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  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.

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THT 33

Known as:THT 33; B 33
Cite this page as:Hannes A. Fellner. "THT 33". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-tht33 (accessed 03 Dec. 2023).

Edition

Editor:Hannes A. Fellner

Provenience

Main find spot:Šorčuq
Expedition code:T III Š 87.3
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Language:TB
Linguistic stage:classical
Script:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānālaṅkāra
Passage:Book 13 (Satkāravarga), part 1, strophe 56(?), and part 2, strophes 1-9.
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:verse
Meter:M21_21_18_13

Object

Manuscript:Udānālaṅkāra A
Leaf number:2-100-2
Material: ink on paper
Form:Poṭhī
Number of lines:8

Transliteration

a1/// pu pr· r· r· [ñc]n· /// /// ·w· ks· [pa] sta [ṣa] mā [n]· –
a2|| dha rma so ma ññe u dā na la ṅkā rne sa tkā ra vā rgä ntse pa rw[e]· ṣ· pā ke || blank || su bhā dre nne || ye twe śā sa ntse pe lke ṣa mā ññe ṣo tri kre nta ntso so ylñe we we
a3ñu kuse po tā rkaṃ e ṅka lña nta po pa stri n[ta]¯ ¯r wä nta rwa po ntaṃ krā staṃ ke rke tse : pa lsko le le yu po wä nta rwa meṃ : ṣa mā ññe ntse śū ke ca mpaṃ ta kā nai śai ka rsa tsi : 1
a4yā mo rṣe meṃ tsa so mpa stre kñe nta lyśi no a lye ṅkaṃ¯ ¯s co wai ta rka naṃ : sa swe ṣa rya so mpa sta rte re tke yā mtra we re te pū wa rtsa kaṃ wa¯ ¯r pa raṃ :
a5ma kte ksa ri nta¯ ¯r wai pe cce kñe nta : ta ka rṣkñe sa mrau ska lñe sa mā s̝pa sū wteṃ tse krau «pa» lle 2 o sta ṣme ma ne ntse mā ka ku rpe lle mā ñye ma ñya na¯ ¯ts śno
a6¯yä sä swa tkā ta¯ ¯rts : lā nte spa ktāṃ ypo ye pau śye a ñma ntse kñi ku rpe lle tu sa ñske nta rwai pe cce : kuse no o stmeṃ ltu yā ṣṣu śa wā ñca : kwri sū krau pta¯ ¯r wai pe cce nta
a7wro cce lu pṣta¯ ¯r nā ki mpa 3 kwri ya rke pe ti ṣe yme ku rpe lle o¯ ¯st o lypo ṣai ce¯ ¯r ma kci la ma lyi : ṣñā¯ ¯r ṣñā¯ ¯r ma ñyeṃ ma ñya na meṃ ne mce kya rke ka llā lyi
a8wai pe cce nta krau pa lyi : la tso ñko sta meṃ kse lñe ṣṣa kā lksa : ya rke pe ti ka llau ṣṣa na śa nmā nma śa nma sta¯ ¯r 4 ma kte ye lyi tse ku ta llā wtā kaṃ śwāṃ ne yṅkau
b1ka stwe¯ ¯r ye lyi pi le nta : ma¯ ¯nt ka llau ṣṣi ye lyi cme nta¯ ¯r o ntso ytñe ṣṣe pī le ne pe lai kne ṣṣe ke ktseṃ cwi : śwāṃ ne yṅkauṃ ka stwe¯ ¯r mā ñu ka lpā s̝s̝aṃ : nau mi kka ne
b2lkā ṣne śne sa kuta meṃ ka llo¯ ¯ymä wai pe cce 5 saṃ va¯ ¯r ṣa mā ññe ā śaṃ o stwo sta ta rknaṃ a klyi lñe śa kwi klau tkeṃ tsa : o mpa lsko ññe pa¯ ¯st pra ṅka s̝s̝aṃ na tknaṃ lau ke
b3ai śa mñe ya rke pe ti ña s̝ta¯ ¯r sū : ṣka stoṃ ta rstwa sa ṣe¯ ¯k sū ya ska sta¯ ¯r nau ntai nau ntai o sta o sta se sa mpa ksa pau to yñä¯ ¯ś 6 ñi kka ka tā koṃ la¯ ¯ñcä ṣe
b4me ske pi ñi ka mā ci nta ñi ka po ypo yi : o sta ṣme ñcaṃ o stmeṃ ltu we¯ ¯s̝ ñi ka ya rke yā myeṃ ṣe¯ ¯k mā lye ke pi keṃ ra moṃ : la kaṃ klyau s̝aṃ wa
b5¯t ya rka lye ke pi : tsa kṣta¯ ¯r ysa lyṣe pū wa rsa sū ce co mpa mpa ka ccī ta¯ ¯r 7 we ña pu dñä kte mā ka su ta rma ya rke pe ti ntse snai ke¯ ¯ś na ka
b6nma : tu ñi¯ ¯ś ta ne ce kwä rñai kca [au] ltso rsa ka s̝a rpau me śka mai yya ntse we we ño¯ ¯r • ke¯ ¯t ya rke pe ti¯ ¯ś rma mñe tsa ṅkau tne pa klau tka ṣṣa¯ ¯t pa¯ ¯st pa lsko nta weṃ ṣye tsai
b7ra¯ ¯mt ko tai meṃ 8 ma kte tne lā ñe na kaṃ sa rma na taṃ tsa s̝s̝aṃ [p]ya – [aiṃ] kau s̝aṃ o ko nta [:] [ma]¯ ¯nt tne ya rke pe ti na kaṃ śi la ṣṣa na sa rma na bo dhyā ṅkṣa na pya pyaiṃ no : ṣa mā
b8·e – – ·[au] ··[ṃ] o ko nta : ya rke [p]e [t]i ·e /// /// r·o [n]e yo paṃ a llā wo : [c]e –

Transcription

a1 /// pu pr· r· r· ñcn· /// /// ·w· ks· päst«†ä» ṣamān· –
a2 dharmasomäññe udānalaṅkārne satkāravārgäntse pärwe(ṣ)ṣ(e) pāke ॥ ॥ subhādrenne
1a yetwe śāsantse ; pelke ṣamāññe ; ṣotri krentäntso ; soylñe wewea3ñun1 «:»
1b kuse po tārkaṃ ; eṅkalñ{a/e}nta ; po päst rintär ; wäntarwa ; pontäṃ krāstäṃ ; kerketse«ṃ» :
1c palsko leleyu ; po wäntarwameṃ :
1d ṣamāññentse ; śūke campäṃ ; tak= ānaiśai ; karsatsi : 1
2a a4 yāmor ṣemeṃtsä ; sompastr ekñenta ; lyśi no alyeṅkäṃs ; cowai tärkanaṃ :
2b saswe ṣarya ; sompastär te ; retke yāmträ ; were te ; pūwar tsakṣäṃ ; war paräṃ :
2c a5n2n3 makte ksa rintär ; waipecc= ekñenta :
2d takarṣkñesa ; mrauskalñesa ; mā ṣpä wteṃtse ; kraupalle 2
3a ostä ṣmemanentse ; māka kurpelle ; māñye«ṃ» mañyanats ; śnoa6y säswa tkātärts :
3b lānte spaktāṃ ; ypoye pauśye ; añmants= ekñi ; kurpelle ; tusa ñskentär ; waipecce :
3c kuse no ostmeṃ ltu ; yāṣṣu śawāñca :
3d kwri krauptär ; waipeccenta ; a7 wrocce lupṣtär ; nākimpa 3
4a kwri yarke peti ; ṣeyme kurpelle ; ost olypo ṣaicer ; makci lamalyi :
4b ṣñār ṣñār mañyeṃ ; mañyanameṃ ; nemcek yarke ; källālyi ; a8n4 waipeccenta ; kraupalyi :
4c latso ñk= ostameṃ ; kselñeṣṣ= akālksa :
4d yarke peti ; källauṣṣana ; śänmānma ; śanmästär 4
5a mäkte yelyitse ; ku tallāw tākaṃ ; śwāṃ-ne yṅkau«ṃ» b1n5 kästwer ; yelyi pilenta :
5b mant källauṣṣi ; yelyi cmentär ; ontsoytñeṣṣe ; pīlene ; pelaikneṣṣ{e/ai} ; kektseṃ cwi :
5c śwāṃ-ne yṅkauṃ kästwer ; mā =ñu kälpāṣṣäṃ :
5d naumikkane b2 ; lkāṣn eśnesa ; kutameṃ källoym ; waipecce 5
6a saṃvar ṣamāññe ; āśäṃ ostw ostä ; tärknaṃ aklyilñe ; śakwi klautkeṃtsa :
6b ompalskoññe ; päst praṅkäṣṣäṃ ; natknaṃ lauke ; b3 aiśamñe ; yarke peti ; ñaṣtär :
6c ṣkas toṃ tarstwasa ; ṣek yaskastär «:»
6d nauntai nauntai ; ostä ostä ; se sampä ksa ; pautoy ñäś 6
7a ñi kka ka tākoṃ ; lañc ṣe b4 meskepi ; ñi k= amācinta ; ñi ka po ypoyi :
7b ostä-ṣmeñcaṃ ; ostmeṃ ltuweṣ ; ñi ka yarke ; yāmyeṃ ṣek ; mā =lyekepi ; keṃ ramoṃ :
7c lakaṃ klyauṣäṃ wab5t ; yark= alyekepi :
7d tsakṣtär ysalyṣe ; pūwarsa ; ce compämpa ; käccītär 7
8a weña pudñäkte ; māka sutarma ; yarke petintse ; snai keś nakab6nman6 :
8b tu ñiś tane ; cek wärñai kca ; aultsorsa ; ka ṣärpaume ; śkamaiyyantse ; weweñor
8c ket yarke petiś ; rmamñe tsäṅkau tne «:»
8d päklautkäṣṣat ; päst pälskonta ; weṃṣyetsai b7 ramt ; kotaimeṃ 8
9a mäkte tne lāñe ; nakṣäṃ sarmana ; taṃtsäṣṣäṃ pya(py)aiṃ ; kauṣäṃ okonta :
9b mant tne yarke ; peti nakṣäṃ ; śilaṣṣana ; sarmana ; bodhyāṅkṣana ; pyapyaiṃ no :
9c ṣamāb8(ññ)e(ṣṣana) ; (k)au(ṣä)ṃ okonta :
yarke peti ·e ·/// /// (wa)r(t)one yopäṃ allāwo : ce –

Translation

a1 ... the arrow piercing the heart ... ... avoid, you monks [56d?].
a2 || In Dharmasoma's Udānālaṅkāra the first part of the Satkāravarga. || || In [the metre] Subhādra: ||
a2+ The jewel of the teaching, the Udāna, the monk's sign ["book of teaching"] [is] called the satiation of the good.
a3 [1d]
a3 Who dismisses all attachment, leaves all things behind him, severs all fetters, who has cleansed the mind of all things, he indeed can clearly understand the taste of monkhood.
a4 The deed takes the possessions away from some, thieves rob them from others, too. The lord, the lover takes this away, the army will make that into odour, the fire burns it, [and] the water carries it [away].
a5 [2d]
a5 If one gives up possession and property by himself, by faith and world-weariness, he will not be able to gather a second time either. The householder must care for a lot of things,
a5+ for slaves and female slaves, for [his] wife, for sons and daughters, for the service to the king, for the land’s levy, and for [his] own possession he must care,
a6 therefore they desire possession. But if he who has gone from the house and who is eating alms that he obtained by begging, [if he] is gathering possessions, with great blemish he is besmirched.
a7 [3d]
a7 Had you cared for veneration and flattery, you should have stayed in the house yourselves [in the first place]. By your respective male and female slaves you certainly would have obtained veneration
a8 [4d]
a8 [and] gathered possessions. Now you have gone from the house, by the wish for deliverance, [but] you let yourself be bound [by] the fetters of veneration, flattery and profit. As if he was a miserable dog, [who is infected with] worms – [and] they eat by day [and] night away at his wounds these worms – thus the worms of profit, when they are born into the wound of insatiability, eat [away] at his body of law by day [and] by night,
b1 he gets no [peace].
b1+ With shining eyes he looks:
b2 [5d]
b2 wherefrom could I get possession? The discipline of monks he leads from house to house, he dismisses the study of the twelve kinds, he rejects meditation,
b2+ he keeps away knowledge;
b3 [6d]
b3 [only] veneration and flattery he desires. With the six ulterior motives he continually begs, street by street, house by house: this one and that one should flatter me.
b3+ Only for me the kings should be, only for me the ministers, only for me all [people] of this country.
b4 Householders and those having gone from the house should always make veneration only to me, not before anyone else should they bow to the ground. If he sees or hears about the veneration of another, he burns in the fire of discord [thinking]:
b5 [7d]
b5 he should be standing there together with this one and that one.
b5+ The Buddha spoke many Sūtras and about veneration and flattery countless words of censure.
b6 -
b6 This somehow I will show you here in brevity: [it is] a saying by the one having the ten powers: “You in whom arose an tendency for veneration and flattery, let [your] thoughts turn away [from it] as from this excrement sewer.”
b7 [8d] -
b7 “Just as the flood(?) here destroys the seeds, rips off the flowers [and] kills the fruits, so does veneration and flattery here destroy the seeds of moral conduct [and] also the flowers of enlightenment
b7+ [and] the monkhood's fruit (it kills).”
b8 - [9d]
b8 “Of veneration and flattery ... ... (as) if it enters the forest, a (?)

Other

a3 Who lets go all clinging, gives up all things, cuts off all bonds, [his] mind turned away from all things, he can indeed clearly recognise the taste of monkhood. (cf : ii, 54) (Peyrot 2013c: 682)
a3 Wer alle Haftungen löst, alle Dinge hinter sich lässt, alle Fesseln zerschneidet, [wer] den Geist von allen Dingen abgewendet(?) [hat], kann in der Tat den Geschmack des Mönchtums genau erkennen. (Schmidt 1974: 417)
a4 The lord, [or] the beloved takes this, the army may reduce [lit. make] that to a scent, [or] fire burns it, [or] water carries it off. (Peyrot 2013c: 705)
a4 Die Tat nimmt den einen die Besitztümer, Diebe rauben sie den anderen. Der Herr, die Geliebte nimmt dieses [rest of translation missing in Schmidt 1974.] (Schmidt 1974: 132-3, 409)
a4 Das Karman nimmt den einen die Besitztümer, Diebe rauben sie auch den anderen. Der Herr, die Geliebte nimmt dieses, das Heer wird jenes zum [bloßen] Geruch machen. (Schmidt 1974: 497)
a4 Der Herr, die Geliebte nimmt dieses, das Heer wird jenes zum [bloßen] Geruch machen. (Schmidt 1974: 263)
a5 If someone himself gives up [his] property [and] possessions out of faith [and] weariness of the world, he will not gather [possessions] for a second time. (cf : ii, 54–55) (Peyrot 2013c: 682)
a5 Wenn einer [von] selbst Besitz [und] Vermögen aufgibt im Glauben [und] Weltüberdruss, wird er [sie] auch nicht zum zweitenmal sammeln. (Schmidt 1974: 417)
a6+ But if he who has left the house, eating begging [alms], gathers possessions, he is besmirched with great blame. (cf : ii, 55) (Peyrot 2013c: 682)
a6+ Wenn aber der, welcher aus dem Hause gegangen und Bettelbrot essend ist, Besitztümer sammelt, wird er mit großem Makel beworfen. (Schmidt 1974: 212, 401)
a7+ If you [pl.] had been concerned about reverence and flattery, [and] you [pl.] had yourselves further stayed in your [own] hous[es], then each of you would certainly have obtained reverence from his male and female slaves, [and] gathered possessions. (: ii, 55, slightly different) (Peyrot 2013c: 338)
a8 Ihr seid jetzt in dem Wunsche nach Erlösung aus dem Hause gegangen, [aber dennoch] lasst ihr euch (durch) die Bande des Verlangens nach Verehrung [und] Schmeichelei binden. (Schmidt 1974: 257)
a8+ [Just] as when a miserable dog is wormy, [then] worms eat from his wounds by day and by night, so when the worms of profit are born in the wound of insatiability, they eat his dharma body by day and by night [and] he gets no rest. (cf : ii, 55) (Peyrot 2013c: 682)
a8+ Wie wenn er ein elender Hund wäre, welcher Würmer hat - es fressen ihm bei Tag [und] Nacht die Würmer [an den] Wunden -, so fressen ihm die Würmer des Gewinns, wenn sie in der Wunde der Unersättlichkeit entstehen, [an] seinem Rechtskörper bei Tag [und] Nacht, er findet keine Ruhe. (Schmidt 1974: 194-5)
b2+ Die mönchische Zurückhaltung führt er Haus für Haus, gibt das Studium in den zwölf Arten auf, weist die Versenkung zurück, hält das Wissen fern; [nur] nach Ehre [und] Schmeichelei verlangt er. (Schmidt 1974: 154)
b4 Haushalter [und] aus dem Hause Gegangene sollten nur mir stets Verehrung machen, nicht vor einem anderen sollten sie sich zur Erde neigen. (Schmidt 1974: 302-3)
b4+ If he sees or hears the honour of somebody else, he is burnt by the fire of jealousy: «this should be put together with that!» (cf : ii, 55) (Peyrot 2013c: 683)
b4+ Wenn er von der Verehrung eines anderen sieht oder hört, wird er vom Feuer der Eifersucht verzehrt [wtl. verbrannt] [in dem Gedanken]: ""Der müsste sich mit diesem und jenem zusammen hinstellen." (Schmidt 1974: 258, 293)
b6+ Ihr, denen hier die Neigung nach Verehrung [und] Schmeichelei entstanden [ist], lasset eure Gedanken sich [davon] abkehren wie von einer Kotgrube! (Schmidt 1974: 336)

Commentary

Philological commentary

Includes remainders of the last strophe (56?) of the first part of the Satkāravarga (XIII) in a 21/21/18/13-syllable-metre and the beginning of the second part, strophes 1-9 in a 20/22/10/15-syllable-metre (rhythm: a: 5/5/5/5, b: 8/7/7, c: 5/5, d: 8/7).
n1 According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 69 fn. 8 the reading eṅkalñanta should be corrected to eṅkalñenta and according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 69 fn. 9 kerketse should be corrected to kerketseṃ in the transcription.
n2 The ‹pa› of kraupalle was added a posteriori to the manuscript according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 70 fn. 1.
n3 According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 70 fn. 1 mā ṣpä should be read as mā ṣp and according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 70 fn. 2 the reading māñye should be correctet to māñyeṃ.
n4 According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 70 fn. 5 the reading yṅkau should be corrected to yṅkauṃ.
n5 According to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 70 fn. 6 the reading pelaikneṣṣe should be corrected to pelaikneṣṣai.
n6 The verse interpunction is missing according to Sieg and Siegling 1983: 70 fn. 7.

Remarks

Almost complete leaf, like THT 31 damaged at the top edge.

References

Online access

IDP: THT 33; TITUS: THT 33

Edition

Sieg and Siegling 1949: I, 54-56; Sieg and Siegling 1983: 69-71 notes 202-204

Translations

Barnes 2013: a4 (33); Carling 2000: a7 (146), b1 (295), b2 (253), b3 (97, 253), b4 (47), b4 b5 (136), b8 (114); Ching 2010: a6 (441); Hackstein 1995: a4 (90), b3 (184, 186), b4 (71, 90), b7 (53, 85); Krause 1952: a3 (185), a5 (53), a7 (54); Meunier 2013: a6 (168), b4 (164), b4 b5 (163); Peyrot 2013c: a3 (682), a4 (705), a5 (682), a6 a7 (682), a7 a8 (338), a8 b1 (682), b4 b5 (683); Schmidt 1974: a3 (417), a4 (132f, 263, 409, 497), a4 (132-3, 409), a4 (497), a4 (263), a5 (417), a6 a7 (212, 401), a8 (257), a8 b1 (194f), a8 b1 (194-5), b2 b3 (154), b4 (303), b4 (302-3), b4 b5 (258, 293), b6 b7 (336); Sieg and Siegling 1949: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 (II, 54-56); Sieg and Siegling 1983: a4 (249), a7 (221), a8 (203), b1 (203), b4 (203), b4 (287); Thomas 1952: a5 (39), a7 a8 (45); Thomas 1954a: b6 b7 (754); Thomas 1957: a2 a3 (265), a6 a7 (269), a8 (214), b5 b6 (166), b6 b7 (270); Thomas 1968b: a8 b1 (224), b6 b7 (210), b7 b8 (219); Thomas 1969a: b4 (257); Thomas 1969c: a8 b1 (202); Thomas 1970b: a2 (271); Thomas 1970c: a7 a8 (468), a8 (468); Thomas 1970a: a3 (283); Thomas 1972b: a5 (459), b4 b5 (457); Thomas 1979b: a8 (55), b6 (17), b6 b7 (35), b7 (26); Thomas 1981: b6 b7 (489); Thomas 1983a: b4 (12); Thomas 1995: a5 (53); Thomas 1997: a3 (140), a3 (77)

Bibliography

Barnes 2013

Barnes, Timothy G. 2013. “The etymology and derivation of TB saswe ‘lord’ and ñakte (: A ñkät) ‘god’.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 31–54.

Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Ching 2010

Ching, Chao-jung. 2010. “Secular documents in Tocharian: Buddhist economy and society in the Kucha region.” PhD thesis, Paris: École Pratique des Hautes Études.

Hackstein 1995

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IDP

“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Krause 1952

Krause, Wolfgang. 1952. Westtocharische Grammatik, Band I. Das Verbum. Heidelberg: Winter.

Meunier 2013

Meunier, Fanny. 2013. “Typologie des locutions en yām- du tokharien.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 14: 123–85.

Peyrot 2013c

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013c. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Schmidt 1974

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Sieg and Siegling 1949

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1949. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B, Heft 1. Die Udānālaṅkāra-Fragmente. Text, Übersetzung und Glossar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Sieg and Siegling 1983

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1983. Tocharische Sprachreste. Sprache B. Teil I: Die Texte. Band 1. Fragmente Nr. 1-116 der Berliner Sammlung. Edited by Werner Thomas. Neubearbeitet und mit einem Kommentar nebst Register versehen v. Werner Thomas. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Thomas 1952

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Thomas 1954a

Thomas, Werner. 1954a. “Die Infinitive im Tocharischen.” In Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, edited by Johannes Schubert and Ulrich Schneider, 701–64. Leipzig: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1957

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Thomas 1968b

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Thomas 1969a

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Thomas 1969c

Thomas, Werner. 1969c. “Zu den Ausdrücken für Tag und Nacht im Tocharischen.” Central Asiatic Journal 13: 199–206.

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Thomas, Werner. 1970b. “Zu einer stilistischen Besonderheit im Tocharischen.” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 84: 254–80.

Thomas 1970c

Thomas, Werner. 1970c. “Zu einigen Besonderheiten der tocharischen Syntax.” Orbis 19: 452–72.

Thomas 1972b

Thomas, Werner. 1972b. “Zweigliedrige Wortverbindungen im Tocharischen.” Orbis 21: 429–70.

Thomas 1979b

Thomas, Werner. 1979b. Formale Besonderheiten in metrischen Texten des Tocharischen: Zur Verteilung von B tane/tne “hier” und B ñake/ñke “jetzt”. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 15. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

Thomas 1981

Thomas, Werner. 1981. “Indogermanisches in der Syntax des Tocharischen: Zum Ausdruck eines Gebotes und Verbotes.” In Festschrift der Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, 481–97.

Thomas 1983a

Thomas, Werner. 1983a. Der tocharische Obliquus im Sinne eines Akkusativs der Richtung. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 6. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.

Thomas 1995

Thomas, Werner. 1995. Zur tocharischen Syntax. Adverbiales A māk, B māka “viel”. Vol. 2. SbWGF. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Thomas 1997

Thomas, Werner. 1997. Interpretationsprobleme im Tocharischen. Unflektiertes A puk, B po “ganz, all, jeder”. Vol. 3. SbWGF. Stuttgart: Steiner.

TITUS

Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”