CEToM | PK AS 1A

Work in progress

PK AS 1A

Known as:PK AS 1A; Pelliot Koutchéen Ancienne Série 1A; U 2
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn (collaborator). "PK AS 1A". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-pkas1a&outputformat=print (accessed 13 Jul. 2024).

Edition

Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn (collaborator)
Date of online publication:2012-02

Provenience

Main find spot:Duldur-akur
Expedition code:DA FM 8a
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Language:Skt.; TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānavarga
Passage:1.41cd-42; 2.1-2
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:prose
Meter:M12a; M12; M9

Object

Manuscript:PK AS 1A-1B
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Size (h × w):7.8 × 35 cm
Number of lines:4
Interline spacing:1.8 cm

Images

Images from gallica.bnf.fr by courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Pelliot koutchéen.

Transliteration

a1/// (·)m(·) [•] ja rā mṛ tyu śca ma rda [ti] • ktsai tsa ññe srū ka lyñe s̝pa me lyeṃ 40-1
a2ta [smā](·) [s](·) [d](·) (– – – –) sa mā hi tā • tu sā ksa ṣe¯ ¯k o mpa lsko ññe ne wī na yā mo¯ ¯s̝
a3ka krau pa s̝aṃ : ā tā ○ pi no jā ti ja rā nta da rśi na ḥ e tsa rka lle cci cme lle ktsai tsa ññe ntse ā
a4ke lkā ṣṣe ñca¯ ¯ñä mā raṃ sa sai nya ma bhi bhū ya bhi kṣa va ḥ ma raṃ śle re tke oṃ ṣa pta tā ka rmeṃ ṣa [mā] [ni]
lf1 [4]
b1bha ve ta [jā] tī ma ra ṇa sya pā ra gā ḥ tā ko yce¯ ¯r cme lle srū ka lle ntse to tte ynū ca¯ ¯ñä 40 2 || a ni (–)
b2va rga ḥ mā ṣe ka ññe ṣṣe ○ krau pe || || kā ma jā nā mi te mū la¯ ¯m yśe lme ai ke ma¯ ¯r ta¯ ¯ñä wi tsa
b3kai : (– –) [l] (– – – – –) se • pa lska lyñe meṃ yśe lma ta nma sta¯ ¯r na tvā saṃ ka lpa yi ṣā mi •
b4/// [•] tu meṃ ñi mā tā ka¯ ¯t kā me bhyo jā ya te śo ka [•] yśe lme nmeṃ ta

Transcription

lf10-4
41ca1n1 /// ·m·
jarā mṛtyuś ca mardati
41dktsaitsäññe srūkalyñe ṣpä melyeṃ 40-1
tasmā(t) s(a)d(ā) (dhyānaratāḥ) samāhitā«ḥ»
42atusāksa ṣek ompalskoññene wīna yāmoṣ a3n2 kakraupaṣäṃ :
ātāpino jātijarāntadarśinaḥ
42betsarkällecci cmelle ktsaitsäññentse āa4ken3n4 lkāṣṣeñcañ
māraṃ sasainyam abhibhūya bhikṣavaḥ
42cmaraṃ śle retke oṃṣap tatākarmeṃ ṣamāni «•»
bhaveta jātīmaraṇasya pāragāḥ
42dtākoycer cmelle srūkallentse totte ynūcañ 40-2 ॥
ani(tya)-
b2-vargaḥn6n7
ṣekaññeṣṣe kraupe ॥ ॥
kāma jānāmi te mūlam
1ayśelme aikemar tañ witsab3kain8 :
(saṃka)l(pāt) (kāma) (jāya)se
1bpalskalyñemeṃ yśelma tänmastär
na tvā saṃkalpayiṣāmi
b4n9 /// •
1dtumeṃ ñi tākat
kāmebhyo jāyate śoka«ḥ»
2ayśelmenmeṃ (nmastär)

Translation

a1Sanskrit Old age and death crush (the beings). [41d]
a2Sanskrit Therefore indeed always finding pleasure in the meditation, being
a3concentrated [42a], Sanskrit being zealous, looking at the end of birth (and)
a4old age [42b]. Sanskrit Having overcome Māra (= death) together with his army, as monks, [42c]
b1Sanskrit May you become (the ones who) cross over birth (and) death! [42d]
b2Sanskrit The chapter pertaining to non-permanency. Sanskrit O desire, I know your
b3root! [1a] Sanskrit O desire, you are born from the imagination. [1b] Sanskrit
b4(1c) (Sanskrit) Therefore you will not exist for me. [1d] Sanskrit Out of desires (sorrow) is b(orn). [2a]

Other

b2+O Begierde, ich kenne deine Wurzel. Aus der Vorstellung entstehst du, Begierde. (Ich werde nicht an dich denken,) dann wirst du für mich nicht [da] sein. (Schmidt 1974: 107)

Commentary

Parallel texts

Bernhard 1965: 110-112

Philological commentary

There is a lacuna concerning two lines on the left side, which can be evaluated to ca. 10 akṣaras for the first and ca. 12 akṣaras for the second one. In general, many punctuation signs between pādas are not spelled, and the graphemes are not used consistently.
n1One can still read 〈ty〉 belonging to the left part of a ligatura: it can most probably be restored as (mar)ty(āṃ) being the last word of pāda 41c. At the end of this lacuna one may restore (onol)m(eṃ) translating Skt. martyāṃ.
n2The reading kakraupaṣa is certain, but we expect the nom.pl.masc. kakraupaṣ parallel to preceding yamoṣ, cf. Skt. samāhitā(ḥ). One is led to assume that this mistake is due to copying of a former spelling kakraupa\.
n4After ṣa[māni] there is space for a punctuation dot as compared with the preceding lines.
n7The scribe has written mūlam \ in order to represent the correct accusative singular ending in -m, while the Sanskrit text has the sandhi form mūlaṃ.
n8The form tänmastär is wrong for the expected 2.sg.mid. tänmastar as translating Skt. jāyase. Note that the 3.sg. middle was present below in the translation of pāda 2a.
n9At the beginning of the line the traces of the first akṣara are compatible with a tentative reading 〈mā〉, which would translate Skt. na at the beginning of pāda 1c. In the lacuna one may restore (mā ci plāskau). This makes four syllables and the further addition of the eight syllables of the Sanskrit pāda 1d will fill the lacuna exactly. The last word has to be restored as tä(nmastär).

Linguistic commentary

n3As translation of Skt. māraṃ in 42a one finds TB maraṃ, which cannot simply be taken as a mistake. This form should be understood as the oblique singular of TB mār being the regular match of Skt. māra-. Actually, the most common Tocharian expression is TB mār-ñäkte (TA mār-ñkät). We do find the expected oblique singular TB māräṃ in B 30 b 2. A first possibility would be to take TB maraṃ as analogical of the regular gen.sg. marántse*mārä’ntse (Pinault 2008: 47). Maybe a better alternative would be to assume that this scribe (school) has chosen to inflect TB mār according to the productive pattern of TB sāṃ ‘enemy’, obl.sg. sanáṃ*sānä’ṃ (= class 5.3. in TEB).
n5The verbal noun meaning ‘death’ here is srūkalle, whereas we find the expected form srūkalyñe in line a 1. It is obvious that srūkalle is a rhyming form with preceding cmelle ‘birth’, which is also used before in line a3 translating Skt. jāti-. Already in the classical language there was confusion between the verbal abstract in -l(y)ñe and the substantivized gerund in -lle with palatalized liquid. Actually, for ‘birth’ the language had the verbal abstract cmel(y)ñe, which would be perfectly parallel to srūkalyñe. Therefore, it seems that the scribe had at his disposal two variants meaning approximately the same. He may have chosen the variant in lle to make a rhyme in the sequence cmelle srūkallentse (b1) while ktsaitsäññe srūkalyñe also is some kind of rhyme. In addition, he uses srūkalyñe to translate Skt. mṛtyu- (41d), while using srūkalle to translate Skt. maraṇa- (42d). One may thus say that the choice between the two variants was stylistically motivated.
n6One has yśelme (= nominative) instead of the vocative yśelma found in the next line. Note that in most declination classes vocative and nominative have the same form.

References

Photo

Couvreur 1974: 456

Edition

Lévi 1911; Lévi 1933: 41f; Pinault 2008: 46f

Translations

Meunier 2013: a2 a3 (124, 171); Peyrot 2013b: b4 (289); Schmidt 1974: b2 b3 b4 (107)

Bibliography

Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Couvreur 1974

Couvreur, Walter. 1974. “Tochaarse literatuur.” In Moderne Encyclopedie der Wereldliteratuur. Deel VIII, SHE – U., edited by José Georges Marie Aerts, Alfred Gustave Herbert Bachrach, Achilles Mussche, and et al., 454b–457a. Bussum: Brand/De Boer Jr.

Lévi 1911

Lévi, Sylvain. 1911. “Étude des documents tokhariens de la mission Pelliot.” Journal Asiatique 10ème série, 17: 431–64.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain. 1933. Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien». Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Pinault 2008

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 2008. Chrestomathie tokharienne. Textes et Grammaire. Leuven/Paris: Peeters.

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD, Universität Göttingen.

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