[Error: Requires JavaScript.]


Work in progress

A 27

Known as:A 27; THT 660
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling; Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot. "A 27". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-a27 (accessed 30 May 2024).


Editor:Gerd Carling; Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot
Date of online publication:2012-10-31


Main find spot:Shorchuk
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 91.07
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script


Text contents

Title of the work:Unknown Avadāna
Passage:Dharmarājika deeds
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Manuscript:A 1-54
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:6


Images from titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de by courtesy of the Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS).


a2(– –) ·[ñ]·[¯] [¯s] me¯ ¯m yä¯ ¯rm k· ///
a3|| ta mmaṃ tne klyo snä ṣtra gā ○ ///
a4hu rro ki ye twe wa mpe ○ ///
a5swa mpe ye twe sa¯ ¯m : su da rśaṃ ri [y]· ///
a6·ä [k](·)(·) śyo ki vai ja ya¯ ¯nt : 1 || ///
b1– n(·) [ka] lpā lu ne yā ma [r]ka mpa ///
b2to¯ ¯nt ta myo sa¯ ¯m wyā¯ ¯r dha rma rā ///
b3śśi o ko śa ri rntu : wo ○ ///
b4ṅkaṃ ba dhe bra¯ ¯m ñka tto ○ ///
b5[ñ]e mi sa¯ ¯m 1 || ku pre ///


a2n1 – – ·ñ(i)s mem yärm ///
a3n2täm mäṃt ne klyosnäṣträ /// (ma)-
a4-hurr oki yetwe wampe /// (ārkiśoṣi)-
a5-s wampe yetwe säm : sudarśaṃ riy(aṃ) ///
a6(ñ)äk(ta)śy oki vaijayant : 1 ॥ ///
b1 kälpāluneyā märkampa(l) ///
b2n3 tont tämyo säm wyār dharmarā(jik) ///
b3n4 śśi oko śarirntu : wo ///
b4n5 ṅkaṃ badhe bram-ñkätt o(ki) ///
b5ñemi säm 1 ॥ kupre(ne) ///


a2... the measure [and] limit of ...
a3|| Just as ... is heard ...
a3+... (dia)dem as it were, ornament, decoration ...
a4+... this one [is] the decoration [and] ornament of the (world).
a5(In) the city Sudarśana ...
a6... like the Vaijayanta [palace] of the ... g(ods).
b1... through obtaining of ..., the Law ...
b2... the (foundations of the relics) have been put (in the stūpa). Therefore this monastery (is called) Dharmarājika ...
b3... (they obtained) bodies as the fruit of (deeds/merits). ...
b4... in (the palace) Badhe l(ike) god Brahman ...
b5... this jewel 1 || If ...


a3Wie man hört [bzw. man hört nämlich [folgendes] ], ... Gā- ... (Schmidt 1974: 220)



Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).
Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
Small fragment of the left side. The string hole space is preserved in lines 3 and 4. Lines a1 and b6 are lost. There are traces of signs in the margin of the recto side.

Philological commentary

n1·ñ(i)s is most likely a gen.sg. (or pl.?).
n2The phrase mäṃt ne klyoṣtä(r) also attested in the small fragment m-tht2166 a 2.
n3Probably, tont is the fem.nom.pl. PPt of 'to put'. For the name dharmarājika- lit. 'belonging to a king of the Law', see Edgerton 1953: 281a and Bechert and Waldschmidt 1973 II: 530a; actually, it refers to a monument serving for the relics of the Buddha.
n4One may restore either (pñintwā)śśi oko or (lyalypäntwā)śśi oko.
n5The most likely restoration is (ṣtā)ṅkaṃ 'in the palace'. The personal name Badhe does not make sense, because there is no Sanskrit form badha-; it may stand for *Vadhe from Skt. vadha-, which would be a name by itself or a shorten form of a compound name; cf. Edgerton 1953: 397a. In theory, one may think of Skt. bādha- 'oppresser' Monier-Williams 1899: 728a, but this noun does not make a proper name.


Online access

IDP: THT 660; TITUS: THT 660


Sieg and Siegling 1921: 20; Sieg and Siegling 1921 p. 20


Schmidt 1974: a3 (220)


Bechert and Waldschmidt 1973

Bechert, Heinz, and Ernst Waldschmidt. 1973. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Edgerton 1953

Edgerton, Franklin. 1953. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary. New Haven: Yale University Press.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Monier-Williams 1899

Monier-Williams, Monier. 1899. A Sanskrit-English dictionary. Etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages. new edition, greatly enlarged and improved, London: Clarendon Press (several reprints).

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1921

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/tocharic/thtframe.htm.