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A 400

Known as:A 400; THT 1034
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling (text); Michaël Peyrot (translation commentary). "A 400". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. https://cetom.univie.ac.at/?m-a400 (accessed 19 Jul. 2024).


Editor:Gerd Carling (text); Michaël Peyrot (translation commentary)


Main find spot:Sengim
Expedition code:T II S 19.06
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection

Language and Script


Text contents

Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Jātaka/Avadāna
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Manuscript:A 399-404
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:7



a1/// rcwa tra[ṃ] – (– – – –) ṅka¯ ¯s̝ : ptā ñka tka ṣṣi ///
a2/// [¯k] wa ltsu – – kṣ· ña mci || ta ru ṇa di vā k· ///
a3/// – ○ [¯s̝] wä tkā¯ ¯lts tapa kra¯ ¯s • u [m]· ///
a4/// ○ lya lypu ri sso ko yā tseṃ o ///
a5/// ○ wi ku ma ska ta¯ ¯r || ā ka ///
a6/// ṣ[ā] mi kā ñtā ke¯ ¯ñcä tka ni to¯ ¯p trā¯ ¯ṅk kl· ///
a7/// to¯ ¯p trā¯ ¯ṅk tka ni nkaṃ saṃ tra • lyā kaṃ kā s[we] ///
b1/// [k]a wra sa śśi wä rpā laṃ : 1 || ā ka la¯ ¯l tra ṅ(·)· ///
b2/// na slu ne yu¯ ¯m na sa¯ ¯m mā yā ta ṣñi lyä ///
b3/// ○ ta kṣiṃ ma sa¯ ¯k tra ṅktsi klyi ntra ///
b4/// ○ ¯t || pa ṇḍu [rā] ṅkaṃ ///
b5/// – ○ k· cne lyo ckwā tā ///
b6/// thā dī na va – – sa ni rde śaṃ pai ///
b7/// kula pa k· – – – ·ā hkh· ś·i ///


a1n1 /// (spa)rcwatr-äṃ – – – – (trä)ṅkäṣ : ptāñkät käṣṣi ///
a2n2n3 /// k waltsu(rā) (ā)kṣ(i)ñam-citaruṇadivāk(araṃ) (॥) ///
a3/// – wätkālts täṣ päkrasum(par) ///
a4n4 /// lyalypuriss okoyā tseṃ-o(ppalṣi) ///
a5/// (wa)wiku mäskatärākä(lṣäl) ///
a6n5 /// ṣāmikāñ tākeñc tkani top trāṅk kl· ///
a7n5 /// top trāṅk tkani nkäṃsaṃträlyāka-ṃ kāswe ///
b1/// (pu)k«†ä» wrasaśśi wärpālaṃ : 1 ॥ ākälṣäl träṅ(käṣ) ///
b2/// nasluneyum nasam yātaṣ-ñi lyä ///
b3/// (jā)takṣiṃ masäk träṅktsi klyinträ ///
b4n6n7 /// tpaṇḍurāṅkaṃ (॥) ///
b5n7n8 /// – k(u)cne lyockwā ///
b6n8 /// thādīnava – – sanirdeśaṃ pai ///
b7n8 /// kulapak· – – – ·āhkh·ś·i ///


a1... turns it ... says: «The Buddha, the teacher ...»
a2... I will report [this] to you in brief || in taruṇadivāk(ar) (||) ...
a3... know this decisively! Evil ...
a4... through the fruit of the deed ... (of) a blue lotus ...
a5... is removed. The pupil ...
a6... they will be ... ṣāmikāñ. An earth (?) mine trāṅk ...
a7... the earth mine trāṅk ... perish. ... saw him ... handsome ...
b1... are to be received by all beings. 1. The pupil says ...
b2... I am of ... existence. He will not be able to ... me ...
b3... he will have to tell the link[s] of the jātaka [story] ...
b4... || in paṇḍurāṅkaṃ (||) ...
b5... whom I turned into ...



Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).

Philological commentary

n1(spa)rcwatr-äṃ: the following character may be the punctuation mark ":". If so, four more akṣaras may be lost in the lacuna; that is, if the restoration (trä)ṅkäṣ is correct, still another three.
n2(ā)kṣ(i)ñam-ci: the restoration is certain. More frequent are the variants ākṣiññam (excluded here, pace Carling et al. 2009: 29b) and ākṣñam (see also Peyrot 2013b: 720).
n3taruṇadivāk(araṃ): tune name certainly corresponding to TB taruṇadivākarne, which has the metre 19 / 19 / 10 / 19 (= 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 5 / 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 5 / 5 ¦ 5 / 7 ¦ 7 ¦ 5). However, this metre is so far not attested in Tocharian A and this fragmentary passage does not allow a detailed metrical analysis.
n4tseṃ-o(ppalṣi): cf. A 378 a1 tseṃ-oppa(lṣiñi).
n5These lines contain hapax legomena of unknown meaning: /// ṣāmikāñ and trāṅk. Also tkani is unclear, since the plural of tkaṃ 'earth' is regularly tkañi, while also a derived adjective would be expected to be tkañi.
n6paṇḍurāṅkaṃ: the long ā is left-bound, apparently as an ornamental feature at the end of the chapter. This tune name with unknown metre is also attested in A 274 a6; in Tocharian B, the corresponding tune paṇḍurāṅkäññene has the metre 4 x 4 ¦ 5.
n7An ornamental vertical line at the end of the lines marks the end of a chapter. On the evidence of comparable leaves, there was probably another such line following after the blank space to the right of it, and another portion of text to the right of that.
n8lyockwā tā: the long ā's are left-bound (see above).


Online access

IDP: THT 1034; TITUS: THT 1034


Sieg and Siegling 1921: 223; Sieg and Siegling 1921 p. 223


Carling et al. 2009: a2 (29b); Knoll 1996: a3 (145, 149); Thomas 1954: b3 (725); Thomas 1957: a5 (255), b5 (229)


Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d. http://idp.bl.uk.

Knoll 1996

Knoll, Gabriele. 1996. “Die Verwendungsweisen der Adjektive im Tocharischen.” PhD, Universität Frankfurt am Main.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Sieg and Siegling 1921

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.

Sieg and Siegling 1921

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Personal annotated copy of Wilhelm Siegling. Scanned by Douglas Q. Adams with the technical assistance of Michael Tarabulski and Kevin Dobbins. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.

Thomas 1954

Thomas, Werner. 1954. “Die Infinitive im Tocharischen.” In Asiatica. Festschrift Friedrich Weller. Zum 65. Geburtstag, gewidmet von seinen Freunden, Kollegen und Schülern, edited by Johannes Schubert and Ulrich Schneider, 701–64. Leipzig: Harrassowitz.

Thomas 1957

Thomas, Werner. 1957. Der Gebrauch der Vergangenheitstempora im Tocharischen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.” http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/tocharic/thtframe.htm.