• The Zotero library underlying the CEToM bibliography is now public and can be viewed here.
  • We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Thomas Oberlies and Pratik Rumde from the Seminar für Indologie und Tibetologie of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen for providing our project with scans of the nachlass of Wilhelm Siegling. The nachlass includes letters to and from Siegling throughout his career that are of great importance to the history of the field of Tocharian studies. This material will be published on CEToM, accompanied by transcriptions of the letters, in the course of 2024.

Work in progress

PK NS 12

Known as:PK NS 12
Cite this page as:Georges-Jean Pinault; Hannes A. Fellner. "PK NS 12". In A Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM). Created and maintained by Melanie Malzahn, Martin Braun, Hannes A. Fellner, and Bernhard Koller. (accessed 25 Feb. 2024).


Editor:Georges-Jean Pinault; Hannes A. Fellner
Date of online publication:2014-07


Main find spot:Duldur-Akhur
Expedition code:881e 8, caisse 48
Collection:Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris)

Language and Script

Language:TB; Sanskrit

Text contents

Title of the work:Dīrghagāma
Text genre:Literary
Text subgenre:Doctrine


Material: ink on paper
Size (h × w):6.5 × 4.1 cm
Number of lines:5
Interline spacing:1.3 cm


a1/// [s]ts·¯ ¯ścä a nu ca ṅkra maṃ • e t[s]· ///
a2/// [t]pā ṇḍu kaṃ • tu ce naṃ ///
a3/// [r]śa nā ya • lk[ā] ///
a4/// rtto ṣṣeṃ lu wā ///
a5/// ti saṃ [v]e ///
b1/// ¯ñä [n](·) (·)ch· ///
b2/// ñā tse sa • kṣe ///
b3/// [ta] ai yye rmeṃ • a [s]i – ///
b4/// [a] ñma ññi ta¯ ¯r pa n· ///
b5/// – la ghe va • ra me rme[¯] [¯]r[] ///


a1 /// …sts(i)śc anucaṅkramaṃ • ets(uwai) ///
a2 /// (utpāṇḍū)tpāṇḍukaṃ • tucenäṃ ///
a3 /// (da)rśanāya • lkā(tsiśc) ///
a4 n1n2 /// (wä)rttoṣṣeṃ luwā(sa) ///
a5 /// (pra)tisaṃve(dayati) ///
b1 n3 /// (pelki)ñ n(a) (c)ch(ādayati) ///
b2 n4 /// (snai)-ñātsesa • kṣe(meṇa) ///
b3 /// (koṣā)t«†ä» aiyyermeṃ • asi(m) ///
b4 n5 /// añmaññitär pan(ayituṃ) ///
b5 n6n7 /// (laghu)-lagheva • rämermer ///


a1 ... in order to ... Sanskrit • near to ...
a2 Sanskrit • yellow (
a3 Sanskrit • for the sight
a4 the beasts of the forest
a5 Sanskrit
b1 for the sake of Sanskrit
b2 with absence of danger • Sanskrit
b3 Sanskrit from the sheath • Sanskrit
b4 he kept desiring Sanskrit
b5 Sanskrit • quickly-quickly



This small fragment belongs to a leaf of the same manuscript to which PK NS 13 and 516 belongs. The text contains Tocharian B translations of words and phrases, first of the Mahāvadānasūtra (in the lines a1 to a4), and second from the Śrāmaṇyaphalasūtra (in the lines a5 to b5). Some of them have parallels in Tocharian A, namely A 460 and A 466, A 461 and A 465.

Linguistic commentary

n1 Since luwo, pl. lwāsa is genus alternans the expected for of the adjective would be pl. f. wärttoṣṣana instead of pl. m. wärttoṣṣeṃ. It is either a mistake or more likely the use of the verse form that was used in literary language. The source text has Skt. mṛghabhūta- 'savage beast'.
n6 The form rämermer is the result of the āmreḍita-compound rämer-rämer. Following the regular accentuation the form rämér-rmer underwent regular geminate simplification.

Philological commentary

n2 This line corresponds to A 460 and A 466 a4.
n3 This line corresponds to A 460 and A 466 b2.
n4 This line corresponds to A 460 and A 466 b3.
n5 This line corresponds to A 461 and A 465 a1.
n7 This line corresponds to A 461 and A 465 a2.



Couvreur 1967: 153-154


Couvreur 1967

Couvreur, Walter. 1967. “Sanskrit-Tochaarse en Sanskrit-Koetsjische trefwoordenlijsten van de Dīrghāgama (Dīghanikāya).” Orientalia Gandensia 4: 151–65.