai 2011a C14



Lévi 1933: 49-50; Bernhard 1965: 364-365


Adams 1999

Adams, Douglas Q. 1999. A dictionary of Tocharian B. Leiden Studies in Indo-European 10. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain. 1933. Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien». Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Peyrot 2008b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008b. Variation and change in Tocharian B. Vol. 15. Leiden Studies in Indo-European. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Tamai 2011a

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011a. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.