• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

A 377

Known as:A 377; THT 1011
Cite this page as:Gerd Carling; Michaël Peyrot. "A 377". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 02 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Gerd Carling; Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Šorčuq
Expedition code:T III Š 34.1
Collection:Berlin Turfan Collection (BBAW)

Language and Script


Text contents

Text genre:Literary


Manuscript:A 375-378
Material: ink on paper
Number of lines:4


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project, the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Orientabteilung.


a1/// li[¯] [¯s] – – nto k· – – – lk· – – – – swā ra(·) [t]sp[o]¯ ¯k [w]· n· – ¯ñä lu kśa – – –
a2/// ka ntwā ṣi ñka ta – sva ti – – – – – lkā – o pleṃ [pa] lto – – ¯r ne – –
a3/// m[ā] nu o klo[¯] [¯p] ka msaṃ ywā rśkā kli snā śśi : 4 ma rka mpa lṣi naṃ si ndhu [ta] rnā māṃ ka msaṃ
a4/// ci ñcä¯ ¯r pra ṅk· pra¯ ¯ṅk : sne ka śmā¯ ¯k wä kn[ā] pa ryā ri ntu ya¯ ¯s̝ kle śā ṣi nā¯ ¯s po rapa
a5/// – – ¯s ku mc[ä]¯ ¯s ke sā¯ ¯r śi śka śśi ka la vi ṅklwe¯ ¯t ṣa s̝a rku sāṃ bra mñä kte nāṃ wa śe nyo [vi]


a1 /// lis – – ntok· – – – lk· – – – – swārä· tspok w·n· – ñ lukśa – – –
a2 /// käntwāṣi ñkät«†ä» – svati – – – – – lkā – opleṃ pält o – – r ne – –
4d 14σ /// ; nu oklop ; kamsaṃ ywārśkā ; klisnāś-śi : 4
5a märkampalṣinäṃ ; sindhu tärnāmāṃ ; kamsaṃ a4n1 /// ciñcär ; praṅk(a-)praṅk :
5b sne kaś māk wäknā ; paryārintu yaṣ ; kleśāṣinās ; poräṃa5n2n3
5c /// (ñäkcinä)s kumcäs ; kesār śiśkäśśi ; kalaviṅk lwe{t/s} ; ṣaṣärkusāṃ ; bram-ñäktenāṃ ; waśenyo
5d vi


a1 ... sweet taste ... brilliant ...
a2 ... god of the tongue ... lotus leaf ...
a3 ... unbothered it sleeps between your teeth. 4. Emitting the river of the Law ... in your teeth ...
a4 ... lovely from island to island (?). In many ways he makes countless miracles, ... the fires of passion ...
a5 having surpassed with his Brahman voice the divine drums, [the voice] of the Kesarin-lions, and [the voice] of the cuckoo bird



Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS).
Transcription and translation are based on Carling et al. 2009.
A 378 is the verso of the same leaf.

Philological commentary

The metre is 4x25 syllables (subdivision 5 ¦ 5 ¦ 8 ¦ 7). The strophes of this side are continued directly on A 378. [1] /// lis – – ntok· – – – lk· – – – – swārä(·) tspok w·n· – ñ lukśa– – – [2] /// käntwāṣi ñkät – svati – – – – – lkā – opleṃ pält o – – rne – – [3] /// mā nu oklop ¦ kamsaṃ ywārśkā klisnāś-śi : 4 märkampalṣinäṃ ¦ sindhu tärnāmāṃ ¦ kamsaṃ [4] /// ciñcär praṅk(a)-praṅk : [5a] (8 syll. missing) sne kaś māk wäknā ¦ paryārintu yaṣ ¦ kleśāṣinās poräṃ pä [5b] (8 syll. missing) [5] /// (ñäkcinä)s kumcäs ¦ kesār śiśkäśśi ¦ kalaviṅk lwe‹s› ṣaṣärkusāṃ ¦ bram-ñäktenāṃ waśenyo [5c] (1 syll. missing) vi [A 378 1] /// (āri)ñcis suk pälskes kācke ¦ wināsam tñi tām waśeṃ : 5 (11 syll. missing)
n1 praṅk(a)-praṅk: praṅk can mean 'island' as well as 'moment of time'. 'island' may here be a continuation of the metaphor with "the river of the Law".
n2 – – s\: Sieg and Siegling read [p]i – s\ (Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 209), but the first akṣara is almost certainly not pi. On the basis of A 270 a1 I would rather restore (ñäkcinä)s, which fits the metre.
n3 lwet\: this is the reading given by Sieg and Siegling (Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 209). Obviously a mistake for lwes\. Although the latter is close in form, it seems nevertheless excluded here.


Online access

IDP: THT 1011; TITUS: THT 1011


Sieg and Siegling 1921a: 209; Sieg and Siegling 1921a p. 209


Carling 2000: a3 (347)


Carling 2000

Carling, Gerd. 2000. Die Funktion der lokalen Kasus im Tocharischen. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter.

Carling et al. 2009

Carling, Gerd, Georges-Jean Pinault, and Werner Winter. 2009. A dictionary and thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: Letters a-j. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Sieg and Siegling 1921a

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1921a. Tocharische Sprachreste, I. Band. Die Texte. A. Transcription. Berlin/Leipzig: de Gruyter.


Gippert, Jost, Katharina Kupfer, Christiane Schaefer, and Tatsushi Tamai. n.d. “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien (TITUS): Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection.”