• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.


Work in progress

IOL Toch 122 JOIN

Known as:IOL Toch 122 JOIN; H 149.331; IOL Toch 122; U 10.; IOL Toch 772; Tb 076
Cite this page as:Michaël Peyrot. "IOL Toch 122 JOIN". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 01 Dec. 2023).


Editor:Michaël Peyrot


Main find spot:Unknown
Collection:British Library (London)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit
Linguistic stage:classical

Text contents

Title of the work:Udānavarga
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):4.2 × 2.9 cm


Images from by courtesy of the International Dunhuang Project and the British Library.


a1/// jña yā – /// /// n[i] rvi dya te – ///
a2/// ś·· 8 ā – /// /// – sa ye sa ññi ssa ytā ///
a3/// – ra – /// /// – s̝s̝a lle • ā khyā tā r[a] ///
a4/// ṣ·ā [ś]a lya ni kṛ nda na ///
a5/// – (– –) – ///
b2/// – : s· e mpr· tsa se s̝pa ///
b3/// ·[y]· ma kt· /// /// gā cchā kya mu ni ḥ sa [m]· ///
b4/// ·[ā] ti ga ṇ· /// /// – nne ṣe kṣe ka 10 2 [e] ///
b5/// ñca • mā /// /// – [r]i we s̝s̝aṃ se ///


a1 n1n2 /// (pra)jñayā – /// /// nirvidyate – ///
a2 n3n4 /// …ś(cä) 8 ā(khyāto) /// /// (ākṣu)sa yesäñ ñissa ytā(rye) ///
a3 n5n6 /// (ka)ra(ṇīyam) /// /// (yama)ṣṣälle • ākhyātāra(s) ///
a4 n7 /// (tṛ)ṣ(ṇ)āśalyanikṛndana(ḥ) ///
a5 /// – – – – ///
b2 n8 /// – : s(e) empr(eṃ)tsa se ṣpä ///
b3 n9n10 /// (ytār)y(e) mäkt(e) /// /// (adhya)gāc chākyamuniḥ sam(āhitaḥ) ///
b4 n11n12 /// (cākhy)āti gaṇ(eṣv) /// /// (kraupe)nne ṣek-ṣekä 10-2 e(kāyanaṃ) ///
b5 n13n14 /// (lkāṣṣe)ñca • mā(rgaṃ) /// /// (ytā)ri weṣṣäṃ se ///


a1 [SKT] (if one recognises [that]) through wisdom /// /// [SKT] (then) he turns away (from sorrow)
a2 [TB] (this is the way) to (complete purity) [SKT] (I have) taught (you the way) /// /// [TB] I have taught you the way
a3 [SKT] ([this] is) to be done (by you;) /// /// [TB] ([this] is) to be done (by you;) [SKT] (Tathāgatas) teach [it]
a4 [SKT] it destroys the thorn of craving
a5 ...
b2 [TB] it is straight, and it is ([the way of] exertion)
b3 [TB] like (the only certain) way (of flamingos to the pond) /// /// [SKT] (which) Śākyamuni attained concentrated
b4 [SKT] and (which) he teaches (constantly) in the assemblies /// /// [TB] (and which he teaches) constantly in the assemblies [SKT] (seeing the end of rebirth and old age) [he proclaims] the only certain [way]
b5 [TB] seeing (the end of rebirth and old age [he proclaims] the only certain [way]) [SKT] (he proclaims) the [only certain] way, (kind and compassionate) /// /// [TB] he proclaims the [only certain] way, (kind and compassionate)


Parallel texts

Bernhard 1965: 194-196; Chakravarti 1930: 143-146; Hahn 2007: 47-48

Philological commentary

The size of the lacuna between the left hand fragment IOL Toch 772 and the right hand fragment IOL Toch 122 may be estimated between 7 and 14 akṣaras on the basis of the following speculative restorations (for several correspondences there are more possibilities, which are not noted here):
The difference between 7 akṣ. for lines a3/b3 and 10-14 akṣ. for lines a1-2/b4-5 suggests that a3/b3 contained the string hole space. On the basis of IOL Toch 122 b2, which preserves 7 full akṣaras on 6,4 cms, the size of a lacuna of 11-12 akṣaras may have been approximately 10 cms.
n1 Uv.12.8b-c prajñayā paśyate yadā | atha nirvidyate duḥkhād
n2 (pra)jñayā (paśyate yadā aiśamñesa lkāṣṣäṃ krui atha) nirvidyate = 14 akṣ.
n3 Uv.12.8d-9a eṣa mārgo viśuddhaye // 8 ākhyāto vo mayā mārgaḥ
n4 ā(khyāto vo mayā mārgaḥ ākṣu)sa = 10 akṣ.
n5 Uv.12.9c-d yuṣmābhir eva karaṇīyam ākhyātāras tathāgatāḥ
n6 (ka)ra(ṇīyam yessa yama)ṣṣälle = 7 akṣ.
n7 Uv.12.10b tṛṣṇāśalyanikṛntanaḥ; all manuscripts used by Bernhard 1965: 195, including this one, read °nikṛndana°
n8 Uv.12.12a eṣo ’ñjaso hy eṣa ca vai parākramas
n9 Uv.12.12b-c tv ekāyano haṃsapatho yathā hrade | yam adhyagāc chākyamuniḥ samāhitas
n10 mäkt(e yolmeścä • yam adhya)gāc = 7 akṣ.
n11 Uv.12.12d-13a tam eva cākhyāti gaṇeṣv abhīkṣṇaśaḥ || 12 ekāyanaṃ jātijarāntadarśī
n12 gaṇ(eṣv abhīkṣṇaśaḥ tāu ṣpä aksaṣṣäṃ kraupe)nne = 12 akṣ.
n13 Uv.12.13a-b ekāyanaṃ jātijarāntadarśī mārgaṃ vadaty eṣa hitānukampī
n14 mā(rgaṃ vadaty eṣa hitānukampī ytā)ri = 11 akṣ.


This fragment (IOL Toch 122, right) is from the same leaf as IOL Toch 772, left: IOL Toch 772 a1-3 and IOL Toch 772 b3-5 precede IOL Toch 122 a1-3 and IOL Toch 122 b3-5 by approximately 7 to 14 akṣ. or 10 cms (see the philological commentary for details). Traces of lines a5 and b1, which contained Uv.12.10c-11d, can be discerned. If the string hole space covered only a3/b3, the manuscript must originally have had 5 lines.


Online access

IDP: IOL Toch 122, IOL Toch 772


Sieg and Siegling 1932: 495-496; Lévi 1933: 46; Thomas 1971b: 21-22; Peyrot 2007a: №122; Peyrot 2008a: 100


Hackstein 1995: a2 (332)


Bernhard 1965

Bernhard, Franz. 1965. Udānavarga. Band I, Einleitung, Beschreibung der Handschriften, Textausgabe, Bibliographie. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.

Chakravarti 1930

Chakravarti, Niranjan Prasad. 1930. L‘Udānavarga sanskrit, Texte sanscrit en transcription, avec traduction et annotations, suivi d‘une étude critique et de planches. Tome premier (Chapitres I à XXI). Paris: Geuthner.

Hackstein 1995

Hackstein, Olav. 1995. Untersuchungen zu den sigmatischen Präsensstammbildungen des Tocharischen. HS Erg.-Heft 38. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Hahn 2007

Hahn, Michael. 2007. Vom rechten Leben, Buddhistische Lehren aus Indien und Tibet, Aus dem Sanskrit und aus dem Tibetischen übersetzt und herausgegeben. Frankfurt am Main/Leipzig: Verlag der Weltreligionen (im Insel Verlag).


“The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online.” n.d.

Lévi 1933

Lévi, Sylvain. 1933. Fragments de textes koutchéens. Udānavarga, Udānastotra, Udānālaṁkāra et Karmavibhaṅga, publiés et traduits avec un vocabulaire et une introduction sur le «tokharien». Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.

Peyrot 2007a

Peyrot, Michaël. 2007a. “An edition of the Tocharian fragments IOL Toch 1 – IOL Toch 822 in the India Office Library.” International Dunhuang Project.

Peyrot 2008a

Peyrot, Michaël. 2008a. “More Sanskrit – Tocharian B bilingual Udānavarga fragments.” Indogermanische Forschungen 113: 83–125.

Sieg and Siegling 1932

Sieg, Emil, and Wilhelm Siegling. 1932. “Udānavarga-Uebersetzungen in ‘Kucischer Sprache,’ 1930-32.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 6: 483–99.

Thomas 1971b

Thomas, Werner. 1971b. Bilinguale Udānavarga-Texte der Sammlung Hoernle. Abhandlungen d. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 7. Mainz: Verlag d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften und d. Literatur.