• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

THT 4078.a

Known as:THT 4078.a; SHT 637.a; [Uv.]TA.a; Bleistiftnr. 5538
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "THT 4078.a". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 02 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Murtuq
Specific find spot:M Hö. II
Expedition code:T III M 146
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script

Language:TA; Sanskrit

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānavarga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine
Verse/Prose:prose; verse


Manuscript:THT 4078
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:5


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// – ma ṣṣo k[i] : v· j· n· t[ā] ·[t]u [s]· [d]dh· – [m] ///
a2/// e pu ○ kka¯ ¯ts : pra vi – ///
a3/// – mnu ○ mā lkā¯ ¯s̝ ///
a4/// ·ā ○ ti : mā ka – ///
a5/// te [y]· thā : ā ś[nu]¯ (–) ///
b1/// [k]· klyu ṣu [r]a ///
b2/// s̝a ○ kā rya¯ ¯p – ///
b3/// – sa ○ mā hi ta ḥ ///
b4/// ka klyu ○ ṣu : 7 a l[pa] ///
b5/// – : pā pṣ[u] ne y[u] « (–) »ṣ(·)[a]¯ ¯m [pa] l·ā [n]· : [ta] ///


a1 n1 /// – mäṣṣ oki : v(i)j(ā)n(a)tā(n) tu s(a)ddh(arma)m ///
a2 n2n3 /// epukk ats : pravi(śya) ///
a3 n4 /// (aśnu)m nu mā lkāṣ ///
a4 n5 /// (na) (vijān)āti : mā ka(klyuṣuräṣ) ///
a5 n6 /// (paśya)te y(a)thā : āśnu(m) ///
b1 n7 /// k(a)klyuṣurä(ṣ) ///
b2 n8 /// (kaklyuṣurä)ṣ«†ä» kāryap – ///
b3 n9 /// (a)samāhitaḥ ///
b4 n10 /// kaklyuṣu : 7 alpa(śruto) ///
b5 n11n12 /// – : pāpṣuneyu(mä)ṣ (c)am päl(l)ān(trä) : ta(sya) ///


a1 [TA] ... like immortals. [SKT] But [who] know the good law ...
a2 [TA] ... well covered. [SKT] going into ...
a3 [TA] though having eyes he does not see [them].
a4 [SKT] ... does not distinguish. [TA] Not having heard (= studied) ...
a5 [SKT] ... like one ... can see, [TA] (Like) one having eyes ...
b1 [TA] ... having heard (= studied) ...
b2 [TA] ... having heard (= studied) (one can distinguish) evil ...
b3 [SKT] ... not concentrated ...
b4 [TA] ... heard. [SKT] Who has heard little ...
b5 [TA] ... because of his having moral behaviour they praise him. [SKT] Him ...


Parallel texts

Tocharian B Udānavarga bilinguals m-ioltoch70, m-ioltoch149


A fragment that preserves practically the whole string hole space and the full height, but no margins.

Philological commentary

n1 /// – mäṣṣ oki: translates Skt. amarā iva 'like immortals' Uv.22.2b. A form of oṅkraci 'immortal' is excluded; it is certainly the nom. pl.m. ending of an adj. in -um, perhaps mā wlaluneyum 'not dying'?
n2 Uv.22.3a yathā hy agāraṃ succhannaṃ
n3 epukk ats: the emphatic particles render su- in Skt. succhannaṃ of Uv.22.3a.
n4 The Skt. text of Uv.22.3d is cakṣuṣmāṃ hi na paśyati. Although cakṣuṣmāṃ 'having eyes' is restored in Bernhard's Bernhard 1965, it is abundantly secured, e.g. by the Gāndhārī Dharmapada 251d, cakhkṣuma (Brough 1962: 159) and Tib. 22.3d mig ldan. The TA correspondence is certainly an adj. ending in -um, i.e. aśnum.
n5 Uv.22.4c: aśrutvā na vijānāti.
n6 Uv.22.5b: cakṣuṣmāṃ paśyate yathā.
n7 Uv.22.6a: śrutvā dharmāṃ vijānāti.
n8 Uv.22.6b: śrutvā pāpaṃ na sevate.
n9 Uv.22.7b: śīleṣu tv asamāhitaḥ.
n10 Uv.22.7d-8a: nāsya saṃpadyate śrutam // 7 alpaśruto ’pi ced bhavati
n11 Uv.22.8c-d: śilatas taṃ praśaṃsanti tasya saṃpadyate śrutam
n12 pāpṣ[u]ney[u]ṣ a cross above the line between the akṣaras y[u] and ṣ(·)[a] marks an addition below, which is itself lost. Probably we have to read pāpṣuneyu(mä)ṣ as a translation of śilatas and restore the addition as ma.


Online access

IDP: THT 4078


Bernhard 1965: 79, 285-286; Malzahn 2007g: 81; Hahn 2007: 75-76; Waldschmidt and et al. 1965: 285


Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Brough 1962

Brough, John. 1962. The Gāndhārī Dharmapada. London.

Hahn 2007

Hahn, Michael. 2007. Vom rechten Leben, Buddhistische Lehren aus Indien und Tibet, Aus dem Sanskrit und aus dem Tibetischen übersetzt und herausgegeben. Frankfurt am Main/Leipzig: Verlag der Weltreligionen (im Insel Verlag).


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Malzahn 2007g

Malzahn, Melanie. 2007g. “Tocharian texts and where to find them.” In Instrumenta Tocharica, edited by Melanie Malzahn, 79–112. Heidelberg: Winter.

Waldschmidt and et al. 1965

Waldschmidt, Ernst, and et al. 1965. Sanskrithandschriften aus den Turfanfunden. Teil 1. Die Katalognummern 1–801. Unter Mitarbeit von Walter Clawiter und Lore Holzmann. Vol. 1. Verzeichnis der orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag.