• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

SI B 119(3)

Known as:SI B 119(3); U 17
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn. "SI B 119(3)". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 11 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Melanie Malzahn


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:IOM (St. Petersburg)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:archaic

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānavarga
Passage:28 colophon; 29.1a-5c
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Manuscript:Udānavarga SI B 119
Leaf number:100-20-1
Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):7.9 × 15.8 cm
Number of lines:6


a1y· [nmu] i ka nte o kta nte 20 8 ///
a2te di vā ka ra ḥ • ko sau kma pa rke tra [kau] [ññä] [kte] • – [r]· ca ne t[ū] dga ///
a3tse kro re ma ske tra • na cā va ○ [bhā] [sa] – • ma s̝pa ///
a4pa lskau cā ntsa • yā va nno di ta ○ vāṃ sta thā ga ta ḥ • ko sau [k]·a ///
a5lo ke • pa ñä kte sa lye lyu ko [ṣno] śai ṣṣe ne ///
a6[l]·e – – – ·e sā ///
b1/// ///
b2lñe yśe lme [cci] [3] sā raṃ tu sā ra t[o] jñā tvā • pra ///
b3pra no mā prā kre wñe meṃ • te sā ○ ra ma dhi ga ccha nti • c[ai] pr[ā] ///
b4[rts]e spa nta lñe yśe lme 4 u ○ pā ti dhā va nti hi sā ra b ///
b5na va mba ndha na mā da da nta ḥ • ñwe ñwe[ṃ] śa nm[au] e ṅka ske [ma] ///
b6wñai ne ra¯ ¯mt o rka mñe ne • [dṛ]· – te cai va [ni] – – ci ttā ḥ ///


a1 n1 y(ai)nmu ikänte oktänte 20-8
(avabhāsati) (tāvat) (sa) (kṛmir)
…te divākaraḥ
kosauk ma pärketrä kauñ-ñäkte
(vai)r(o)cane tūdga(te)
a3 n3 tsekrore mäsketrä •
na cāvabhāsa(te)
ma ṣpä (lyuketrä) ///
a4 n4n5 pälskaucāntsa
yāvan noditavāṃs tathāgataḥ
kosauk (m)a ///
• päñäktesa lyelyukoṣ no śaiṣṣene /// (akälṣä)-
a6 -l(l)en6 (•)
(asar)e sā(ramatayaḥ)
b1 /// (spänta)-
b2 -lñen7 yśelmecci 3
sāraṃ tu sārato jñātvā
• pra /// (ṣä)-
b3 -pn8n9 ranoprākrewñemeṃ
te sāram adhigacchanti
cai prā(krewñe) /// (kä)-
b4 -rtsen10 späntalñe yśelme 4
upātidhāvanti hi sārab(uddhyā)
/// (navaṃ)
navam bandhanam ādadantaḥ
• ñwe ñweṃ śänmau eṅkäskema(ne) /// (läkutse)-
b6 -wñainen11n12 ramt orkamñene
dṛ(ṣṭe) (śru)te caiva ni(viṣṭa)cittāḥ


a1 (The chapter of evil) has been completed, the twenty eighth. 28. Sanskrit
a2 Sanskrit as long as the sun has not risen yet. [1b] Sanskrit
a3 he becomes dark brown, [1d] Sanskrit and (he does) not (shine) [1d].
a4 (In that manner it was lightened) by the philosophers, [2a] Sanskrit as long as (the Buddha had) not (risen yet). [2b]
a5 Sanskrit But in the world illuminated by the Buddha lord, [2c]
a6 (nor his) disciple. [2d] Sanskrit
b2 having (tru)st (and) desire in (false views). [3d] Sanskrit (Knowing the subst)ance (because of substance), [4a]
b3 and also (non-substance) because of non-substance, [4b] Sanskrit these ones (reach?) the substance, [4c]
b4 having trust (and) desire (in right views). [4d] Sanskrit
b5 Sanskrit taking on again and again a new fetter. [5b]
b6 (They run) into the darkness as (moths run) into the (li)ght. [5c] Sanskrit


Linguistic commentary

Here again we have some clear archaic forms: ma (a2, a3, a4), päñäkte (a5), prākrewñe (b3), śänmau (b5), eṅkäskemane (b5), orkämñe (b6).
n4 The perlative plural pälskaucāntsa of the agent noun pälskauca translates certainly the instrumental plural Skt. tārkikaiḥ (2a). One may surmise that pälskauca alone was sufficient to render Skt. tārkika- ‘dialectician, logician, philosopher’.
n6 TB akälṣälle is a fitting translation for Skt. śrāvakaḥ ‘pupil, disciple’ (2d).
n7 The last pada of the stanzas 3 and 4 are made with the parallel compounds Skt. mithyā-saṃkalpa-gocarāḥ ‘devoted to false belief’ and samyak-saṃkalpa-gocarāḥ ‘devoted to right belief’. Apparently, these have been translated by Tocharian possessive compounds, but only the first one ends with the adjectival suffix -tstse, -cci. The second member was provided by the hendiadys späntalñe yśelme ‘trust (and) desire’, which is not a literal rendering because the translator took Skt. saṃkalpa- and gocara- as two syntactically parallel nouns, while in Classical Sanskrit °gocara- is more akin to a secondary suffix meaning ‘being in the range of, having as scope’.
n8 The Sanskrit term sāra- ‘core, solid interior of anything’, hence ‘substance, essence, best part’, which is used repeatedly in this passage, has been rendered by the abstract TB prākrewñe (classical prakrauñe) ‘firmness’.
n10 The reading of the first akṣara is difficult, the restoration kärtse makes good sense as transposing Skt. samyak ‘correct, correctly’. Note, however, that the standard translation of Skt. samyak is TB kalymisa (TA kälymeyā) which is totally excluded here. This restoration was somehow anticipated by Lévi.
n11 The abstract läkutsewña (class. läktsauña) ‘brilliance, shine, light’ is the only conceivable restoration corresponding to Skt. dyota- (5c).

Parallel texts

Sanskrit (Bernhard 1965: 366-367)

Philological commentary

n1 We read here the end of the colophon corresponding to Skt. pāpavargaḥ samāptaḥ ‘the chapter about evil is achieved’. This was translated by TB yoloṣṣe kraupe yainmu, cf. the translation of the title of other chapters of the work (as in SI B 8 a7; PK AS 1A b2).
n2 The first syllable of the line belongs to the word Skt. nodayate (1b).
n3 The pāda 1d of the Sanskrit text contains two sentences that have been translated independently in Tocharian: tsekrore mäsketrä translates śyāvo bhavati, and na c=āvabhāsate is translated by ma ṣpä (lyuketrä). In other parts of this chapter the Sanskrit verb bhās- is regurarly translated by TB luk- ‘shine’.
n5 Our Sanskrit text reads uditavāṃs which is used as nominal predicate of the sentence, whereas the authoritative text has the finite verb udayate.
n9 For the beginning of the line the restoration TB ṣäp rano corresponds word for word to Skt. ca + api (4b).
n12 Our text has a orkämñene ‘in the darkness’, which presupposes a locative in the Sanskrit text at variance with the ablative andhakārāt of the authoritative text (“running from the darkness into the light”). However, Bernhard mentions one manuscript with the reading andhakāre ‘into the darkness’. In the authoritative version there is an implicit comparison with moths or similar animals which are attracted by light during the night.



Lévi 1933: 50; Bernhard 1965: 366-367


Adams 2012b: a5 (28); Hackstein 1995: a5 (124)


Adams 2012b

Adams, Douglas Q. 2012b. “Shedding light on *leuk- in Tocharian and Hittite and the wider implications of reconstructing its Indo-European morphology.” Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 13: 21–55.

Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain. 1933. Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien». Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.