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IOL Toch 7

Known as:IOL Toch 7; H 149.37; A.37
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "IOL Toch 7". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-ioltoch7 (accessed 19 Jul. 2024).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:British Library (London)

Language and Script

Linguistic stage:archaic

Text contents

Title of the work:Vinayavibhaṅga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Vinaya


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):7.1 × 11.0 cm
Number of lines:6


Images from idp.bl.uk by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project and the British Library.


a1/// ya lye ī ke ne • ma swā sa llye ī ke ne
a2/// pra llya • ma wä rta rka lye ī ke ne • ma ja
a3/// ○ ñcä cce me lte sa ka cci llya • mā la ntsa ta s̝a
a4/// s· ○ wa lke ta s̝a llya • mā pa kna mo kau s̝a llya
a5/// – llya • a nai śai pa s̝a llya • ma kte mā a llo kpa ttrai rī
a6/// – s̝s̝a lñe tā [k]a ñca • sā ṅne pa sta rka na llya • se
b1/// mā ne ya yā ṣṣo ṣña re sa rki • a le cce wā pa
b2/// – a le cce meṃ ña re sa rki yā ṣtra du a le cce
b3/// [tka] ○ s̝s̝aṃ ni 70 jñā ti ke nmeṃ ña re sa rki
b4/// ○ ṅko a le cce wā pa tsi wa tka s̝s̝aṃ ni
b5/// s̝s̝a jñā ti keṃ wā pa tsi wa tka s̝aṃ mā tra ṅ[k]o
b6/// – ti keṃ wā pa tsi wa tka snai tra ṅko ||


a1n1 /// (yente) (ma) yalye īkenema swāsallye īkene
a2n1 /// prällyama wär tärkalye īkenema ja
a3n2 /// (ma) (wara)ñcäcce meltesa käccillya läntsa taṣä-
a4-(llya)n3 /// walke taṣällya päknamo kauṣällya
a5n4n5n6 /// – llyaanaiśai paṣällyamäkte allok pattrai rī-
a6-(talle)n7 /// – ṣṣälñe tākañ-casāṅne päs tärkänallyase
b1n8 /// (ṣa)māne yayāṣṣoṣ ñare sarkialecce wāpa
b2n9n10 /// – aleccemeṃ ñare sarki yāṣträ du alecce
b3/// (wa)tkäṣṣäṃ ni 70 jñātikenmeṃ ñare sarki
b4/// (ma) (trä)ṅko alecce wāpatsi watkäṣṣäṃ ni
b5/// …ṣṣä(ṃ) jñātikeṃ wāpatsi watkaṣäṃ träṅko
b6n11 /// (jñā)tikeṃ wāpatsi watka snai träṅko


a1... (not) in a place where the (wind) goes; not in a place where it rains;
a2... is to be brought ... ; not in a place where water is released; not ...
a3... it is (not) to be scoured (?) with sand and dung. It is not to be put on excrement (?).
a4... it is (not) to be put on ... too long. It is not to be broken intentionally.
a5.. it is (not) to be ... It is to be guarded carefully. • You are not to seek another alms bowl yourself.
a6... if you have ..., it is to be given up in the community. This ...
b1/// (ṣa)māne yayāṣṣoṣ ñare sarki • alecce wāpa
b2/// – aleccemeṃ ñare sarki yāṣträ duṣkṛta alecce
b3/// (wa)t(kä)ṣṣäṃ niḥsargika-pātayantika 70 jñātikenmeṃ ñare sarki
b4/// (ma trä)ṅko alecce wāpatsi watkäṣṣäṃ niḥsargika-pātayantika
b5/// -ṣṣä(ṃ) jñātikeṃ wāpatsi watkäṣṣäṃ|watkaṣäṃ, [he has] no offence.
b6/// (jñā)tikeṃ wāpatsi watkäṣṣäṃ|watka, [he is] without offence. ||


Linguistic commentary

The spelling llya for the nom.sg.f. ending of the gerund for usual lya is striking, but need to reflect anything in real speech. Should it stand for some speech-real phenomenon, then it would obviously be a palatalisated geminate /ĺĺ/.

Parallel texts

PK NS 95; Rosen 1959: 112-116


Upper, lower, and right margins preserved. Pace Ogihara 2009: 93, Broomhead 1962: 84 is probably right that the string hole space is preserved in lines a4 and b3, and probably also in a3 and b4. Thus the leaf may have been relatively small, i.e. not wider than approximately 15 cms.
Broomhead 1962: 84 describes the ms as "[w]ritten in medium ductus, and clearly preserved, but the manuscript is blackened both sides, worse on the verso".

Philological commentary

n1īkene: the first akṣara is probably to be read as ī, not i (pace Broomhead 1962: 84; Ogihara 2009: 93).
n2(ma wara)ñcäcce meltesa käccillya: the restoration of this clause is difficult. Following Broomhead 1962: 84, 89 and Hilmarsson 1996: 113, Ogihara 2009: 333-334 restores (śi)ñcäcce meltesa käccillya and translates "/// it should not be put down on the on snow-covered dung.". This expression is not found in the Chinese parallel that he adduces. However, he underlines "You should not wash it with the sand and the dung.", his translation of 不應以雜沙牛屎洗。, meaning that this passage is also found in the Tocharian B text (cf also Rosen 1959: 113 "Der Mönch [...] muß ermahnt werden, [...] sie nicht mit Sand oder Kuhurin zu reinigen"). As far as I can see, it is not necessary to restore /// ñcäcce as (śi)ñcäcce: many more words in -ñce could form an adjective in -tstse. One of these is warañce 'sand', which seems to fit the context better: 以雜沙牛屎 'with a mix of sand and cow dung' may have been warañcäcce meltesa, literally 'with sandy cow dung', in Tocharian B. The next problem is the verb kətt- or kətk-, traditionally 'put down' (Hilmarsson 1996: 113; Adams 1999: 159), but in fact the passages hardly allow us to establish its meaning. On the basis of the passage under discussion, one would rather expect something like 'wash, scour', which fits käccīyeṃ-ne THT 22 b5 perfectly: 'Two (hell guards) scoured his body with gravel'. käccītär THT 33 b5 is more difficult to interpret. It is clearly a bad wish to an honourable person by a jealous person. Perhaps 'he should be scoured together with this or that one' is also a possibility there.
n3: pace Ogihara 2009: 93, who reads ·[s]·, the s is not uncertain and it is not lowered.
n4läntsa: for this hapax legomenon, Ogihara 2009: 335 plausibly suggests the meaning 'excrement', based on the assumption that the word is borrowed from Skt. laṇḍa 'excrement'. A minor point is that we would rather expect lānt, i.e. /lant/, not /lənt/.
n5mäkte: seems to stand for makte 'self', not for mäkte 'how, so' (pace Broomhead 1962: 89; not translated by Ogihara 2009: 334).
n6rī(talle): Ogihara 2009: 335 restores rī(tatar), which is grammatically also possible.
n7tākañca: for tākañc, i.e. tākaṃ-c.
n8/// -māne yayāṣṣoṣ: some of these akṣaras are damaged, but the reading is certain, pace Broomhead 1962: 184, who reads /// (ṣa)[mān]e ya[yā]ṣṣoṣ (followed by Ogihara 2009: 93).
n9Ogihara 2009: 93 reads the first damaged akṣara as [60].
n10yāṣtra: this is the correct reading (Peyrot 2007: №7), pace Broomhead 1962: 84, who reads yaṣtra (followed by Ogihara 2009: 93).
n11watka: a mistake for watkäṣṣäṃ (Thomas 1954: 727).

Alternative linguistic/paleographic classifications

Peyrot 2008A2
Tamai 2011C14


Online access

IDP: IOL Toch 7


Broomhead 1962; von Simson 2000: 64; Pinault 2000: 100


Broomhead 1962: 84, 89; Peyrot 2007: №7; Ogihara 2009: 93, 333-336


Broomhead 1962: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 (89); Hackstein 1995: b2 (184); Krause 1952: a1 (39), a3 (129), b5 (144); Ogihara 2009: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 (334); Thomas 1952: a1 (33), a2 (33); Thomas 1954: b4 (726), b5 (727), b6 (727); Thomas 1979a: b2 (258)


Adams 1999

Adams, Douglas Q. 1999. A dictionary of Tocharian B. Leiden Studies in Indo-European 10. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Broomhead 1962

Broomhead, J.W. 1962. “A textual edition of the British Hoernle, Stein and Weber Kuchean manuscripts. With transliteration, translation, grammatical commentary and vocabulary. I = Edition.” PhD, Cambridge: Trinity College.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Hilmarsson 1996

Hilmarsson, Jörundur. 1996. Materials for a Tocharian historical and etymological dictionary. Edited by Alexander Lubotsky and Guðrún Þórhallsdóttir. TIES Suppl. 5. Reykjavík: Málvísindastofnun Háskóla Íslands.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Ogihara 2009

Ogihara, Hirotoshi. 2009. “Researches about Vinaya-texts in Tocharian A and B [Recherches sur le Vinaya en tokharien A et B].” PhD, Paris: École Pratique des Hautes Études.

Peyrot 2007

Peyrot, Michaël. 2007. “An edition of the Tocharian fragments IOL Toch 1 – IOL Toch 822 in the India Office Library.” International Dunhuang Project. 2007. http://idp.bl.uk/database/oo_cat.a4d?shortref=Peyrot_2007.

Peyrot 2008

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008. Variation and change in Tocharian B. Vol. 15. Leiden Studies in Indo-European. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Pinault 2000

Pinault, Georges-Jean. 2000. “Nouveautés dans un commentaire de la Discipline bouddhique.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 9: 77–120.

Rosen 1959

Rosen, Valentina. 1959. Der Vinayavibhaṅga zum Bikṣuprātimokṣa der Sarvāstivādins. Sanskritfragmente nebst einer Analyse der chinesischen Übersetzung. Vol. II. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Tamai 2011

Tamai, Tatsushi. 2011. Paläographische Untersuchungen zum B-Tocharischen. Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 138. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen.

Thomas 1952

Thomas, Werner. 1952. Die tocharischen Verbaladjektive auf -l. Deutsche Akad. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung 9. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Thomas 1954

Thomas, Werner. 1954. “Die Infinitive im Tocharischen.” In Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, edited by Johannes Schubert and Ulrich Schneider, 701–64. Leipzig: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1979a

Thomas, Werner. 1979a. “Ein neues tocharisches Prātimokṣa-Fragment der Bibliothèque Nationale.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 92: 235–68.

von Simson 2000

Simson, Georg von. 2000. Prātimokṣasūtra der Sarvāstivādins. Teil II. Kritische Textausgabe, Übersetzung, Wortindex sowie Nachträge zu Teil I, nach Vorarbeiten von Else Lüders u. Herbert Härtel hg. v. Georg von Simson. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden, XI. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.