• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

A 27

Known as:A 27; THT 660
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling; Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot. "A 27". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 05 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Gerd Carling; Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn; Michaël Peyrot
Date of online publication:2012-10-31


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Specific find spot:Stadthöhle
Expedition code:T III Š 91.07
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script


Text contents

Title of the work:Unknown Avadāna
Passage:Dharmarājika deeds
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Manuscript:A 1-54
Leaf number:2
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:6


Images from by courtesy of the Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS).


a2(– –) ·[ñ]·[¯] [¯s] me¯ ¯m yä¯ ¯rm k· ///
a3|| ta mmaṃ tne klyo snä ṣtra gā ○ ///
a4hu rro ki ye twe wa mpe ○ ///
a5swa mpe ye twe sa¯ ¯m : su da rśaṃ ri [y]· ///
a6·ä [k](·)(·) śyo ki vai ja ya¯ ¯nt : 1 || ///
b1– n(·) [ka] lpā lu ne yā ma [r]ka mpa ///
b2to¯ ¯nt ta myo sa¯ ¯m wyā¯ ¯r dha rma rā ///
b3śśi o ko śa ri rntu : wo ○ ///
b4ṅkaṃ ba dhe bra¯ ¯m ñka tto ○ ///
b5[ñ]e mi sa¯ ¯m 1 || ku pre ///


a2 n1 – – ·ñ(i)s mem yärm k· ///
a3 n2täm mäṃtne klyosnäṣträ gā /// (ma)-
a4 -hurr oki yetwe wampe /// (ārkiśoṣi)-
a5 -s wampe yetwe säm : sudarśaṃ riy(aṃ) ///
a6 (ñ)äk(ta)śy oki vaijayant : 1 ॥ ///
b1 – n· kälpāluneyā märkampa(l) ///
b2 n3 tont tämyo säm wyār dharmarā(jik) ///
b3 n4 śśi oko śarirntu : wo ///
b4 n5 ṅkaṃ badhe bram-ñkätt o(ki) ///
b5 ñemi säm 1 ॥ kupre(ne) ///


a2 ... the measure [and] limit of ...
a3 || Just as ... is heard ...
a3+ ... (dia)dem as it were, ornament, decoration ...
a4+ ... this one [is] the decoration [and] ornament of the (world).
a5 (In) the city Sudarśana ...
a6 ... like the Vaijayanta [palace] of the ... g(ods).
b1 ... through obtaining of ..., the Law ...
b2 ... the (foundations of the relics) have been put (in the stūpa). Therefore this monastery (is called) Dharmarājika ...
b3 ... (they obtained) bodies as the fruit of (deeds/merits). ...
b4 ... in (the palace) Badhe l(ike) god Brahman ...
b5 ... this jewel 1 || If ...


a3 Wie man hört [bzw. man hört nämlich [folgendes] ], ... Gā- ... (Schmidt 1974: 220)



Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).
Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
Small fragment of the left side. The string hole space is preserved in lines 3 and 4. Lines a1 and b6 are lost. There are traces of signs in the margin of the recto side.

Philological commentary

n1 ·ñ(i)s is most likely a (or pl.?).
n2 The phrase mäṃtne klyoṣtä(r) also attested in the small fragment m-tht2166 a 2.
n3 Probably, tont is the PPt of 'to put'. For the name dharmarājika- lit. 'belonging to a king of the Law', see Edgerton 1953: 281a and Bechert and Waldschmidt 1973 II: 530a; actually, it refers to a monument serving for the relics of the Buddha.
n4 One may restore either (pñintwā)śśi oko or (lyalypäntwā)śśi oko.
n5 The most likely restoration is (ṣtā)ṅkaṃ 'in the palace'. The personal name Badhe does not make sense, because there is no Sanskrit form badha-; it may stand for *Vadhe from Skt. vadha-, which would be a name by itself or a shorten form of a compound name; cf. Edgerton 1953: 397a. In theory, one may think of Skt. bādha- 'oppresser' Monier-Williams 1899: 728a, but this noun does not make a proper name.


Online access

IDP: THT 660; TITUS: THT 660


Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 20; Sieg and Siegling 1921a p. 20


Schmidt 1974: a3 (220)


Bechert and Waldschmidt 1973

Bechert, Heinz, and Ernst Waldschmidt. 1973. Sanskrit-Wörterbuch der buddhistischen Texte aus den Turfan-Funden. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Edgerton 1953

Edgerton, Franklin. 1953. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary. New Haven: Yale University Press.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Monier-Williams 1899

Monier-Williams, Monier. 1899. A Sanskrit-English dictionary. Etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages. new edition, greatly enlarged and improved, London: Clarendon Press (several reprints).

Schmidt 1974

Schmidt, Klaus T. 1974. “Die Gebrauchsweisen des Mediums im Tocharischen.” PhD thesis, Universität Göttingen.

Sieg and Siegling 1921a

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921a. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”