• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.

Work in progress

IOL Toch 16

Known as:IOL Toch 16; H 149.47; A.47
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "IOL Toch 16". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 26 Feb. 2024).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:British Library (London)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Śatapañcāśatka
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Buddhastotra


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):8.3 × 10.8 cm
Number of lines:6


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project and the British Library.


a1(–) – ma (–) [p]· • u [p]· m[ā] v· stu (–) [m]· ///
a2sa llo naṃ tso • dhru vā ṇā¯ ¯m ṣe ka ///
a3nā¯ ¯m kre ntau naṃ tso • u pa ○ ///
a4rṣkaṃ ñe ne • yā ti • yaṃ • ○ ///
a5ai śa mñe ntse ka tka ra ·[e] ///
a6·e [p]i [p]i t·au nt·e – ///
b1(– – –) [dh]·(·) m· [ṇ]· ///
b2ṣṣe o rka mñe kau ṣe [ñ]c· ///
b3ne ka ke • khā dyo tī ma pi • ○ ///
b4ka nma skeṃ • śa ra cca ndrā mba ○ ///
b5ñä ṣṣa naṃ¯ ¯ts • śu ddhiṃ pra ti • a s[t]a ///
b6·i [ñ]·i¯ ¯· [ku]·e [c]e k[w]a rñai • sā dhu l[au] ///


a1 n1n2 (sarva)m«†a» (•) p(o) • up(a)māv(a)stu (:) m(enāk) /// (ne)-
a2 -sallonaṃtson3n4 • dhruvāṇām ṣeka(ññanaṃts) /// (guṇā)-
a3 -nāmn4 krentaunaṃtso • upa(mā) /// (tpa)-
a4 -rṣkäṃñenen5n6 • yāti • yaṃ • ///
a5 n6 aiśamñentse kätkarä(ññ)e /// (śiriṣä)-
a6 -(ṣṣ)epin7n8 pit(ts)aunt(s)e – ///
b1 n8 – – – dh(ar)m(ā)ṇ(ām) /// (aknātsaññe)-
b2 -ṣṣen9n10 orkamñe kauṣeñc(antse) ///
b3 n10n11 ne ka ke • khādyotīm api • ///
b4 n12n13 känmaskeṃ • śaraccandrāmba(rāmbhasām) /// (kektse)-
b5 -ñäṣṣanaṃtsn13n14n15 • śuddhiṃ prati • asta(räññe) ///
b6 n16n17 (k)iñ(c)i(t) ku(s)e cek warñai • sādhu lau(kikam) ///


Parallel texts

Shackleton Bailey 1951: 58-62

Philological commentary

Since this is a word-by-word bilingual, a full translation does not make much sense. Therefore, the full strophes of the Sanskrit text are cited below, and the problematic Tocharian correspondences are commented.
n1 Cf. PPU 33 upaghātāvaraṇavan mitakālaṃ pradeśi ca | sulabhātiśayaṃ sarvam upamāvastu laukikam || 'Every worldly material for comparison is subject to injury and obscuration, limited in time and place, attained very easily.' (Shackleton Bailey 1951: 158).
n2 m(enāk): beginning of the translation of upamāvastu.
n3 (ne)sallonaṃtso: this is the only possible restoration, but it is not the expected translation of agamyānām 'to the unapproachable [virtues]'. Probably, nes- 'be' is here used with a preceding element as a phrasal verb of the type peri nes- 'owe' (see Adams 2013a: 366) and yumāne nes- 'perceive' (Peyrot 2013b: 799). Obviously, the negation will have preceded this element.
n4 Cf. PPU 34 advaṃdvinām agamyānāṃ dhruvāṇām anivartinām | anuttarāṇāṃ kā tarhi guṇānām upamāstu te || 'What likeness indeed could there be to your virtues, unrivalled, unapproachable, lasting, turning not aside, unsurpassed?' (Shackleton Bailey 1951: 158).
n5 (tpa)rṣkäṃñene: 'in shallowness', so to be restored, with a.o. Adams 2013a: 331 (pace Couvreur 1966: 162; Peyrot 2007: №16).
n6 Cf. PPU 35 goṣpadottānatāṃ yāti gāmbhīryaṃ lavaṇāmbhasaḥ | yadā te buddhigāmbhīryam agādhāpāram īkṣyate || 'The depth of the salt ocean becomes shallow as a puddle when the unfathomable, boundless depth of your wisdom is beheld.' (Shackleton Bailey 1951: 158).
n7 (śiriṣäṣṣ)epi pit(ts)aunt(s)e: 'of a (śirīṣa) filament'; pace Peyrot 2007: №16, the reading of Couvreur 1966: 162 is most probably correct. Adams 2013a: 412 reads (śiri)ṣäṣṣe(p)i pint(s)aunt(s)e, which is defendable as far as pint(s)aunt(s)e is concerned, but of the first word really at most (śiriṣä)ṣ(ṣ)epi can be read (the p is much more certain than the ). Couvreur 1966: 163 suggests āke (ake may be a typographical error) 'tip, end' as the correspondence of agra, which is also likely.
n8 Cf. PPU 36 śirīṣapakṣmāgralaghu sthairyaṃ bhavati pārthivam | akampye sarvadharmāṇām tvatsthairye 'bhimukhīkṛte || 'The firm weight of the earth becomes light as the tip of a śirīṣa filament when compared with your firmness which nothing in nature can shake.' (Shackleton Bailey 1951: 159).
n9 (aknātsaññe)ṣṣe orkamñe kauṣeñc(antse): translates ajñānatimiraghnasya.
n10 Cf. PPU 37 ajñānatimiraghnasya jñānālokasya te mune | na ravir viṣaye bhūmiṃ khādyotīm api vindati || 'Before the light of your knowledge, O Sage, which destroys the darkness of ignorance, the sun does not even attain the level of a firefly.' (Shackleton Bailey 1951: 159).
n11 ne ka ke: with Couvreur 1966: 163, this must be the translation of viṣaye bhūmiṃ, and ke must therefore be corrected into keṃ 'earth'. However, his suggestion to restore the preceding ne ka to (viṣay)neka remains uncertain. Most probably, ne is the locative ending of a word translating viṣaya, while ka is the emphasising particle, meaning 'just, even'.
n12 känmaskeṃ: translates āyānti. The Skt. preverb ā may have been explicitly rendered with TB ecce, as suggested by Couvreur 1966: 163.
n13 Cf. PPU 38 malinatvam ivāyānti śaraccandrāmbarāmbhasām | tava vāgbuddhiceṣṭānāṃ śuddhiṃ prati viśuddhayaḥ || 'The purity of moon, sky, and water in autumn become as if sullied when set against the purity of your words, mind, and actions.' (Shackleton Bailey 1951: 159).
n14 (kektse)ñäṣṣanaṃts: translates ceṣṭānāṃ. Couvreur 1966: 163 is not explicit, but he seems to assume that ñäṣṣanaṃts is a complete word. In my view, this cannot be the case. The root ñäsk- 'wish' does not fit semantically and no derivation of this kind is possible. Rather, -ṣṣanaṃts is the of a ṣṣe-adjective derived from kektseñe 'body', usually the first member of the standard expression kektseñ reki palskosa 'with body, word and mind'; cf. in particular the adjective PK AS 7L a2 kektseñ-reki-pälskoṣṣe.
n15 asta(räññe): translates śuddhiṃ. With Couvreur 1966: 163, the following prati may have been rendered by etsuwai.
n16 Cf. PPU 39 anena sarvaṃ vyākhyātaṃ yat kiṃcit sādhu laukikam | dūre hi buddhadharmāṇāṃ lokadharmās tapasvinaḥ || 'In naming these I have named every worldly good; for the paltry elements of the world are far removed from the elements of the Buddha.' (Shackleton Bailey 1951: 159).
n17 ku(s)e cek warñai: translates the preceding (k)iñ(c)i(t). The punctuation mark "•" is missing because its function is taken over by the virāma dot: (k)i[ñ](c)i(t)\.


According to Broomhead 1962: 153 "[w]ritten in medium ductus, and clearly preserved, it is the left edge of a manuscript with six lines."


Online access

IDP: IOL Toch 16


Peyrot 2007: №16; Couvreur 1955b: 224-225; Broomhead 1962: 153; Couvreur 1966: 162-163


Hackstein 1995: b2 (54); Thomas 1983: a4 (24)


Adams 2013a

Adams, Douglas Q. 2013a. A dictionary of Tocharian B. Revised and greatly enlarged. 2nd ed. Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.

Broomhead 1962

Broomhead, J. W. 1962. “A textual edition of the British Hoernle, Stein and Weber Kuchean manuscripts. With transliteration, translation, grammatical commentary and vocabulary. I = Edition.” PhD thesis, Cambridge: Trinity College.

Couvreur 1955b

Couvreur, Walter. 1955b. “Die Fragmente Stein Ch. 00316 a2 und Hoernle H 149. 47 und 213.” Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 72: 222–26.

Couvreur 1966

Couvreur, Walter. 1966. “Sanskrit-Tochaarse Mātṛceṭafragmenten.” Orientalia Gandensia 3: 159–185 + I.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Peyrot 2007

Peyrot, Michaël. 2007. “An edition of the Tocharian fragments IOL Toch 1 – IOL Toch 822 in the India Office Library.” International Dunhuang Project.

Peyrot 2013b

Peyrot, Michaël. 2013b. The Tocharian subjunctive. A study in syntax and verbal stem formation. Vol. 8. Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics. Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Shackleton Bailey 1951

Shackleton Bailey, David Roy. 1951. The Śatapañcāśatka of Mātṛceṭa. Sanskrit Text, Tibetan Translation & Commentary and Chinese Translation. With an Introduction, English Translation and Notes. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Thomas 1983

Thomas, Werner. 1983. Der tocharische Obliquus im Sinne eines Akkusativs der Richtung. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 6. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.